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  1. 1. E-Commerce
  2. 2. <ul><li>Electronic commerce (also referred to as EC, e-commerce or ecommerce) consists primarily of the distributing, buying, selling, marketing and services over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. </li></ul><ul><li>The information technology industry sees it as an electronic business application aimed at commercial transactions. </li></ul><ul><li>It can involve electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, online marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange (EDI), automated inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems. </li></ul><ul><li>It typically uses electronic communications technology such as the Internet, extranets, e-mail, e-books and mobile phones. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Legal aspects of E-Commerce <ul><li>Digital Signatures </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Documents </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Copyrights </li></ul>
  4. 4. Types of digital documents <ul><li>Imaging (TIFF) </li></ul><ul><li>Structured documents (SGML) </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed hypertext (HTML) </li></ul><ul><li>Active or Compound (OLE) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Document Imaging <ul><li>An imaging system passes a paper document through a scanner that </li></ul><ul><li>renders it digital & stores the digital data as a bit-mapped image. </li></ul><ul><li>Use key words for indexing & searching </li></ul><ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><li>Contains only images & not text </li></ul><ul><li>No formal internal structure </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>TIFF (Tag Image File Format) </li></ul><ul><li>TIFF format is standard in document imaging and document management systems </li></ul><ul><li>Created by company Aldus jointly with Microsoft for postscript </li></ul><ul><li>Supports black & white images – to conserve storage capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Supports multiple pages </li></ul>
  7. 7. Limitation of document image <ul><li>Does not allow repackaging </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: Structured documents </li></ul>
  8. 8. Structured documents <ul><li>Users can manipulate, edit and work with document content </li></ul><ul><li>Apply database structuring capabilities to documents to allow tools to manipulate document content </li></ul><ul><li>Documents may be lengthy, complex, spreadsheets, graphics etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Example : TOC (Table Of contents) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Capabilities of structured documents <ul><li>1. Document formatting & rendering </li></ul><ul><li>Companies give their CDs containing manuals to customers. This reduces printing & packaging costs and faster updates of critical information </li></ul><ul><li>Audio rendering of documents opens up a new world for visually handicapped. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>2. Create easily modifiable structures </li></ul><ul><li>Allows more dynamic documents, user interaction & manipulation (bookmark, highlight text, write notes) </li></ul><ul><li>Documents can be edited, linked to other items such as graphics, video, photo etc. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>3. Easier to search & query given the right structure & interface </li></ul><ul><li>Formats: </li></ul><ul><li>Document interchange formats (ODA - Office Document Architecture, CDA - Compound Document Architecture) </li></ul><ul><li>Adv: </li></ul><ul><li>Generate platform & application independent info </li></ul><ul><li>Keep format & styling </li></ul><ul><li>Support audio, graphics & video </li></ul><ul><li>Disadv: </li></ul><ul><li>Require expertise to use </li></ul><ul><li>Formats make users dependent on applications that can recognize the </li></ul><ul><li>encoding used </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>(ii) Document structure languages (SGML – Standard Generalized Markup Language) </li></ul><ul><li>Adv: </li></ul><ul><li>Allows creation of document type definition </li></ul><ul><li>Disadv: </li></ul><ul><li>Does not support non-text elements </li></ul>
  13. 13. Hypertext documents <ul><li>Hypertext makes document based information more mobile. </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for mobility of info: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Info in enterprise is located in server but distributed throughout the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Split the large document into smaller pieces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reuse document fragments for composing new documents </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Active Documents <ul><li>Provide interactive interface </li></ul><ul><li>Allow business teams to develop & interchange information </li></ul><ul><li>Combine composition of info with the distributed nature of info </li></ul><ul><li>Allow users to create interfaces that are dynamically updated from remote data & computation objects that may be stored in the document libraries on the n/w </li></ul><ul><li>Examples:- OLE , CORBA </li></ul>
  15. 15. Digital copyrights <ul><li>Copyright:- The legal right granted to an author, composer, publisher, or distributor to exclusive publication, production, sale, or distribution of a literary, musical, dramatic, or artistic work. Abbreviated as (c) or ©. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Digital copyright wording in on-line database <ul><li>Categories of permissions/conditions/terms </li></ul><ul><li>No downloading at all </li></ul><ul><li>No electronic storage </li></ul><ul><li>No copies or distribution, even internally </li></ul><ul><li>No copies or distribution to third parties </li></ul><ul><li>Specific limitations on various types of use (search results) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Enforcing digital copyrights using technology <ul><li>Controlling access to copyrighted works </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restrict access to the source of the work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restrict manipulation of file containing work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controlling server access </li></ul><ul><li>completely uncontrolled access </li></ul><ul><li>partially controlled access </li></ul><ul><li>completely controlled access </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling document access </li></ul><ul><li>unique file format </li></ul><ul><li>s/w to prevent viewing / use of work without authorization from info provider </li></ul><ul><li>access restriction thru encryption </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Controlling use of the work </li></ul><ul><li>hardware / software </li></ul><ul><li>Authenticating the work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital signature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the work being protected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the DS algo used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the key used </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implementing electronic contracts (license) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authorship, copyright ownership, date of creation, last modification, terms, conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer should purchase a key </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. E-Commerce framework Common business services infrastructure (security/authentication, electronic payment, directories/catalogs) The messaging & information distribution infrastructure Multimedia content & network publishing infrastructure The information superhighway infrastructure (telecom, cable TV, wireless, Internet) Public policy legal & privacy issues Technical standards for electronic documents, multimedia & n/w protocols
  20. 20. E-commerce applications <ul><li>Supply chain management </li></ul><ul><li>Video on demand </li></ul><ul><li>Procurement & purchasing </li></ul><ul><li>On-line marketing & advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Home shopping </li></ul>