Simple Mixture

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Physical scheme

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Simple Mixture

  1. 1. Simple mixture of anions #if SO4 is present----------Group V Cations is absent 1- HCl test #Solid +dil Hcl ------- heat # Strong eff. /CO3 or HCO3 present yellow ppt---------S2O3 present #Soln. + BaCl2------------- white ppt #Soln.+ FeCl3-----brown immediately------- CO3 present colour disappear in few # Soln. + BaCl2------------- white ppt minutes after heating------- HCO3 present
  2. 2. 2-FeCl3 Test <ul><li>Soln.+ FeCl3----- </li></ul><ul><li>Persistent brown Redish brown colour </li></ul><ul><li>color-----SO3 present Iodide present </li></ul><ul><li>Soln + BaCl2----white Cl2-water test </li></ul><ul><li>ppt sol. In dil. HCl Soln.+ chloroform </li></ul><ul><li>+ Cl2-H2O---shake </li></ul><ul><li>violet colour in CHCl3 layer </li></ul>
  3. 3. 3-BaCl2 Test <ul><li>Soln.+ BaCl2-------- white ppt insol. In dil. HCl ----------SO4 present </li></ul><ul><li>4- Cl2- water test </li></ul><ul><li>Soln.+ chloroform + Cl2-H2O---shake-----yellow to brown colour in CHCl3 layer----- Br present </li></ul>
  4. 4. 5- Chromyl Chloride test <ul><li>Yellow color in NaOH---- Cl present </li></ul>
  5. 5. Simple mixture of cations <ul><li>Tests for cations on solid for ammonia and colored cations </li></ul><ul><li>Cu----- blue </li></ul><ul><li>Fe----- Faint yellow to dark brown </li></ul><ul><li>Cr------ dark green </li></ul><ul><li>Co------ reddish brown </li></ul><ul><li>Ni-------- Green </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>1- test for ammonia </li></ul><ul><li>Solid + dil. NaOH---- ammonia odour---ammonia present </li></ul><ul><li>2- test for Fe </li></ul><ul><li>Soln. + 3 drops conc. HNO3 --- boil-----cool---- NH4SCN---- red blood color----iron present </li></ul><ul><li>3- test for Co </li></ul><ul><li>Solid+ 2 ml Amyl alc.+ 1 gm NH4SCN---Shake ----blue color in alc. Layer--- Co present </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>4-test for Ni </li></ul><ul><li>soln + NH4Cl + NH4OH till Amm. odour appear + Dimethyl glyoxime----Rose red colour </li></ul><ul><li>5-test for Cu </li></ul><ul><li>Soln.+ H2S---- black ppt </li></ul><ul><li>Soln.+NH4OH------ blue colour </li></ul><ul><li>Soln. + ferrocyanide--chocolate brown ppt </li></ul><ul><li>6- test for Cr </li></ul><ul><li>Soln + NH4Cl + NH4 OH----greenish white ppt </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Dissolve part of solid to form according to the following solubility Sequence </li></ul><ul><li>( cold water, Hot water, cold dil. HCl, hot dil. HCl, Conc. HCl (hot),dil. HNO3, conc. HNO3, Aqua Regia (3 HCl:1 HNO3) </li></ul><ul><li>Test for the six groups in order </li></ul>
  9. 9. Group I : Pb+1, Hg +1 <ul><li>Soln. + cold Dil HCl ----White ppt---gp I present ---- Filter--ppt(gp I) </li></ul><ul><li>-filterate(other groups) </li></ul><ul><li>Wash ppt with water and boil </li></ul><ul><li>If sol-----pb </li></ul><ul><li>Insol. ------Hg </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><ul><li>Confirmatory tests for pb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KI test (soln.+KI------yellow ppt.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H2SO4 test (soln.+dil. H2SO4---white ppt) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>K2CrO4 test (soln.+ K2CrO4—yellow ppt.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Confirmatory tests for Hg </li></ul><ul><li>ppt. + aqua regia in porcelain dish-----------evaporate till dryness----------dissolve residue in few drops of water ---------add SnCl2-------------- grey white ppt </li></ul>
  11. 11. Group II A & B (Pb, Hg, Bi, Cu, Cd, As, Sb or Sn) <ul><li>Filterate from group I (or Soln.+ dil. HCl) </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust acidity using methyl violet till greenish blue colour </li></ul><ul><li>If </li></ul><ul><li>blue------------add HCl </li></ul><ul><li>Green----------add Water </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Test for presense of Gr. II </li></ul><ul><li>• part of soln + H2S ----if ppt ----add excess H2S to whole soln.---filter </li></ul><ul><li>------------if no ppt. ----move to gp III </li></ul><ul><li>Test for complete pption on filterate by drops of H2S ----if ppt. --- add H2S to filterate and refilter again </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ppt---------gp II </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Filterate ----------- other groups </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Soln. (adjusted acidity) + excess H2S </li></ul><ul><li>Canary Yellow ppt Black or brown ppt </li></ul><ul><li>Cd or gp II B (Pb, Bi, Hg) </li></ul><ul><li>Filter </li></ul><ul><li>Wash ppt. with10 ml dil. Nitric </li></ul><ul><li>+ 10 ml dil sulfuric acid (boil) </li></ul><ul><li>Soluble Insoluble </li></ul><ul><li>Bi Hg or Pb </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>to differentiate between lead and mercuric add acetic acid to ppt. </li></ul><ul><li>If </li></ul><ul><li>a) soluble-------------- ----------Pb </li></ul><ul><li>b) insoluble --------------------- Hg </li></ul>
  15. 15. Confirmatory tests <ul><li>for bismuth </li></ul><ul><li>soln. (ppt+dil nitric+ dil sulfuric) + conc.NH4OH------- white gelatinous ppt. </li></ul><ul><li>for lead </li></ul><ul><li>as above </li></ul><ul><li>for mercuric: </li></ul><ul><li>ppt. + aqua regia in porcelain dish-----------evaporate till dryness----------dissolve residue in few drops of water ---------add SnCl2-------------- grey white ppt </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>To differentiate between Cd and gpIIB </li></ul><ul><li>To part of yellow ppt + NaOH+ 1 drop yellow ammonium sulfide ----warm and shake </li></ul><ul><li>If sol ----- gp II B </li></ul><ul><li>insol. ---- Cd </li></ul><ul><li>Gp II B </li></ul><ul><li>part of residue + few drops conc Hcl + heat with stirring </li></ul><ul><li>If sol. ----- Sn or Sb </li></ul><ul><li>insol. ------ As </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Test for As </li></ul><ul><li>Residue + amm. Carbonate soln.+ H2S--------orange ppt </li></ul><ul><li>For Sn and Sb </li></ul><ul><li>Soln + iron wire ----boil----black ppt on wire ------ Sb </li></ul><ul><li>------- no black ppt ---- Sn </li></ul><ul><li>Test for Sn </li></ul><ul><li>Soln + HgCl2-------white to grey ppt </li></ul>
  18. 18. Gp III (Al, Fe and Cr) <ul><li>If gp II present boil to expell H2S and test it by lead cetate paper ( no black color of paper) </li></ul><ul><li>Soln. + NH4Cl (solid)--------dissolve-------- add NH4OH--------- </li></ul><ul><li>White gelatinous ppt reddish brown ppt greenish white ppt </li></ul><ul><li>AL Fe Cr </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ppt------------gp III </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Filterate -------- other groups </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Confirmatory tests: </li></ul><ul><li>1- for aluminium or chromium </li></ul><ul><li>ppt + NaOH+ H2O2---dissolve--------add NH4Cl----boil----cool----- if white gel. ppt.---- Al </li></ul><ul><li>-----if yellow soln. ------Cr </li></ul><ul><li>2- for iron as above (NH4SCN) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Group IV: Zn, Co and Ni <ul><li>Soln. + NH4Cl (solid)--------dissolve------ add NH4OH------add excess H2S, warm--- </li></ul><ul><li>white ppt. Black ppt. </li></ul><ul><li>Zn Co or Ni </li></ul><ul><li>Ppt + very dil. HCl ---- if Sol. -----Zn </li></ul><ul><li>if insol. ----- Co or Ni </li></ul>
  21. 21. Confirmatory tests <ul><li>For Zn: Soln+acetic acid+ pot. Ferrocyanide--------- greenish white ppt . </li></ul><ul><li>For Co and Ni : (note their salts are coloured) residue+ Aqua regia -----evaborate till dry + Cool + 5 ml H2o + Boil--- Solution----divide the soln into2 Parts </li></ul><ul><li>1-test for Co : Solid+ 2 ml Amyl alc.+ 1 gm NH4SCN---Shake ----blue color in alc. Layer--- Co present </li></ul><ul><li>2-test for Ni : soln + NH4Cl + NH4OH till Amm. odour appear + Dimethyl glyoxime----Rose red colour </li></ul>
  22. 22. Group V: Ca, Ba and Sr <ul><li>Conc. soln.( boil filterate to expell H2S and concentrate solution) + NH4Cl (solid)--------dissolve-------- add NH4OH--------add solid (NH4)2CO3-----------white ppt. </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolve ppt. in dil. Acetic acid and divide into 3 parts and tests must be done in the following sequence: </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>test for Ba: soln.(ppt + dil. HAC)+ K2CrO4----------yellow ppt---------Ba </li></ul><ul><li>test for Sr: soln. + CaSO4 OR (NH4)2SO4--------------white ppt.------ Sr </li></ul><ul><li>test for Ca: soln. + ammonium oxalate---------white ppt.------Ca </li></ul>
  24. 24. Group VI: NH4, Mg, Na, K <ul><li>If gp V present add amm. Oxalate and amm. Sulfate ----boil---filter---then test on filterate for gp VI (not done in case of gp V absence) </li></ul><ul><li>Tests must be done in the following sequence </li></ul><ul><li>test for Mg : soln+ NH4Cl (solid)--------dissolve-------- add NH4OH+Na2HPO4 (disosium hydrogen phosphate) ---------scratching-------white ppt. </li></ul><ul><li>test for Na : soln + potassium pyroantimonate ----------white ppt </li></ul><ul><li>test for K: soln. + dil HAC+ sodium cobalt nitrite --------yellow ppt </li></ul>

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