In-Car GPS Navigation: Engagement with and Disengagement from the Environment

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CHI2008 presentation: In-Car GPS Navigation: Engagement with and Disengagement from the Environment

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  • Hello everyone, and welcome to this talk
  • In-Car GPS Navigation: Engagement with and Disengagement from the Environment

    1. 1. In-Car GPS Navigation: Engagement with and Disengagement from the Environment Gilly Leshed 1 , Theresa Velden 1 , Oya Rieger 2 , Blazej Kot 1 , Phoebe Sengers 1 1 Information Science, 2 Communication Cornell University
    2. 2. December 26, 2007 Garmin GPS -- one of the top-selling holiday items in 2007 at Amazon.com Driving and navigating with in-car GPS change engagement with the environment
    3. 3. Outline <ul><li>Theoretical framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Losses vs. opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space and place </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Field study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The experience of driving </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implications and Conclusions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The broader context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design implications </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Outline <ul><li>Theoretical framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Losses vs. opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space and place </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Field study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The experience of driving </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implications and Conclusions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The broader context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design implications </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>GPS relieves the need to observe the environment while driving and navigating (Aporta & Higgs, 2005)  Loss of engagement </li></ul><ul><li>GPS provides new forms of interacting with the environment (Dourish, 2006)  Opportunity for engagement </li></ul>Losses vs. opportunities photo: www.alaska-in-pictures.com
    6. 6. Space and Place <ul><li>Space – abstract, open, allows movement </li></ul><ul><li>Place – concrete, stable, represents pause, has value </li></ul><ul><li>(Tuan, 1977; Harrison & Dourish, 1996) </li></ul><ul><li>Participating in the environment creates a sense of place in a blurred space </li></ul><ul><li>Interacting with technological spaces and places in GPS affects interaction with physical spaces and places </li></ul>
    7. 7. Space and Place <ul><li>Space – abstract, open, allows movement </li></ul><ul><li>Place – concrete, stable, represents pause, has value </li></ul><ul><li>(Tuan, 1977; Harrison & Dourish, 1996) </li></ul><ul><li>Participating in the environment creates a sense of place in a blurred space </li></ul><ul><li>Interacting with technological spaces and places in GPS affects interaction with physical spaces and places </li></ul>
    8. 8. Outline <ul><li>Theoretical framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Losses vs. opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space and place </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Field study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The experience of driving </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implications and Conclusions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The broader context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design implications </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Field study of in-car GPS users <ul><li>Participants </li></ul><ul><li>10 users of in-car GPS systems </li></ul><ul><li>Method </li></ul><ul><li>Used own devices or friends’/family’s </li></ul><ul><li>5 pre-planned rides 5 artificial trips </li></ul><ul><li>1-3 hours observation & interview </li></ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><li>Field notes </li></ul><ul><li>Audio-recordings </li></ul>
    10. 10. Results: 1. Navigation <ul><li>Pre-navigation/route choice </li></ul><ul><li>Key in destination, no need to know where it is </li></ul><ul><li>GPS calculates route based on settings – not necessarily matching driving experiences </li></ul>“ it gave us some bizarre routes to get back to Ithaca… turns out that the toll road setting was on [laughs]. I ignored it… and we figured it out later.”
    11. 11. <ul><li>Route following </li></ul><ul><li>No need to attend to objects along the way: blindly following vocal directions </li></ul><ul><li>GPS automatically calculates new route when instructions not followed </li></ul><ul><li>But – Glance at the GPS map or bring other navigation aids </li></ul>Results: 1. Navigation “ The only thing you have to do with the nav system is you have to learn what a quarter of a mile feels like, you know, otherwise it says a quarter of a mile and you think ‘Oh, I need to turn!’ and you turn too soon.”
    12. 12. <ul><li>Getting lost and feeling lost </li></ul><ul><li>Free to explore </li></ul>Results: 2. Orientation “ it makes me much more confident to know that if I get lost I can find my way home again. I don’t have to stress about getting lost anymore.”
    13. 13. <ul><li>Social interactions around the GPS </li></ul><ul><li>GPS designed for driver-unit interaction But many drive with others in the car </li></ul><ul><li>Driver/navigator roles </li></ul><ul><li>But passenger can interact with GPS unit </li></ul>Results: 3. The experience of driving “ it used to be that whoever wasn’t driving was the navigator... And so if there was a mistake made, the navigator would say ‘Turn! Turn!’ and it would be drama. But now, if you miss a turn… it’s just automatic.”
    14. 14. <ul><li>Treating the GPS unit as a social agent </li></ul><ul><li>Naming the GPS unit: “Heather”, “Mrs. Prius” </li></ul><ul><li>Talking to unit in a social way </li></ul>Results: 3. The experience of driving Go home! Oh, I thought you were talking to me
    15. 15. <ul><li>Interactions with the external environment </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction with virtual world drives interaction with physical world (e.g. POI, road curvature on map) </li></ul><ul><li>Physical space remains indistinct – places are in GPS </li></ul><ul><li>Vs. Enriched interactions with physical spaces and places </li></ul>Results: 3. The experience of driving “ Remember when we all went white water rafting? We were in this really strange town and the GPS found us a place to eat.”
    16. 16. Discussion <ul><li>Loss of environmental engagement </li></ul><ul><li>But also new opportunities for engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Blurred boundaries between physical and virtual worlds </li></ul>
    17. 17. Outline <ul><li>Theoretical framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Losses vs. opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space and place </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Field study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The experience of driving </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implications and Conclusions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The broader context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design implications </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. The Broader Context (1) <ul><li>Commodification and de-skilling </li></ul><ul><li>(Borgmann, 1984) </li></ul><ul><li>Navigation and orientation as commodity – no skilled interaction with environment is necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction from practicing skill replaced by comfort of effortless consumption </li></ul>
    19. 19. The Broader Context (2) <ul><li>Automobilization </li></ul><ul><li>(Urry, 2004; Thrift, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>The role of the car in detaching its passengers from their surroundings </li></ul>
    20. 20. Design implications for environment awareness and interaction <ul><li>Navigate by landmarks </li></ul><ul><li>Support the car as a social place </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight ambiguity of GPS data </li></ul><ul><li>Extend context-aware capabilities </li></ul>
    21. 21. Design implications for environment awareness and interaction <ul><li>Navigate by landmarks </li></ul><ul><li>Support the car as a social place </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight ambiguity of GPS data </li></ul><ul><li>Extend context-aware capabilities </li></ul>
    22. 22. Design implications for environment awareness and interaction <ul><li>(1) Navigate by landmarks </li></ul>
    23. 23. Design implications for environment awareness and interaction <ul><li>(2) Support the car as a social place </li></ul>
    24. 24. Conclusions <ul><li>In-car GPS navigation alters how people interpret, navigate through, experience, and interact with spaces and places </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immersion in technological environment and disengagement from physical environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New tools and information resources enrich travel experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design implications for engaged environmental interactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In light of larger socio-technical context of GPS as a paradigm for technological devices and the automobile age </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Thank you [email_address] [email_address] field research Hrönn Brynjarsdóttir Ellie Buckley Lucian Leahu Heather Marciniec Meena Natarajan Claudia Pederson Sadat Shami Howyee Au Yong advice Jeremy Birnholtz Barry Brown Kirsten Boehner Paul Dourish $$$ NSF IIS-0238132 NSF IIS-0534445

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