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  1. 1. Cancer Within five years, cancer will surpass heart disease as the leading cause of death, according to the American Hospital Association. ( BOTH ARE SMOKING RELATED )
  2. 2. Cancer <ul><li>Cell division occurs throughout life as dead cells are replaced by new ones </li></ul><ul><li>Genetics, irritation, and exposure to carcinogens can cause abnormal cells to grow and spread. </li></ul><ul><li>When this happens, healthy tissues are destroyed and disrupted </li></ul>
  3. 3. carcinogens <ul><li>Chemicals, heavy metals, asbestos, toxic waste, pollution… </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation from ultraviolet rays of sun and X Rays </li></ul><ul><li>Some virus ( hepatitis B and C and Genital Warts ) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Tumors <ul><li>All cancers are tumors, masses of tissues , but not all tumors are cancers. </li></ul><ul><li>Some tumors are benign (non-cancerous) </li></ul><ul><li>They are characterized by abnormal cells, but usually do not spread because they are surrounded by membranes. </li></ul><ul><li>However, they can cause damage if they are in a bad location </li></ul>
  5. 5. Malignant Tumors =cancerous <ul><li>Cancer cells will break away and spread traveling through the lymphatic system (“2 nd circulatory system”) and blood vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>Then they attach to a healthy cell and start to reproduce. </li></ul><ul><li>This is called Metastasis - spreading from point of origin to other parts of the body </li></ul>
  6. 6. Skin Cancer- most common in US <ul><li>Three types: </li></ul><ul><li>Melanoma </li></ul><ul><li>Basal Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Squamous Cell </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Usually caused by sun, tanning beds </li></ul><ul><li>Basal Cell and Squamous Cell are usually curable and don’t spread to other organs </li></ul><ul><li>Melanoma needs to be caught early b/c it can be spread to lungs, brain, liver… </li></ul>
  8. 8. Melanoma- often deadly <ul><li>¾ die from melanoma </li></ul><ul><li>Melanoma is related to the common mole </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in the appearance of moles should alert suspicion. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Basal cell and Squamous Cell <ul><li>Less aggressive </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely painful </li></ul><ul><li>Squamous Basal </li></ul>
  10. 11. Treatment for skin cancer <ul><li>Burned off, frozen off, surgically removed, creams for some basal cell, chemo for melanoma if it has spread </li></ul>
  11. 12. Lung Cancer <ul><li>85 % of males with lung cancer and 75% of females with lung cancer are smokers </li></ul><ul><li>Males who start smoking before 15 are 5 times more likely to get lung cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Survival rate is 13% </li></ul>
  12. 13. Lung Cancer is categorized into two basic types <ul><li>Small Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Faster growing, but more likely to respond to chemo. </li></ul><ul><li>2 stages: limited stage (generally cancer confined to chest) and extensive stage (cancer that has spread outside the chest). </li></ul><ul><li>Non small cell </li></ul><ul><li>5 stages </li></ul><ul><li>Early stages (1,2, sometimes 3) may be removed by surgery, later stages sometimes not curable (chemo or radiation or both) </li></ul>
  13. 14. Symptoms of lung cancer <ul><li>Symptoms     </li></ul><ul><li>Cough </li></ul><ul><li>Bloody sputum </li></ul><ul><li>Shortness of breath </li></ul><ul><li>Wheeze </li></ul><ul><li>Chest pain </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Unintentional weight loss </li></ul><ul><li>Additional symptoms that may be associated with this disease </li></ul>
  14. 16. Oral Cancer <ul><li>Risk Factors: smoking, chewing, drinking alcohol </li></ul>
  15. 17. Colon and Rectal cancer- the 3 rd most common <ul><li>Usually develops in the lowest part of the colon, near the rectum </li></ul><ul><li>Colostomy bag </li></ul>
  16. 18. Leukemia <ul><li>Cancer of blood-forming tissue in the bone marrow </li></ul><ul><li>Weakens immune system </li></ul><ul><li>Usually childhood disease- childhood leukemia has 95% success rate </li></ul>
  17. 19. Treatment of cancer- depends where, what kind, and what stage <ul><li>Surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation- radiation can destroy cancer cells and prevent them from growing back </li></ul><ul><li>Chemotherapy - chemo can interfere with cell division- many side effects – nausea and vomiting, hair loss </li></ul>