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# Invert And Multiply

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• ### Invert And Multiply

1. 1. Our IS to reason why, NOT just invert and multiply! Representing and understanding multiplication and division of fractions Bill Jackson School No. 2 Paterson, NJ Tad Watanabe Keenesaw State University, GA
2. 2. Goals of this session <ul><li>Explore how Japanese textbooks teach multiplication and division of fractions through use of problems and representations. </li></ul><ul><li>Think about how we can use students’ prior understanding of multiplication and division to help them understand the multiplication and division of fractions. </li></ul>
3. 3. NCTM Focal Points GRADE 6 <ul><li>Number and Operations: Developing an understanding of and fluency with multiplication and division of fractions and decimals.  Students use the meanings of fractions, multiplication and division, and the inverse relationship between multiplication and division to make sense of procedures for multiplying and dividing fractions and explain why they work. </li></ul>
4. 4. Singapore’s Mathematics Primary Syllabus (2007) <ul><li>Although students should become competent in the various mathematical skills, over-emphasizing procedural skills without understanding the underlying mathematical principles should be avoided. </li></ul>
5. 5. Japanese Course of Study (1) <ul><li>The meanings of (fraction) x (whole number) and (fraction) ÷ (whole number) are explained using the same idea used in multiplication and division of whole numbers. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elementary School Teaching Guide for the Japanese Course of Study (2006, www.globaledresources.com) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
6. 6. Japanese Course of Study (2) <ul><li>(fraction) x (whole number) can be thought of as the calculation of finding how much there is altogether given the size of each unit and the number of units </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elementary School Teaching Guide for the Japanese Course of Study (2006, www.globaledresources.com ) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
7. 7. Japanese Course of Study (3) <ul><li>(fraction) ÷ (whole number) can be explained by partitive division of whole numbers and by quotative division of whole numbers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elementary School Teaching Guide for the Japanese Course of Study (2006, www.globaledresources.com) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
8. 8. Meaning of Multiplication (1)
9. 9. Meaning of Multiplication (2)
10. 10. Representing multiplication with a model 32 64 ? X 2 X 2 X 3 X 3
11. 11. Partitive Meaning of Division “equal share” division
12. 12. Quotative (measurement) division
13. 13. Fraction x Whole Number X 2 X 2
14. 14. Fraction x Whole Number <ul><li>Related to unitary meaning of fractions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The numerator tells the number of unit fractions in the fraction (i.e. 3/5 means 3 one-fifths) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore, you should multiply the numerator by the whole number. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is the same as multiplying whole numbers (3 x 2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 fifths x 2 = 6 fifths </li></ul></ul>
15. 15. Generalizing the idea of multiplying a fraction by a whole number
16. 16. Fraction ÷ Whole number ÷ 3 ÷ 3
17. 17. Partitive division (missing multiplicand) ___ X 3 = 4/5 x 3 x 3
18. 18. Fraction ÷ Whole number <ul><li>Partitive division </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4/5 m 2 divided into 3 equal parts is easier to think about than the number of 3’s in 4/5. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dividing by a whole number affects the denominator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The size of the unit fraction (or number of parts in the whole) changed </li></ul></ul>
19. 19. Generalizing the idea of dividing a a fraction by a whole number
20. 20. Fraction x Fraction Mathematics for Elementary School 6A (Tokyo Shoseki) www.globaledresources.com
21. 21. Creating the double number line model. 4/5 x 2/3 0 0 m 2 dl 4/5 1 2/3 X 2/3 X 2/3
22. 22. multiplicand product multiplier
23. 23. Using an area model with number line to think about the calculation
24. 24. Using an area model with number line to think about the calculation 4 2 5 3
25. 25. Generalizing the idea of fraction x fraction
26. 26. Fraction ÷ Fraction X 3/4 X 3/4
27. 27. Fraction ÷ Fraction ÷ 3/4 ÷ 3/4
28. 28. Relating to what was learned before 2/5 ÷ 3/4 2/5 ÷ 2
29. 29. Thinking about the calculation of 2/5 ÷ 3/4
30. 30. Thinking about the calculation (2) 4/3 2 4 5 3
31. 31. Generalizing the idea of invert and multiply
32. 32. Things to think about <ul><li>How can we help students use their prior knowledge of multiplication and division to understand these operations with fractions? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is helpful if the meanings of the factors in the multiplication sentence are clear. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Context and representations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same context is used in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fraction x Whole Number </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fraction ÷ Whole Number </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fraction x Fraction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fraction ÷ Fraction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of continuous quantities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Makes more sense in a real world context </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Double number line allows you to use the same model for multiplication and division </li></ul></ul></ul>