T37 Rwanda


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  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rwandan_Genocide#Genocide http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/1288230.stm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gr%C3%A9goire_Kayibanda http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/1070329.stm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juv%C3%A9nal_Habyarimana#Aftermath_of_death
  • T37 Rwanda

    1. 1. IS WISP ASSIGNMENT 2 An Imagined Future: Singapore in 2061 RWANDA! Chee Wei, Kok Weng, Gerard, Wen Yi and Joyce T37
    2. 2. <ul><li>OBJECTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>BACKGROUND </li></ul><ul><li>PART A - What was not right with Rwanda in 1991? </li></ul><ul><li>PART B - What about Present Day Singapore? </li></ul><ul><li>PART C - What can we do to prevent the imagined </li></ul><ul><li>future of 2061 from becoming a reality? </li></ul>Introduction
    3. 3. OBJECTIVES <ul><li>To predict Singapore’s future by comparing the past of Rwanda and the present of Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent the past state of Rwanda from occurring in Singapore’s future. </li></ul>
    4. 4. RWANDA’S GENOCIDE In 1994, in the wake of the genocide in Rwanda, hundreds of thousands of ethnic Tutsi and moderate Hutu were systematically massacred. Half a million refugees left Rwanda for makeshift camps in Tanzania and former Zaire. The victory of the new Tutsi-dominated RPF government in Rwanda led many Hutus to fear reprisals for their part in the genocide.  BACKGROUND
    5. 5. Background People[Hutus vs Tutsis] HUTUs TUTSIs Majority Minority Darker-skinned [e.g.2 men in photo] Fairer-skinned [picked by Belgians] Gregoire Kayibanda helped Rwanda get independence from Belgium Collaborators for Belgian Colonists [More powerful] Interhamwe, President Juvenal Habyarimana. RPF ,[political party] Paul Kagame[political leader] Both groups are at war because of power and money.
    6. 6. Background Timeline Tutsis, collaborators for Belgian colonists Hutus, Gregoire Kayaibanda led Rwanda to INDEPENDENCE from Belgium and became the first elected president Hutus , Juvenal Habyarimana overthrown Gregoire Kayibanda in a Military Coup <ul><li>Juvenal Habyarimana favored the Hutus in Rwanda & Burundi </li></ul><ul><li>prejudice against the Tutsis </li></ul>Rwandan Patriotic Force (RPF), led by Paul Kagame invaded Rwanda Peace Agreement signed - Habyarimana and the Burundian president are killed after their plane shot down over Kigali - ignited Rwanda Genocide 1962 1973 1990 1993 1994
    7. 7. Background <ul><li>Please click on these links to find out more about the genocide </li></ul>Aftermath of genocide http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l9FEpZRRFlM http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=euX24VMZ_ZU&feature=related [please play some emo songs while watching this!]
    8. 8. PART A – What was not right with Rwanda in 1991? <ul><ul><li>Prejudices leading to discrimination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President favors the Hutus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discrimination against the Tutsis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) invaded Rwanda </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media Propaganda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Local print and radio media fueled the killings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation for Genocide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weapons were widely distributed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genocide was openly discussed in cabinet meeting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A number of religious authorities failed to condemn the genocide </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. PART A – What was not right with Rwanda in 1991 ? <ul><li>social inequality </li></ul><ul><li>Tutsis were handpicked and given a higher status by the Belgians </li></ul><ul><li>Hutus then gave themselves a higher role when Belgians left. </li></ul><ul><li>gender and the treatment of women </li></ul><ul><li>-Sexual Violence and Genocide Against Tutsi Women </li></ul><ul><li>other important social, economic and political factors </li></ul><ul><li>-Extortion/ Bribery </li></ul><ul><li>-Drug lords. Consumption of drugs was rampant. </li></ul>
    10. 10. PART A – What was not right with Rwanda in 1991? A Rwandan Red Cross worker carries the bodies of refugees, who have died of cholera, for burial outside the MSF hospital in Kitale camp. As cholera swept through the camp, the epidemic claimed the lives of 2,000 refugees each day. DISEASES WORSEN THEIR ALREADY POOR HEALTH
    11. 11. PART A – What was not right with Rwanda in 1991? A Rwandan mother cares for her child on the hardened lava flow outside the cholera hospital in Kitale camp. Aid agencies like Oxfam enabled the provision of clean water and food brought the cholera epidemic under control. POOR LIVING & HYGIENE CONDITIONS = HEALTH ISSUES
    12. 12. PART A – What was not right with Rwanda in 1991? Rwandan refugee being treated for a machete wound to his head by a local aid worker in Biaro camp. As refugees returned from the forest, evidence of the massacres which had taken place by the rebel army became clear. A TOUGH LIFE
    13. 13. PART B – What about Present Day Singapore? <ul><li>Compare what you have learnt from the Rwandan situation with Singapore in 2009. Are there similar or </li></ul><ul><li>different instances of prejudice and discrimination which might give rise to social fractures and divisions that, if left unchecked, could make the alternate future of 2061 a reality? </li></ul>RWANDA in 1990s SINGAPORE NOW Gender Inequality A little. Males are still preferred sometimes Extortion/ Bribery Almost None. Riots/ Civil Wars Nil <ul><ul><li>Media Propaganda present </li></ul></ul>Main media content is screened. Peppered with propaganda. Social Inequality present Equal rights for all races and religion Lots of prejudice between the two races Hardly any prejudice amongst racial groups ( except a few bloggers)
    14. 14. PART B – What about Present Day Singapore? RWANDA in 1990s SINGAPORE NOW Republic Quite Democratic War prevention: failed. Religious leaders didn’t condemn the prejudices. War prevention: Total Defence Day. President biased towards Hutus President believes in equality and democracy Drug lords. Drugs a crime! High crime rate Low crime rate <ul><ul><li>Economy: Unstable </li></ul></ul>Economy: Stable
    15. 15. PART B – What about Present Day Singapore? Economic Development Board was set up in 1961 to formulate and implement national economic strategies, focusing on promoting Singapore's manufacturing sector Industrial estates were set up, especially in Jurong, and foreign investment was attracted to the country with tax incentives. GOOD INFRASTRUCTURES =STABLE ECONOMY= EMPLOYMENT= LOW CRIME
    16. 16. PART B – What about Present Day Singapore? The Housing Development Board set up before independence continued to be largely successful and huge building projects sprung up to provide affordable public housing to resettle the squatters GOOD LIVING CONDITIONS = BETTER HEALTH
    17. 17. PART B – What about Present Day Singapore?   In December 2001, a plot to bomb embassies and other infrastructure in Singapore was uncovered and as many as 36 members of the Jemaah Islamiyah group were arrested under the Internal Security Act HIGH SECURITY STANDARDS IN DEFENDING OUR NATION
    18. 18. PART C – What can we do to prevent the imagined future of 2061 from becoming a reality? <ul><li>Social Learning and Conformity as a Cause of Prejudice </li></ul><ul><li>Agents of Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Values are internalized as people encounter various agents of socialization.  Attitudes and behaviors are learned within a social context where agents of socialization are important </li></ul><ul><li>Selective Exposure and Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Reward and Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>All agents of socialization reward behavior and expression of attitude that conform to their norms and punish those that do not. These rewards and punishments are sometime very formal. Other types of rewards and sanctions are informal and impromptu </li></ul>
    19. 19. PART C – What can we do to prevent the imagined future of 2061 from becoming a reality? <ul><li>Hidden cracks in Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIAL </li></ul><ul><li>- Bangladeshi workers who loiter around void decks are disliked by many (e.g. Serangoon Garden Foreign Workers’ Dorm upsets many) </li></ul><ul><li>Racist Bloggers can stir up deep set sentiments. </li></ul><ul><li>Gender inequality in some workplaces. </li></ul><ul><li>POLITICAL </li></ul><ul><li>Political unrest between Singapore & Malaysia (e.g. water issues, the Causeway) </li></ul><ul><li>issues between PAP and opposition parties (e.g. lift upgrades, Opening of Potong Pasir Station) </li></ul><ul><li>MILITARY </li></ul><ul><li>-Security breach against terrorist group members escape from Singapore/ planning to bomb Train Station in Singapore . </li></ul>
    20. 20. PART C – What can we do to prevent the imagined future of 2061 from becoming a reality? <ul><li>Mending the cracks </li></ul><ul><li>For social issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facebook allows us to connect with our friends of different races and is a fun way to build friendships. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraging more school overseas trips to countries like Bangladesh and India will allow the youth to understand and appreciate these foreign workers better </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. PART C – What can we do to prevent the imagined future of 2061 from becoming a reality? <ul><li>Mending the cracks </li></ul><ul><li>For Political issues with neighboring countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lend a helping hand to neighboring countries in times of need </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the neighboring country's experiences on how the problem can be solved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain good relationship with Malaysia and not taking advantage of the power supplies. </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. PART C – What can we do to prevent the imagined future of 2061 from becoming a reality? <ul><li>Mending the cracks </li></ul><ul><li>For Political issues between parties </li></ul><ul><li>Lift upgrading: Govt should upgrade wards with most aging adults first. </li></ul><ul><li>Opening of Potong Pasir Station: Govt should have had the people’s interest at heart & not use it as a carrot to get votes </li></ul>
    23. 23. PART C – What can we do to prevent the imagined future of 2061 from becoming a reality? <ul><li>Mending the cracks </li></ul><ul><li>For Military issues [against Terrorism] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthen dialogue, confidence-building and co-operation in the region and beyond. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To tackle these challenges, we will need to strengthen all five components of Total Defense. The SAF will maintain its conventional capabilities to ensure that the military component of Total Defense remains strong. </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. References http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rwandan_Genocide www.exileimages.co.uk/.../Rwanda/Rwanda_02.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Singapore http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Housing_and_Development_Board#History http://www.mindef.gov.sg/imindef/mindef_websites/atozlistings/army/ourforces/2PDF.html http://www.ppu.org.uk/genocide/g_rwanda.html Hotel Rwanda DVD
    25. 25. THANK YOU! <ul><li>&quot;When it comes to life the critical thing is whether you take things for granted or take them with gratitude.” </li></ul><ul><li>G.K. Chesterton, essayist, novelist and poet </li></ul>