The Six schools of Indian philosophy are:
Mimamsa (Purva Mimamsa)
Vedanta (Uttara Mimamsa)
Followers believe that obtaining
valid knowledge is the only way to
obtain release from suffering.
According to the Nyaya school,
there are exactly four sources of
Closely associated with the Hindu school of logic
Nyaya. Vaisesika proposes a form of atomism and
claims that all objects in the physical universe are
reducible to a finite number of atoms guided or
directed by the will of the Supreme Being.
regards the universe as
consisting of two realities
• Prakriti (phenomenal realm of
Is the cultivation of the mind
using meditation (dhyana) to
further one's acquaintance
with reality and finally
Believe in revelation of the
nature and of dharma, by
following a set ritual
obligations, and prerogatives to
be performed properly.
Also believed that the nature of
dharma isn't accessible to
reason or observation, and
must be inferred from the
authority of the revelation
contained in the Vedas.
Vedanta is based on two
•Human nature is divine.
•The aim of human life is to
realize that human nature is
The goal of Vedanta is a
state of self-realization or
The predominant religion in ancient India was
Hinduism. The roots of Hindu religion can be
traced back to the Vedic period. Hinduism is
believed to be the oldest of major religions and
originated in northern India. Besides
Hinduism, other main religions during ancient
India were Buddhism, and Jainism.. There
also many heterodox religious sects in ancient
India. One such sect was Ajivika, founded by
Mahavira's rival Goshala Maskariputra. There
were also several other religious
contemporaries to Buddha and Mahavira
during the 6th century B.C.
Science and technology in ancient and
medieval India covered all the major
branches of human knowledge and activities,
including mathematics, astronomy, physics,
chemistry, medical science and surgery, fine
arts, mechanical and production technology,
civil engineering and architecture,
shipbuilding and navigation, sports and
Technology in Ancient India
Mathematics - Vedic literature is replete with
concepts of zero, the techniques of algebra and
algorithm, square root and cube root. Arguably,
the origins of Calculus lie in India 300 years
before Leibnitz and Newton.
Astronomy - Rig Veda (2000 BC) refers to
astronomy. Physics - Concepts of atom and
theory of relativity were explicitly stated by an
Indian Philosopher around 600 BC.
Chemistry - Principles of chemistry did not
remain abstract but also found expression in
distillation of perfumes, aromatic liquids,
manufacturing of dyes and pigments, and
extraction of sugar.
Medical science & surgery - Around 800 BC,
first compendium on medicine and surgery was
complied in ancient India.
Fine Arts - Vedas were recited and recitation has
to be correct, which gave rise to a finer study of
sound and phonetics. The natural corollary
were emergence of music and other forms of
Mechanical & production technology - Greek
historians have testified to smelting of certain
metals in India in the 4th century BC.
Civil engineering & architecture - The discovery
of urban settlements of Mohenjodaro and
Harappa indicate existence of civil engineering
& architecture, which blossomed to a highly
precise science of civil engineering and
architecture and found expression in
innumerable monuments of ancient India.
Along with the creation of indoor plumbing,
Shipbuilding & navigation - Sanskrit and Pali
texts have several references to maritime activity
by ancient Indians.
Sports & games Ancient India is the birth
place of chess, ludo, snakes and ladders and
During ancient India various art
forms developed at great pace. It is
evident from the surviving art forms
and literature that the ancient Indian
art forms have great detailing and
unique realistic style of their own.
Well planned cities and houses with
the presence of drainage systems and
public baths. Vedic villages had certain
distinct characteristics The Vedic
grama could have a pur, or a fort-like
structure within it. The Vedic hymns
speak of "purs" made of stone and
metal. The Vedas had many words for
houses. It appears that the main
distinction was between chhardis
( house with a thatched roof),
harmyam (a house of brick and stone
that had a courtyard in the middle),
and gotra (a multi-dwelling complex
with sheds for animals). The Rig-Veda
speaks once of a palace with 1000
doors, and twice of a palace with 1000
Primarily represented by three
important building types- the
Chaitya Hall (place of worship), the
Vihara (monastery) and the Stupa
(hemispherical mound for worship/
memory)- exemplified by the
magnificent caves of Ajanta and
Ellora and the monumental Sanchi
Early beginnings of Hindu temple
architecture have been traced to the
remains at Aihole and Pattadakal.
Early temples were rock-cut. The
pyramid form was an essential
architectonic element in any temple in
the Dravidian style. The Northern
style was stepped and slightly curved.
The structural system was essentially
stone as the basic raw material.
Decoration was fundamental to Indian
architecture and is seen in the myriad
details of figured sculpture as well as
in the architectural elements.