Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Ecommerce

10,176 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business

Ecommerce

  1. 1. E-Commerce
  2. 2. <ul><li>Electronic commerce (also referred to as EC, e-commerce or ecommerce) consists primarily of the distributing, buying, selling, marketing and services over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. </li></ul><ul><li>The information technology industry sees it as an electronic business application aimed at commercial transactions. </li></ul><ul><li>It can involve electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, online marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange (EDI), automated inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems. </li></ul><ul><li>It typically uses electronic communications technology such as the Internet, extranets, e-mail, e-books and mobile phones. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Legal aspects of E-Commerce <ul><li>Digital Signatures </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Documents </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Copyrights </li></ul>
  4. 4. Types of digital documents <ul><li>Imaging (TIFF) </li></ul><ul><li>Structured documents (SGML) </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed hypertext (HTML) </li></ul><ul><li>Active or Compound (OLE) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Document Imaging <ul><li>An imaging system passes a paper document through a scanner that </li></ul><ul><li>renders it digital & stores the digital data as a bit-mapped image. </li></ul><ul><li>Use key words for indexing & searching </li></ul><ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><li>Contains only images & not text </li></ul><ul><li>No formal internal structure </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>TIFF (Tag Image File Format) </li></ul><ul><li>TIFF format is standard in document imaging and document management systems </li></ul><ul><li>Created by company Aldus jointly with Microsoft for postscript </li></ul><ul><li>Supports black & white images – to conserve storage capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Supports multiple pages </li></ul>
  7. 7. Limitation of document image <ul><li>Does not allow repackaging </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: Structured documents </li></ul>
  8. 8. Structured documents <ul><li>Users can manipulate, edit and work with document content </li></ul><ul><li>Apply database structuring capabilities to documents to allow tools to manipulate document content </li></ul><ul><li>Documents may be lengthy, complex, spreadsheets, graphics etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Example : TOC (Table Of contents) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Capabilities of structured documents <ul><li>1. Document formatting & rendering </li></ul><ul><li>Companies give their CDs containing manuals to customers. This reduces printing & packaging costs and faster updates of critical information </li></ul><ul><li>Audio rendering of documents opens up a new world for visually handicapped. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>2. Create easily modifiable structures </li></ul><ul><li>Allows more dynamic documents, user interaction & manipulation (bookmark, highlight text, write notes) </li></ul><ul><li>Documents can be edited, linked to other items such as graphics, video, photo etc. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>3. Easier to search & query given the right structure & interface </li></ul><ul><li>Formats: </li></ul><ul><li>Document interchange formats (ODA - Office Document Architecture, CDA - Compound Document Architecture) </li></ul><ul><li>Adv: </li></ul><ul><li>Generate platform & application independent info </li></ul><ul><li>Keep format & styling </li></ul><ul><li>Support audio, graphics & video </li></ul><ul><li>Disadv: </li></ul><ul><li>Require expertise to use </li></ul><ul><li>Formats make users dependent on applications that can recognize the </li></ul><ul><li>encoding used </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>(ii) Document structure languages (SGML – Standard Generalized Markup Language) </li></ul><ul><li>Adv: </li></ul><ul><li>Allows creation of document type definition </li></ul><ul><li>Disadv: </li></ul><ul><li>Does not support non-text elements </li></ul>
  13. 13. Hypertext documents <ul><li>Hypertext makes document based information more mobile. </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for mobility of info: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Info in enterprise is located in server but distributed throughout the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Split the large document into smaller pieces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reuse document fragments for composing new documents </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Active Documents <ul><li>Provide interactive interface </li></ul><ul><li>Allow business teams to develop & interchange information </li></ul><ul><li>Combine composition of info with the distributed nature of info </li></ul><ul><li>Allow users to create interfaces that are dynamically updated from remote data & computation objects that may be stored in the document libraries on the n/w </li></ul><ul><li>Examples:- OLE , CORBA </li></ul>
  15. 15. Digital copyrights <ul><li>Copyright:- The legal right granted to an author, composer, publisher, or distributor to exclusive publication, production, sale, or distribution of a literary, musical, dramatic, or artistic work. Abbreviated as (c) or ©. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Digital copyright wording in on-line database <ul><li>Categories of permissions/conditions/terms </li></ul><ul><li>No downloading at all </li></ul><ul><li>No electronic storage </li></ul><ul><li>No copies or distribution, even internally </li></ul><ul><li>No copies or distribution to third parties </li></ul><ul><li>Specific limitations on various types of use (search results) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Enforcing digital copyrights using technology <ul><li>Controlling access to copyrighted works </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restrict access to the source of the work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restrict manipulation of file containing work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controlling server access </li></ul><ul><li>completely uncontrolled access </li></ul><ul><li>partially controlled access </li></ul><ul><li>completely controlled access </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling document access </li></ul><ul><li>unique file format </li></ul><ul><li>s/w to prevent viewing / use of work without authorization from info provider </li></ul><ul><li>access restriction thru encryption </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Controlling use of the work </li></ul><ul><li>hardware / software </li></ul><ul><li>Authenticating the work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital signature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the work being protected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the DS algo used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the key used </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implementing electronic contracts (license) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authorship, copyright ownership, date of creation, last modification, terms, conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer should purchase a key </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. E-Commerce framework Common business services infrastructure (security/authentication, electronic payment, directories/catalogs) The messaging & information distribution infrastructure Multimedia content & network publishing infrastructure The information superhighway infrastructure (telecom, cable TV, wireless, Internet) Public policy legal & privacy issues Technical standards for electronic documents, multimedia & n/w protocols
  20. 20. E-commerce applications <ul><li>Supply chain management </li></ul><ul><li>Video on demand </li></ul><ul><li>Procurement & purchasing </li></ul><ul><li>On-line marketing & advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Home shopping </li></ul>

×