Learner Feedback


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This is a presentation aimed at the reflection by Language Arts students on the importance of feedback.

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Learner Feedback

  1. 1. LEARNER FEEDBACK LETRAS Pre-service education
  2. 2. REFLECTION Work individually and complete: <ul><li>When my classmates make mistakes when they speak, I feel... </li></ul><ul><li>When my classmates correct my mistakes, I feel... </li></ul><ul><li>When the teacher corrects my spoken language, I feel... </li></ul><ul><li>The way I like a teacher to correct me is for him/her to... </li></ul>
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Appropriate feedback is necessary for effective and efficient learning. There are usually three domains in which learner feedback may be considered: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Feedback can be linguistic in nature and relate to the actual use of the language. </li></ul><ul><li>2) It can also focus on communication, which concerns the task or the content of the message. </li></ul><ul><li>3) And, finally, feedback can be affective, encouraging learners’ attempts to communicate and to use language. The purpose of affective feedback is to build confidence. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Important aspects when giving feedback <ul><li>Both positive and negative feedback are needed for the most effective learning. Negative feedback is direct error correction or drawing attention to error. Positive feedback can be affective, can reward for correct or successful communication, or can provide the opportunity for self-correction. </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback can be oral, written, or non-verbal; it can be given to individuals, groups, or the entire class. </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback can be given immediately or delayed, depending on which would be most effective for the task. </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback can be either formative or summative. Formative feedback isn’t usually graded and is given at all stages throughout the learning period. Summative feedback is given at the conclusion of a unit, a project, or a period of learning. This can be a grade of a final report on students’ work. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to understand the nature of an error in order to determine whether and how to use corrective feedback. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Students make mistakes! <ul><li>Mistakes can be divided into three categories: </li></ul><ul><li>1) slips: mistakes which students can correct themselves once the mistake has been pointed to them </li></ul><ul><li>2) errors: mistakes which they cannot correct themselves and which therefore require explanation </li></ul><ul><li>3) attempts: when a student tries to say something but does not yet know the correct way of saying it </li></ul>Edge, 1989 apud Harmer, 2001
  6. 6. ERROR X MISTAKE <ul><li>Error is language production that is not correct. In Applied Linguistics research, it refers to patterns in production that shows incomplete or incorrect learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally, a mistake is incorrect language production. In research,as opposed to the specialized meaning of “error”, it is the result of inattention or carelessness, rather than incomplete learning. </li></ul>
  7. 7. What types of errors are there? LEXICON PRAGMATICS GRAMMAR SYNTAX
  8. 8. ERRORS IN GRAMMAR <ul><li>I just finished painting the portrait. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verb conjugation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When a stranger talks to me, I am caution. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of speech </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The food is great. I really like a lot. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transitive/Intransitive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>I stopped to smoke and my health improved. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infinitive/gerund </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>This example was found in the site www.engrish.com . </li></ul><ul><li>The error is included in grammar skills. In this case, the girl asks with the modal verb can in the negative form can’t . And if the girl asked with can/can’t , the right answer would be with can/can’t , but the boy and girl answered with the verb to be “ am” , using the person I </li></ul><ul><li>instead of we . </li></ul><ul><li>The correct reponse for Can’t you speak English? is </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, we can. </li></ul>
  10. 10. LEXICAL ERRORS <ul><li>I made a lot of homework last night. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DO X MAKE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They lived together for yeers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SPELLING </li></ul></ul><ul><li>I won a present from my mom. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>COLLOCATION </li></ul></ul><ul><li>I formed in medicine at UFTM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WORD CHOICE </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>This example was found </li></ul><ul><li>in the site www.engrish.com . </li></ul><ul><li>In this example, the error is about spelling again, but now with the expression connecting people , which is the slogan of Nokia , a telephone company. </li></ul><ul><li>The advertisement portrays connocting poopie instead of connecting people . </li></ul>
  12. 12. ERRORS IN SYNTAX <ul><li>I very much love my mother. </li></ul><ul><li>The guy is the one sitting over there that I like. </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t know what is the meaning of the word. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Only I saw the kid. </li></ul><ul><li>I saw only the kid. </li></ul><ul><li>Naturally, I got up. </li></ul><ul><li>I got up naturally. </li></ul><ul><li>The man saw me with a dog. </li></ul><ul><li>The man with a dog saw me. </li></ul>
  13. 13. ERRORS INVOLVING PRAGMATICS <ul><li>IN THE CLASSROOM </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher! Repeat, please! </li></ul><ul><li>AT AN OFFICE </li></ul><ul><li>I am applying for this job ‘cause I believe I am the most qualified for the job. I am very good at computer stuff. </li></ul><ul><li>AT A RESTAURANT </li></ul><ul><li>Good evening, lady. Are you ready to order? </li></ul>
  14. 14. www.engrish.com
  15. 15. To correct or not to correct... <ul><li>Research tends to indicate that three types of errors should be addressed: </li></ul><ul><li>High frequency errors </li></ul><ul><li>Stigmatizing errors </li></ul><ul><li>Errors that block meaning or the understanding by the listener </li></ul><ul><li>*We might add another – errors in using the target language of the lesson. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Summary <ul><li>Correction is not an ‘either/or’ issue. Correction needs to take place, and is expected and desired by students. However, the manner in which teachers correct students plays a vital role in whether students become confident in their usage or become intimidated. Correcting students as a group, in correction sessions, at the end of activities, and letting them correct their own mistakes all help encouraging students to use English rather than to worry about making too many mistakes. </li></ul>