Reading By Page Servies
Slide 3-5: Delivering What Urban Readers Need
Slide 6-8: Attitudes Toward Reading Expressed by Elementary
School Students Diagnosed With Learning Disabilities
Slide 9-11: Teacher and Parent Scaffolding of Voluntary
Slide 12: 3 “a-ha” moments
Slide 13: Connection between articles/Conclusion
Slide 14: APA Citations
Delivering What Urban Readers Need
By Shobana Musti Rao and Gwendolyn Cartledge
Akkem was put in time out during read aloud time for misbehaving.
This classroom management found in many urban schools is not
acceptable. It only separates low performing students from the
literacy instruction they need.
“Reading is a survival skill. When a child fails to read in elementary
school, it reduces a child’s chances of success not only in school but
To improve an urban reader a teacher must examine her students
early on, intensive instruction on core prereading and reading
skills, and continued support after instruction.
To engage the students, teachers must take on culturally responsive
curriculums. If the students have something they can relate to they
are more prone to enjoy the reading.
Article 1 continued…
Teaching within small group discussions is also important. The
teacher can provide different instructions for each groups
depending on their skill level. This also gives the students a chance
to talk with each other about how they can relate with the book. As
a teacher, this is a time to monitor student learning. The teacher is
able to observe how each student is working with the book.
Classroom management is also a way of pushing a child to improve
their literacy skills. Engaging with other students who need a bit
more help will help the student who actually needs help, however,
it also helps the students who is guiding the session improve also.
What can teachers do for students like Akeem?
Teachers must respond early to children like Akeem. If a teacher
responds with some of the strategies talked about above, the child has a
much better chance of succeeding in school and life.
When you have a child who is not interested in
being at school period is very difficult for any
teacher. This is why we, as teachers, must start with
this students early. Students like Akeem should not
be sitting in time out during one of the most
stimulating literacy activities of the day. As a
teacher I am ready to attack this problem head on
and do my best to help as many children as I can.
Educational Resources (Math, Reading, Writing, etc)
+ Attitudes Toward Reading Expressed by Elementary
School Students Diagnosed With
By Belinda Lazarus & Thomas Callahan
“Reading attitude fulfills a pivotal role in the development and
use of lifelong reading skills.”
Research has proved that attitudes affect one’s motivation to
read. Accomplished readers with average to poor attitudes
toward reading may choose to watch their favorite television
show over reading.
What did the McKenna and Kear study find?
This study compares attitudes of elementary students with
learning disabilities and their non-disabled peers. The results
show that students with learning disabilities expressed reading
attitudes that equaled or exceeded the attitudes of average and
low non-disabled students. Also, the attitudes of students with
learning disabilities were more stable in grades 1-5 than non
Article 2 continued…
McKenna & Kear Study:
The differences between recreational reading and academic reading with
learning disabled readers, low readers, average readers, and high
I think students with learning disabilities have more
trouble reading than their non disabled peers,
however, their attitude toward reading is a
tremendous factor also. I agree with the “pull out”
programs. I think if there are students who need
extra help, need one on one, or cannot concentrate
in a big class we must help them. There is no
difference in helping a non-disabled student versus
a learning disabled student besides putting forth a
bit more effort.
+ Teacher and Parent Scaffolding of
Voluntary Summer Reading
By Thomas White & James Kim
“Research shows that low income, minority, and less
skilled readers fall behind their high income, white,
and more skilled peers during the summer months
when they are not in school.”
Providingthe low income and minority students
with good books to read during the summer months
could change the summer reading loss.
Article 3 continued…
What can teachers do to prepare their students for summer
At the end of the school year, teachers can put together
several lessons for students to work on throughout the
summer. The lessons should include comprehension
strategies, oral reading practice, and encourage the
students to read aloud to an adult.
What can parents do to help?
Parents can be their for their child when it is homework
time. They can encourage their child to read aloud to them.
Taking children to the library is always something fun a
child and parent can do together.
Isupport summer reading programs completely. I
also think teachers should encourage their students
and parents to get a library card. I think when
parents take their children to the library they are
showing their children that reading is fun and
Here is a public libraries link for students to search
for a library near them.
Public Libraries Around the World
3 “a-ha” moments
After reading the Attitudes Toward Reading… article I was
shocked with the results from the McKena and Kear study. I
did not know your attitude affected your ability to read. This
must be why children with bad attitudes toward reading
cannot read very well.
Teaching is going to be a lot more intense and hard than I
thought it was going to be. The futures of children lay in your
hands. You have to be responsible and ready to do anything
When I look back on my elementary school summers, I didn’t
read much at all. The family was always by the pool, at the
lake, or on vacation. I now understand how important it is to
keep up on your reading skills.
Connection between articles
three of the articles assess the readers ability
and they provide ideas about how to improve a
young, developing child’s reading skills.
Children’sminds are very fragile and need
encouragement when it comes to reading. If
children are not helped at a young age is could
affect them the rest of their lives.
READING IS IMPORTANT!
1. Lazarus, B.D., & Callahan, T (2000). Attitudes Toward Reading
Expressed By Elementary School Students Diagnosed With
Learning Disabilities. Reading Psychology, 21, Retrieved
December 7, 2008, from http://
2. White, T.G., & Kim, J.S. (2008). Teacher and Parent Scaffolding
of Voluntary Summer Reading. The Reading Teacher, 62, Retrieved
December 7, 2008, from http://web.ebscohost.com/
3. Musti-Rao, S, & Cartledge, G (2007). Delivering What Urban Readers
Need. Educational Leadership, Retrieved December 7, 2008, from