Ganga
The national river – Now a disappearing river
A matter of concern
          A matter of concern
• One Ganga  a symbol of national pride 
  One Ganga – a symbol of natio...
What are these dams?
These are hydropower projects, beginning from 
   g ,        g               ,             g
Gangotri...
There would be no river‐ once these proposed 
           projects are complete.




              Dams on Ganga
Himalayan Environment under threat
    Himalayan Environment under threat
•   Earthquake prone zone – Seismic zone 
    V....
History of dams on Ganga –
    Ignored impacts –Maneri Bhali 1
• Functioning since last 30 years
  Functioning since last ...
History of dams on Ganga –
       Ignored impacts –Maneri Bhali 2
   •   Dried water sources:
         – 13 villages close...
Dried water sourcees – after effects of 
           Maneri Bhali 2
                  i h li




      These are dried wate...
History of dams on Ganga –
                 Ignored impacts – Tehri
   • Extensive land‐slide 
     situations have been c...
Case of Visnugad power project ‐
           Joshimath
Chai gaon ‐ Joshimath
Feasibility of these projects
         Feasibility of these projects
•   The existing Maneri‐Bhali 1 hydro power project o...
Decreased production of electricity
Decreased production of electricity
Loharinag  Pala dam
                 Loharinag – Pala dam
•   Location: 45kms from Gangotri
    Location: 45kms from Gango...
Clearances given to NTPC
        Clearances given to NTPC
• The clearance given to the NTPC for the construction of 
     ...
Violations  EIA Report
         Violations – EIA Report
• During the public hearing, the details of the 
       g     p   ...
Violations  EIA Report
              Violations –EIA Report
• The Akwekon guidelines, officially accepted by the
  The Akw...
The RTI s enquiring the Glacier study
  The RTI’s enquiring the Glacier study




In 2006  the study was given to NIH
In 2...
Violations  Local Impacts
        Violations – Local Impacts
• Cracks in houses
  Cracks in houses
• Drying up of drinking...
Excessive blasting – cracks –
Therang – site for LHP Power house
Dried water sources  Loharinag Pala
Dried water sources – Loharinag‐Pala




             HURI                       S
   ...
Dried water sources  Loharinag Pala
 Dried water sources – Loharinag Pala
• Bhukki Village
  Bhukki Village
• All water so...
Dried water sources  Loharinag Pala
 Dried water sources – Loharinag‐Pala
• Pala is one of the most
  Pala is one of the m...
Gangotri Rajmarg
Gangotri Rajmarg
        •There have been several problems of
        •There have been several problems o...
Violations  Environmental impact
 Violations –Environmental impact
• Decreased water flow in Ganga
  Decreased water flow ...
Muck dumping in Ganga
Muck dumping in Ganga
Uncontrolled Blasting at Loharinag Pala & cracks 
             in villages in vicinity
             i ill       i i i i
A case study of Kujjan
           A case study of Kujjan
• Total private land acquired by the NTPC:
  Total private land a...
Based on the study it is pretty clear that the loss incurred by the entire
village outweighs the projected gain by the NTP...
An overall trend with Hydro 
         projects in Himalayas
• Several issues with Tehri – health hazards, landslides,
  Se...
Similar trend in Loharinag‐Pala –
           observed so far
• We are already seeing the dried water sources in the
  We a...
SUSTAINABILITY of LOHARI NAAG 
             PALA
• Flawed cost benefit analysis – underrate cost
  Flawed cost benefit ana...
Environmental flow
               Environmental flow
• Constant bargain for an environmental flow

• Environmental flow fo...
Trickle of water Just After Maneri 
             Bhali(I)
               h l()
Stagnant Ganga Water and dry river bed up to 
   g         g             y             p
    14 km. downstream of Maneri b...
After Maneri Bhali(II)
Downstream of Maneri Bhali(II) up 
   to 30 km. joins Tehri Dam.
        k  j i  T h i D
Conclusion
•   We vehemently oppose all dams on Ganga
•   All the projects (proposed & under construction) should be compl...
Save Ganga Presentation By Mallika Bhanot
Save Ganga Presentation By Mallika Bhanot
Save Ganga Presentation By Mallika Bhanot
Save Ganga Presentation By Mallika Bhanot
Save Ganga Presentation By Mallika Bhanot
Save Ganga Presentation By Mallika Bhanot
Save Ganga Presentation By Mallika Bhanot
Save Ganga Presentation By Mallika Bhanot
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Save Ganga Presentation By Mallika Bhanot

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Save Ganga Presentation By Mallika Bhanot

  1. 1. Ganga The national river – Now a disappearing river
  2. 2. A matter of concern A matter of concern • One Ganga  a symbol of national pride  One Ganga – a symbol of national pride • Meaning of Ganga – Free flow • Full natural flow ll l fl • Last existing stretch of free flowing Ganga • Disastrous local impact – fragile Himalayan  y ecosystem • Environmental violations • Existing projects overall feasibility Existing projects – overall feasibility 
  3. 3. What are these dams? These are hydropower projects, beginning from  g , g , g Gangotri, designed in a series, one following the other  one, lined up bumper‐to‐bumper.
  4. 4. There would be no river‐ once these proposed  projects are complete. Dams on Ganga
  5. 5. Himalayan Environment under threat Himalayan Environment under threat • Earthquake prone zone – Seismic zone  V. • Retreating Gangotri glacier – stored  water in reservoirs, raising  temperatures in vicinity • Himalayan snow trout  ‐ endangered – obstructed migration path • Golden mahasheer – endangered – due to decreased water in Ganga due to decreased water in Ganga • Bear, goral, leopard, Himalayan Otter – being affected • Disrupted biodiversity • Disturbed river ecosystem • Home to many migratory birds
  6. 6. History of dams on Ganga – Ignored impacts –Maneri Bhali 1 • Functioning since last 30 years Functioning since last 30 years • Loss of 6 to 7 water sources in village Sirod during construction • Complete loss of water close to cremation grounds  Complete loss of water close to cremation grounds • The irrigated & fertile fields that once grew many cash crops,  are now dry • Maximum death & casualties were reported from village  Jhamak, under which the tunnel for the Maneri Bhali runs. • The villages around have to submit an application for releasing The villages around have to submit an application for releasing  water in the river, during the important functions
  7. 7. History of dams on Ganga – Ignored impacts –Maneri Bhali 2 • Dried water sources: – 13 villages close to Maneri Bhali – 2 (Dhanari Patti  )now left dry – Dhungi & Singuni: have PAID government water  supply, which supplies untreated water causing  supply which supplies untreated water causing various diseases – There are hand‐pumps installed at various places,  where orange coloured rusted water is supplied. – T ld i Total drying up of Kairi Gad stream, that further  fK i iG d h f h impacted 10 other villages that were dependent on it  for irrigation water. Cement  deposited in the fields  during the construction Maneri  • Loads of cement was thrown into the fields, the  Bhali‐2.  Bhali 2 fields are still incapable of growing anything. • Breeding of malarial mosquitoes  is now rampant  due to the stored water of reservoirs.  • Dried water sources – Deoli  • The fogging done to prevent the breeding of  mosquitoes is leading to respiratory disorders.  *The pictures are stills from our documentary Tripathagamini
  8. 8. Dried water sourcees – after effects of  Maneri Bhali 2 i h li These are dried water sources in Deoli
  9. 9. History of dams on Ganga – Ignored impacts – Tehri • Extensive land‐slide  situations have been cited  because of the reservoir.  • Th The water is so polluted, that  t i ll t d th t the locals do not even step in  it • Many cracks in houses  (nakot) • P bl Problems with rehabilitation i h h bili i One of the frequent land‐slides in  • Increased case of health  Tehri reservoir problems  stored water problems – stored water • Destruction of forest area *The pictures are stills from our documentary Tripathagamini
  10. 10. Case of Visnugad power project ‐ Joshimath
  11. 11. Chai gaon ‐ Joshimath
  12. 12. Feasibility of these projects Feasibility of these projects • The existing Maneri‐Bhali 1 hydro power project of just 90MW, is working  at almost half its efficiency since the last ten years. The reasons stated in  at almost half its efficiency since the last ten years The reasons stated in the RTI are: – Increased silt in the river during monsoons – Decreased flow during winters. d fl d i i • The problem of silt is only going to increase in the near future owing to  melting of the glaciers, how then can a upstream project of 600MW  lti f th l i h th t j t f 600MW function when on the same river a 90MW is not running to its capacity. • Dropping water levels: Ganga was flowing at half her normal capacity last  Dropping water levels: Ganga was flowing at half her normal capacity last year. The global climate change has already seen this in cases of several  other rivers.
  13. 13. Decreased production of electricity Decreased production of electricity
  14. 14. Loharinag  Pala dam Loharinag – Pala dam • Location: 45kms from Gangotri Location: 45kms from Gangotri • Present status: Temporarily stopped  with orders from NGRBA. Proposed  to start by the govt.  o s a by e go • Installed capacity: 600MW Construction of tunnel Muck deposited at the bank of the  p river
  15. 15. Clearances given to NTPC Clearances given to NTPC • The clearance given to the NTPC for the construction of  g Loharinag‐Pala was given on grounds such as: • Water sustainability study • E th Earthquake prone area so construction should be in  k t ti h ld b i consideration • To maintain the ecological balance during construction • Monitor the muck dumping etc. • It i l It is also stated that the MoEF has the power to revoke the  t t d th t th M EF h th t k th clearance if clearance conditions are not complied with.  (Environment Protection Act – 1986)
  16. 16. Violations  EIA Report Violations – EIA Report • During the public hearing, the details of the  g p g, project were asked in Hindi by the locals • No cumulative effect of dam study has been  done for these projects.  • The Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) clearly  states that “No monument of national  importance are being impacted through these  projects”. 
  17. 17. Violations  EIA Report Violations –EIA Report • The Akwekon guidelines, officially accepted by the The Akwekon guidelines, officially accepted by the  Government of India, wherein the EIA must consist  the social impact of a proposed project, were  completely ignored. • No water‐sustainability study has been carried out  in any of the EIA’s.  • Through the RTI: • The water sustainability study was withdrawn later by MoEF • The NTPC had agreed to be in the process of conducting the study g p g y • Finally stated that the study had been withdrawn
  18. 18. The RTI s enquiring the Glacier study The RTI’s enquiring the Glacier study In 2006  the study was given to NIH In 2006 – the study was given to NIH In 2007 – it was not completed/ submitted by NIH In 2009 – it was declared that the need for the study has been  withdrawn long back
  19. 19. Violations  Local Impacts Violations – Local Impacts • Cracks in houses Cracks in houses • Drying up of drinking water  supplies pp • The routes to the villages  have collapsed/ sunken p • Loss of crops in fields due to  the pollution with the  ongoing construction • Loss of grazing grounds • Increased case of health  problems
  20. 20. Excessive blasting – cracks – Therang – site for LHP Power house
  21. 21. Dried water sources  Loharinag Pala Dried water sources – Loharinag‐Pala HURI S SALANG G Completely dried sources: Out of many  Pangraya khal sources of water,  Nargad only 1‐2 are left There were 7 water mills th t Th t ill that used to run in the village, now only 1
  22. 22. Dried water sources  Loharinag Pala Dried water sources – Loharinag Pala • Bhukki Village Bhukki Village • All water sources have  dried up in the village,  dried up in the village only 1 is left with  meagre supply of  water • All crops have  diminished. Only  potatoes can be grown
  23. 23. Dried water sources  Loharinag Pala Dried water sources – Loharinag‐Pala • Pala is one of the most Pala is one of the most  affected places • All water sources have All water sources have  dried • P People are paying 200‐ l i 200 250/‐mth for govt.  Dried water sources – - Kuryadi tok, water supplies li -Ganala tok, -Dharmapani tok, -Uroronami tok, -Chauryanami tok, - Gangninami tok
  24. 24. Gangotri Rajmarg Gangotri Rajmarg •There have been several problems of •There have been several problems of   frequent landslides on Gangotri rajmarg  due to the blasting being carried out •Due to the illegal dumping grounds, a lot  of muck is deposited along the highway,  thereby rendering the area extremely  dangerous for travel dangerous for travel
  25. 25. Violations  Environmental impact Violations –Environmental impact • Decreased water flow in Ganga Decreased water flow in Ganga • Dried water sources – due to tunneling, spring  water sources have dried up water sources have dried up • Muck dumping • The self‐sufficient upstream villages have  become dependent on external sources • Destruction of forest • Cement spray on mountains to prevent the Cement spray on mountains to prevent the  landslides
  26. 26. Muck dumping in Ganga Muck dumping in Ganga
  27. 27. Uncontrolled Blasting at Loharinag Pala & cracks  in villages in vicinity i ill i i i i
  28. 28. A case study of Kujjan A case study of Kujjan • Total private land acquired by the NTPC: Total private land acquired by the NTPC:  • 2.385 hectare +0.79 hectare (annexed NTPC office  data) ) • Total: 3.175 hectares • Remaining land: 200 naalis * 0.020 = 4 hectares Remaining land: 200 naalis 0.020 4 hectares • Total loss of crops due to land loss: Rs.10,400/naali *  • Total production of crops during the construction Total production of crops during the construction  phase: Rs.4,750/naali. Loss per naali = 10,400 – 4,750 = Rs.5,650
  29. 29. Based on the study it is pretty clear that the loss incurred by the entire village outweighs the projected gain by the NTPC. For the remaining many years the land that is lost to the project will bear the pain & the damage is irreparable & incomparable.
  30. 30. An overall trend with Hydro  projects in Himalayas • Several issues with Tehri – health hazards, landslides, Several issues with Tehri  health hazards, landslides,  cracks in houses, effect over villages even far from  the reservoirs • Problems after Maneri Bhali – 1 – the earthquake &  casualities in Jhamak • Problems after Maneri Bhali – 2 – Cement in their  fields, complete loss of drinking water, diseases • Vishnugad Tapovan – where 23‐24 cusecs of water  moved into the tunnel during construction • Chai gaaon – where the houses are destroyed & the  earth has sunken at many places
  31. 31. Similar trend in Loharinag‐Pala – observed so far • We are already seeing the dried water sources in the We are already seeing the dried water sources in the  villages in vicinity • We are already seeing cracks in the houses y g • The production has been severely affected • The cases of health problems have increased The cases of health problems have increased • There is cement deposited in the clean stretch of  Gangag • Mountains have become more fragile ‐ Cement being  sprayed to keep the mountains intact p y p
  32. 32. SUSTAINABILITY of LOHARI NAAG  PALA • Flawed cost benefit analysis – underrate cost Flawed cost benefit analysis  underrate cost  & ignore many factors • No valuation of the loss of natural habitat No valuation of the loss of natural habitat • Sustainability in light of ecological flow – cases  of fraud flow in Maneri Bhali every‐time a  f f d fl i M i Bh li i committee came over for a visit • Should we throw good money after bad  money?
  33. 33. Environmental flow Environmental flow • Constant bargain for an environmental flow • Environmental flow for A class rivers such as Ganga is actually her  natural flow. On such rivers, no projects or construction should be  proposed or executed, in order to maintain the special water quality  proposed or executed in order to maintain the special water quality of the river. • Decreased water flow (since most it will be tunneled) means Decreased water flow (since most it will be tunneled) means  increased temperatures, loss of aquatic life & velocity.   • As has been seen in the case of Maneri‐Bhali under the banner of As has been seen in the case of Maneri Bhali, under the banner of  hydro power prjects, Ganga gets reduced into a mere rivulet. 
  34. 34. Trickle of water Just After Maneri  Bhali(I) h l()
  35. 35. Stagnant Ganga Water and dry river bed up to  g g y p 14 km. downstream of Maneri bhali(I)
  36. 36. After Maneri Bhali(II)
  37. 37. Downstream of Maneri Bhali(II) up  to 30 km. joins Tehri Dam.    k  j i  T h i D
  38. 38. Conclusion • We vehemently oppose all dams on Ganga • All the projects (proposed & under construction) should be completely  p j (p p ) p y scrapped – loharinag‐pala, pala maneri, bhairon‐ghati • A monitoring committee involving the locals & officials, to monitor atleast  50% of ecological flow from the already exisiting dams on Ganga & then in  g y g g near future aim at their de‐commissioning. • A different view for himalayas. • The Gangotri valley should be developed as an ecologically sensitive zone  The Gangotri valley should be developed as an ecologically sensitive zone locals are given an incentive to protect the forests, the Ganga & the  environment.  • Learn from the previous HEP s & stop construction completely Learn from the previous HEP’s & stop construction completely • If the flow of the river is not free then all efforts to keep it clean are futile

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