Biofuels For Thought

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This was the powerpoint we used for our final biofuels presentation!

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Biofuels For Thought

  1. 1. Biofuels for Thought:<br />Historical, Modern, and Future Perspectives<br />
  2. 2. Welcome<br />2009 Kellogg Biological Station ROKS Students<br />Semester theme: Biofuels<br />Our final project for our Integrated Social Sciences Class<br />
  3. 3. Our Goals for this Evening<br />To present the topic of biofuels in a neutral and informative way.<br />To change the current discourse on biofuels<br />To facilitate dialogue amongst attendees and create meaningful social networks centered around biofuels<br />To totally 4 point this presentation.Hey Geoff! (*Hint hint*)<br />
  4. 4. <ul><li>What are Biofuels?
  5. 5. A Brief History
  6. 6. Media Case Study</li></ul>I will discuss:<br />
  7. 7. Biofuels in a Nutshell<br />Ali David<br />ROKS Final Project<br />December 2009<br />
  8. 8. Bi-o-fu-el[bahy-oh-fyoo-uhl] /baɪoʊ,fyuəl/ <br />-noun<br /> “Any fuel standard derived from an organic substance, including but not excluded to starches harvested from agricultural systems, waste from confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs), and residues from processing timber.”<br />Definition taken from Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary <br />
  9. 9. Animal<br />Vegetable<br />Not Rock<br />
  10. 10. Biofuels come from a variety of sourcesand in many different forms<br /><ul><li>Corn
  11. 11. Switchgrass
  12. 12. Miscanthus
  13. 13. Algae
  14. 14. Used Cooking Oil
  15. 15. Manure
  16. 16. Whey
  17. 17. Forest Residues
  18. 18. Ethanol
  19. 19. Biodiesel
  20. 20. Biobutanol
  21. 21. Biomass Pellets
  22. 22. Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG)</li></li></ul><li>How much of our energy currentlycomes from biofuels?<br />Chart taken from Energy Information Administration Website on 11/23/09: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/alternate/page/renew_energy_consump/figure1.html<br />
  23. 23. The Million Dollar Question:<br />Why are we preferentially using biofuels for our energy needs more than other forms of renewable energy?<br />
  24. 24. Biofuels have the same variety of applications as fossil fuels<br />Wind, Water, Solar, and other Renewable Sources<br />Electricity<br />Biofuels<br />Electricity, Gas, and Oil for Combustion Engines<br />Based on statement given by Fred Mays of the Energy Information Administration<br />
  25. 25. Why are we in this current situation?<br />Production and use of biofuels have increased dramaticallyworldwide<br />Scientific community divided on many core issues<br />Public is either uninformed, apathetic, or highly skeptical<br />
  26. 26. Looks like it’s time for…<br />A Brief History of Biofuels<br />
  27. 27. The origins of Biofuels: An early struggle<br />1850s-1900s<br />Campheneas an alternative whale oil in lamps<br />$2.00/gallon tax placed on all alcohol (adjusted for inflation = $42.64)<br />Kerosene replaced Camphene as a cheaper fuel source<br />Information from Solomon, B. D., Barnes, J. R., Halvorsen K. E. (2007). “Grain and cellulosic ethanol: History, economics, and energy policy”. Biomass and Bioenergy, 31(6), 416-425<br />
  28. 28. Reemergence and the Farm Chemurgic Movement<br />1900s – 1930s<br />Alcohol tax was repealed in 1906<br />Early combustion engines designed to run on both gasoline and alcohol<br />Farm Chemurgic Movement: Industrial Applications for surplus crops<br />Information from Solomon, B. D., Barnes, J. R., Halvorsen K. E. (2007). “Grain and cellulosic ethanol: History, economics, and energy policy”. Biomass and Bioenergy, 31(6), 416-425<br />
  29. 29. Why didn’t biofuels succeed back then?<br />1900s – 1930s<br />Mechanization = Less Flexibility<br />New Deal programs favored conventionalcrops<br />Proliferation of leaded gasoline as an alternative to alcohol<br />Information from Solomon, B. D., Barnes, J. R., Halvorsen K. E. (2007). “Grain and cellulosic ethanol: History, economics, and energy policy”. Biomass and Bioenergy, 31(6), 416-425<br />
  30. 30. 40 years of expanding infrastructure…<br />1930s – 1970s<br />While industry grew at an unprecedented rate in the United States, it was entirely powered by fossil fuel. Little progress or emphasis was placed on biofuel<br />
  31. 31. Foreign oil becomes a liability<br />1970s –2000s<br />1970s oil embargo, formation of OPEC<br />Nixon introduces “Project Independence” in 1974<br />Other concerns for negative health and environmental effects associated with gasoline<br />Information from Solomon, B. D., Barnes, J. R., Halvorsen K. E. (2007). “Grain and cellulosic ethanol: History, economics, and energy policy”. Biomass and Bioenergy, 31(6), 416-425<br />
  32. 32. How did biofuels make a comeback?<br />1970s –2000s<br />Research performed in the ’70s and ’80s<br />New Regulations introduced in the ’90s: Clean Air Act, Energy Policy Act, EPACT Act<br /> Renewed interest in rural development and energy security<br />Information from DiPardo, J. “Outlook for biomass ethanol production and demand.” Energy Information Administration website. http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/ftproot/features/biomass.pdf<br />
  33. 33. The Great Ethanol “Boom”<br />2000s-Now<br />Flex-fuel cars introduced into the market<br />1.6 billion gallons of ethanol in 2000, to 9 billionin 2009<br />US is now the world’s leading producer of biofuels<br />Information taken from Automotive News Data Center http://www.autonews.com/section/datacenter<br />And the Renewable Fuels Association Website http://www.ethanolrfa.org/industry/statistics/#A<br />
  34. 34. New practices bring new problems<br />2000s-Now<br />Ethanol boom may have gone “bust”<br />Researchers now question environmental effects of ethanol production<br />Media/blogosphere focused on negative consequences for developing nations<br />Information from the National Biodiesel Board, Science Magazine, Twitter.com, and Wordpress.org<br />Wyner, W. T. (2008).“The US Ethanol and Biofuels Boom: Its Origins, Current Status, and Future Prospects” BioScience, 58(7), 646-653.<br />
  35. 35. Sidenote: Political Cartoonists aren’t very creative<br />
  36. 36. Why are these misleading?<br />The sharp rise in global food prices has many contributing factors other than the expansion of biofuel production:<br />A rapidly growing population worldwide<br />Widespread Crop failures<br />People in developing countries consuming more meat<br />High prices of oil raise costs of production and shipping<br />Information taken from International Food Policy Research Institute Website http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/bp001.pdf<br />
  37. 37. Ultimately, decreasing or halting the production of biofuels will not reduce rates of global hunger in a significant way.<br />
  38. 38. In Summary…<br />Biofuels come from many different sources and in many forms<br />We preferentially use biofuel since it has similar applications to fossil fuels<br />Biofuels have been in our history for 150 years<br />Media has not accurately presented core arguments about biofuels, especially those concerning famine and food prices<br />
  39. 39. On to the present…<br />
  40. 40. <ul><li>What is corn ethanol?
  41. 41. Current usage & policy
  42. 42. Pros & Cons</li></ul>I will discuss:<br />
  43. 43. Corn and Beyond:<br />Biofuels in the World Today<br />Sara Cole - ROKS Fall 2009<br />Kellogg Biological Station<br />
  44. 44. Contents<br />Some of the things we will cover today:<br /><ul><li> Why are we interested in biofuels?
  45. 45. Ethanol vs. fossil fuels
  46. 46. What are the current energy goals of the US?
  47. 47. What kinds of biofuels are we already using?
  48. 48. Unique learning opportunities through research</li></li></ul><li>Quote:<br />The fuel problem is rapidly getting more serious… It has been found that a mixture of 25% each of gasoline with 50% ethanol works very satisfactorily in our present motors; those proportions correspond fairly well with the output of various ingredients that may be anticipated. This may prove to be the solution of the fuel problem.<br />“New Fuels” from Scientific American<br />
  49. 49. Quote:<br />The fuel problem is rapidly getting more serious… It has been found that a mixture of 25% each of gasoline with 50% ethanol works very satisfactorily in our present motors; those proportions correspond fairly well with the output of various ingredients that may be anticipated. This may prove to be the solution of the fuel problem.<br />“New Fuels” from Scientific American<br />Published on April 13,1918!<br />We have been searching for renewable<br />fuel sources for almost 100 years!<br />
  50. 50. Why biofuels?<br />There are many reasons why we are interested in biofuels:<br /><ul><li> To reduce our dependence on fossil fuels
  51. 51. To reduce reliance on foreign oil
  52. 52. To lower emissions of greenhouse gases
  53. 53. To bring business to rural economies</li></ul>Richland, Michigan<br />
  54. 54. Why biofuels?<br />There are many reasons why we are interested in biofuels:<br /><ul><li> To reduce our dependence on fossil fuels
  55. 55. To reduce reliance on foreign oil
  56. 56. To lower emissions of greenhouse gases
  57. 57. To bring business to rural economies </li></ul>Sustainability<br />Energy Independence<br />Human Health<br />Stimulates the local Economy<br />Human Dimensions<br />Richland, Michigan<br />
  58. 58. A Clear Need for Alternative Fuel<br />
  59. 59. Fossil Fuels<br />Environmental Issues<br />Standard emissions from a car powered by gasoline:<br /><ul><li> Carbon dioxide
  60. 60. Nitrous oxide
  61. 61. Sulfur oxides
  62. 62. Nitrogen oxides
  63. 63. Hydrocarbons</li></ul>Union of Concerned Scientists - “The Hidden Cost of Fossil Fuels”<br />http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/technology_and_impacts/impacts/the-hidden-cost-of-fossil.html<br />
  64. 64. Fossil Fuels<br />Environmental Issues<br />Standard emissions from a car powered by gasoline:<br /><ul><li> Carbon dioxide
  65. 65. Nitrous oxide
  66. 66. Sulfur oxides
  67. 67. Nitrogen oxides
  68. 68. Hydrocarbons</li></ul>}<br />Heat-trapping gases warm the <br />atmosphere<br />}<br />Contribute to acid rain; causes<br />lung irritation, bronchitis, pneumonia<br />}<br />Reacts with nitrogen oxides to form smog<br />Union of Concerned Scientists - “The Hidden Cost of Fossil Fuels”<br />http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/technology_and_impacts/impacts/the-hidden-cost-of-fossil.html<br />
  69. 69. Fossil Fuels<br />Environmental Issues<br />Carbon dioxide<br />Nitrogen oxides<br /> Sulfur oxides<br />Carbon monoxide<br />Methane<br />Dust, soot, smoke<br />Union of Concerned Scientists - “The Hidden Cost of Fossil Fuels”<br />http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/technology_and_impacts/impacts/the-hidden-cost-of-fossil.html<br />
  70. 70. Ethanol <br />Environmental Issues<br />Ethanol is a cleaner burning fuel!<br /><ul><li> Emissions = 35% Oxygen (O2)
  71. 71. Ethanol does not contain toxic gasoline components such as benzene, a carcinogen.
  72. 72. Ethanol is non-toxic, water soluble, and quickly biodegradable.</li></ul>Union of Concerned Scientists - “The Hidden Cost of Fossil Fuels”<br />University of Nebraska - Lincoln<br />
  73. 73. Ethanol <br />Environmental Issues<br />... But it is not without social and environmental concerns:<br /><ul><li> How much land will it take to grow that many crops?
  74. 74. What happens in cases of water scarcity?
  75. 75. Farmers will benefit – but will consumers?
  76. 76. How will other countries be affected if companies begin to grow their crops abroad?</li></ul>Instead of making a 100% switch to biofuel, it might be better to have it be one of many alternative sources.<br />Union of Concerned Scientists - “The Hidden Cost of Fossil Fuels”<br />University of Nebraska - Lincoln<br />
  77. 77. Fossil Fuels<br />Political Issues<br />Most vehicles in the US run on gasoline, which requires crude oil to be made. Where does our oil come from?<br />From a different country:<br />From within the United States:<br />Energy Information Administration<br />http://www.eia.doe.gov<br />
  78. 78. Fossil Fuels<br />Political Issues<br />Most vehicles in the US run on gasoline, which requires crude oil to be made. Where does our oil come from?<br />From a different country:<br />From within the United States:<br />35%<br />Energy Information Administration<br />http://www.eia.doe.gov<br />
  79. 79. Fossil Fuels<br />Political Issues<br />Most vehicles in the US run on gasoline, which requires crude oil to be made. Where does our oil come from?<br />From a different country:<br />From within the United States:<br />65%<br />35%<br />Energy Information Administration<br />http://www.eia.doe.gov<br />
  80. 80. Fossil Fuels<br />Political Issues<br />
  81. 81. Fossil Fuels<br />Political Issues<br />
  82. 82. Current Energy Policy<br />The US Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 <br />Improving Fuel Economy<br /> Reducing Oil Dependence<br />http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/otheranalysis/aeo_2008analysispapers/eisa.html<br />
  83. 83. Current Energy Policy<br />The US Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 <br />Goals:<br />For greater energy independence and security<br />To protect consumers<br />To increase production of clean renewable fuels<br />To increase the efficiency of products, buildings, and vehicles<br />To promote research on and <br />deploy greenhouse gas capture storage options<br />http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/otheranalysis/aeo_2008analysispapers/eisa.html<br />
  84. 84. Current Energy Policy<br />Will you be affected?<br />Major Provisions:<br /><ul><li> Requires the production of 36 billion gallons of ethanol per year by 2022
  85. 85. Higher car & fuel efficiency standards of 35 MPG for all cars and trucks by 2020
  86. 86. A new car & fuel efficiency program for manufacturers and manufacturer’s fleets</li></ul>http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/otheranalysis/aeo_2008analysispapers/eisa.html<br />
  87. 87. Current Energy Policy<br />Will you be affected?<br />Major Provisions:<br /><ul><li> Requires the production of 36 billion gallons of ethanol per year by 2022
  88. 88. Higher car & fuel efficiency standards of 35 MPG for all cars and trucks by 2020
  89. 89. A new car & fuel efficiency program for manufacturers and manufacturer’s fleets</li></ul>Maybe if you are buying a car, or if fuel prices go up and it becomes too expensive to drive on gasoline<br />http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/otheranalysis/aeo_2008analysispapers/eisa.html<br />
  90. 90. Current Energy Policy<br />Will you be affected?<br />15 billion from corn ethanol<br />Major Provisions:<br /><ul><li> Requires the production of 36 billion gallons of ethanol per year by 2022
  91. 91. Higher car & fuel efficiency standards of 35 MPG for all cars and trucks by 2020
  92. 92. A new car & fuel efficiency program for manufacturers and manufacturer’s fleets</li></ul>Maybe if you are buying a car, or if fuel prices go up and it becomes too expensive to drive on gasoline<br />http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/otheranalysis/aeo_2008analysispapers/eisa.html<br />
  93. 93. Biofuels already in use today…<br />
  94. 94.
  95. 95.
  96. 96. What is E-85?<br />Biofuels Today<br /><ul><li>A blend of 15% gasoline and 85% ethanol
  97. 97. About 15% less expensive than gasoline at most gas stations
  98. 98. 85% is made from plant matter; renewable source but also 6-20% less fuel efficient (less MPG)</li></ul>http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/vehicles/flexible_fuel.html<br />
  99. 99. Who can use E-85?<br />Biofuels Today<br /><ul><li>Flex-Fuel Vehicles can fill up with E-85 or gas</li></ul>http://www.greencar.com/articles/top-new-flex-fueled-autos-2008.php<br />* Highway MPG<br />
  100. 100. Who can use E-85?<br />Biofuels Today<br /><ul><li>Flex-Fuel Vehicles can fill up with E-85 or gas
  101. 101. Already 8 million on the road today!</li></ul>http://www.greencar.com/articles/top-new-flex-fueled-autos-2008.php<br />* Highway MPG<br />
  102. 102. How is ethanol made?<br />ç<br />Sorghum<br /><ul><li>Ethanol comes mostly from starch and sugar-based crops: corn, wheat, sorghum
  103. 103. These crops contain simple sugars, which are processed into fuel through fermentation
  104. 104. 90% of ethanol in the United States currently comes from</li></ul>corn<br />
  105. 105. What land do you use?<br />ç<br /><ul><li>Current technology requires 75-112 million hectares of land to reach our energy goals</li></ul>180 M ha in current agriculture fields<br />240 M ha in range and grasslands<br />15 M ha in Crop Reserve Program<br />http://ecosystems.mbl.edu/news/eco_news_12_03_07.html<br />ROKS 2009 ZOL355 Biofuels Lecture<br />
  106. 106. What about other countries?<br />Clearing forests for crops= threats to habitat, biodiversity<br />ç<br />The southwestern Brazilian Amazon is one of the world’s largest agricultural frontiers. Native vegetation and pastures are rapidly being converted to heavily mechanized row-crop agriculture, including soybean and corn.<br />Dr. Carlos Eduardo Cerri & Students trace gas emissions from cleared land in MatoGrosso, Brazil<br />Brazil<br />http://ecosystems.mbl.edu/news/eco_news_12_03_07.html# http://sugarcaneblog.com/2008/10/03/brazil%E2%80%99s-land-reform-biggest-culprit-for-amazon-deforestation/ http://leslietaylor.net/gallery/animals/mammals.htm<br />
  107. 107. What about other countries?<br />ç<br />?<br />Palm Oil is #1 biofuel in Indonesia, but growing it is accompanied by a number of problems<br />Indonesia<br />“Indonesia’s Biodiversity Will Be Gone Within 30 Years”<br />Map: http://www.trfic.msu.edu/products/seasia_products/LUCC/LUCC.html http://intercontinentalcry.org/state-of-the-forest-indonesias-battle-to-save-its-rainforests/ http://www.whatsthatbug.com/2009/03/16/massive-cicada-from-borneo/<br />
  108. 108. E-85 stations around the US<br />
  109. 109. E-85 stations in Gull Lake area<br />Kellogg Biological Station<br />.<br />
  110. 110. Closest ethanol plant (today)<br />The Andersons - Albion, Michigan<br />
  111. 111. Biofuels: Current Education<br />ç<br /><ul><li>The GK-12 Program </li></ul> A great opportunity for local K-12 schools to participate in biofuels research at Kellogg Biological Station!<br /><ul><li>K-12 students use real data and crop fields to learn science – “Inquiry Based” science
  112. 112. Emphasis on outdoor education
  113. 113. Hosts teacher workshops, research opportunities
  114. 114. Eleven school systems currently participate in this program
  115. 115. Funded by the National Science Foundation GK-12 (Graduate Fellows in K-12 Education) Program and MSP (Math Science Partnership) Program</li></li></ul><li>In sum:<br />ç<br /><ul><li>We need an alternative fuel source
  116. 116. Biofuels = renewable; provides energy security; generally cleaner than oil
  117. 117. Corn ethanol is the most common biofuel today
  118. 118. Corn ethanol is not perfect - be sensitive to the environmental issues it presents
  119. 119. New technology must be developed – fuel from cellulosic or algal ethanol…?</li></li></ul><li>Thank you!<br />
  120. 120. Spinning Straw into Biofuel: Cellulosic Ethanol<br />Neva Anasovich – ROKS 2009<br />Kellogg Biological Station<br />
  121. 121. <ul><li>What is cellulosic ethanol?
  122. 122. Production
  123. 123. Current Research</li></ul>I will discuss:<br />
  124. 124. What is cellulosic ethanol?<br />A biofuel made from glucose (a simple sugar) which is derived from cellulose.<br />Cellulose is:<br />a major component of all plant cell walls<br />the most abundant biological material on earth<br />
  125. 125. Sources of Cellulose for Ethanol Production<br />Cellulose is available from two major sources:<br />Residues<br />- Agricultural wastes such as corn stover (non-edible parts of plants)<br />- Industrial and municipal solid wastes like paper pulp<br />- Forest industrial wastes like sawdust<br />Dedicated crops<br />- Energy crops such as switchgrass, miscanthus, and hybrid poplars<br />
  126. 126. How is it produced?<br />1. Harvested and delivered to biorefinery<br />2. Pretreated thermally or chemically to soften/partially break down <br />3. Broken down into simple sugars by enzymes<br />4. Fermented by microbes into ethanol<br />5. Separated from water and other components and purified through distillation<br />End result is chemically identical to grain ethanol<br />
  127. 127. Current Research at KBS!<br />ç<br />Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC)<br />The GLBRC, here at Kellogg Biological Station, is a leader in studying the effects of candidate crops on the environment.<br />Seeks to answer questions such as:<br />- At what market price would farmers start to grow crops for cellulosic biofuels?<br />- How will cellulosic biofuel crops affect habitat for wildlife and beneficial insects, water conservation, and soil quality?<br />- How much cellulosic ethanol can be produced from various crops?<br />http://lter.kbs.msu.edu/maps/images/KBS-GLBRC-Main-Site-lg.gif<br />
  128. 128. What are the advantages?<br />Cellulose is abundant--wide range of abundant feedstocks<br />Agricultural wastes are a low cost feedstock<br />Usage of crop residues creates new source of income for farmers from existing acreage<br />Lower fuel and carbon dioxide costs than grain crops<br />Perennial energy crops prevent soil erosion and increase soil fertility<br />Energy crops can be grown on land unsuitable for food crops, thus solving the fuel vs. food debate<br />
  129. 129. What is holding us back from using it?<br />Difficult to break down and convert to ethanol<br />Process is complex, and energy intensive<br />Viable technologies do not yet exist<br />
  130. 130. What is necessary for its successful implementation?<br />Development of technologies for producing cellulosic ethanol at a large, commercial scale<br />Mandatory flex-fuel requirement for new vehicles<br /> Increased nation-wide ethanol pump stations<br />
  131. 131. <ul><li>Algae as a biofuel
  132. 132. Facilities and Processes
  133. 133. The Future</li></ul>I will discuss:<br />
  134. 134. Pond scum and how it could one day fuel your transportation<br />A brief overview of algal biofuels<br />Chris Woelk<br />ROKS 2009<br />
  135. 135. Algal Biofuels<br />What are algal biofuels?<br />What is produced?<br />They are fuels that are derived from algae in oceans, lakes and ponds<br />Algae are capable of producing carbohydrates such as starch, glycogen (sugars) and lipids (fats & oils)<br />
  136. 136. What common types of algae are used?<br />Most algae studied are Chlamydomonasreinhardtii, Volvoxcarteri and the diatom Phaeodactylumtricornutum. <br />Recent improvements in technology have allowed for the studying of other cyanobacteria, algae and diatoms.<br />Volvox carteri cell courtesy of Cambridge University<br />
  137. 137. Inputs: What do you need to put in?<br />The utilization of algae requires slightly lesswater than what is needed to grow corn<br />8-foldless water than rape seed cultivation on fertilized land<br />6-10 foldmore than needed by unfertilized switchgrass<br />Matt Cardy/Getty Images<br />Rapeseed plants growing on a farm near Tetbury, England. <br />Rape seed, corn and soybeans are among the sources for the current generation of biofuels. <br />
  138. 138. More Specific Inputs<br />The natural water source for algae is seawater which can also be substituted with nutrient-laden agricultural runoff, while terrestrial biofuel crops require freshwater<br />The high concentrations of salt needed for algae could be obtained from the brine that is currently discarded during the desalination of seawater<br />Courtesy of Enegis LLC<br />
  139. 139. Methods for growing algae<br />Courtesy of Getty Images<br />Algae can be cultivated in several ways:<br />On an open-pond system where the algae can be skimmed off the waters surface and then harvested<br />In a clear tube/tank (often referred to as a bioreactor) with carbon dioxide (CO2)filtered into the reservoir as a nutrient source where, after sufficient growth, the biomass and secreted lipids can be harvested<br />
  140. 140. Lipids<br />Lipids contain twice the energy stored per carbon atom when compared to carbohydrates<br />This translates into a twofold increase in fuel energy content<br />Courtesy of algaeforbiofuels.com<br />
  141. 141. Benefits of Algal Biofuels<br />Little to no land-space is necessary<br />No need for freshwater<br />No fertilization<br />Algae can be cultivated indoors<br />Fuel derived from algae produces little to no emissions in comparison to gasoline<br />Image courtesy of agmrc.org<br />
  142. 142. Implementation<br />Algae have been cultivated on a commercial basis for decades now<br />They have been used in the production of high value compounds for food, feed, cosmetics and pharmaceutical products<br />Bioreactor designs need to be more affordable. They can be closed tubes, plates or bags made of plastics, glass or other transparent materials<br />Currently there are no bioreactors in place that could be used practically for the mass production of algae<br />Algae need only light, nutrients and carbon dioxide<br />CO2used for driving photosynthesis in algae can be taken from many CO2 emitting sources such as smoke stacks on powerplants<br />
  143. 143. Example bioreactors<br />High density vertical bioreactor bags<br />(Photo courtesy of Global Green Solutions)<br />Photo-bioreactor composed of horizontal<br />Closed-growth chambers<br />(Photo courtesy of Solix Biofuels, Inc.)<br />YouTube - Making fuel out of algae<br />
  144. 144. Uses for algae<br />Lipids (oils) less dense than algal biomass<br />and water<br />(Courtesy of Solix Biofuels, Inc)<br />
  145. 145. Uses for Algae<br />Biocrude – untreated oil extracted from algal biomass, also produced from soy, palm and canola<br />Green Diesel – renewable diesel produced by removing oxygen atoms from the biocrude<br />Biodiesel – created by chemicallyconverting lipids (fats/oils) so they can be blended with traditional diesel to make biodiesel at a lower cost than green diesel<br />Bioethanol – produces ethanol that can be used in FlexFuel and E85 ready vehicles. <br />Biobutanol – a different type of automotive fuel, it is 10% less dense than gasoline and can be used in place of regular unleaded fuels<br />Image courtesy of the New York Times<br />
  146. 146. Additional Uses<br />Biojet – Jet fuel produced from biocrude, equivalent to jet fuel and jet engines do not require modification to run on 100% biojet<br />Co-products – comprised of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins, it is roughly 40% oil depending on the algal species being used<br />Lipids can be used in biofuel production and to make fibers and polymers<br />Carbohydrates can be used to make biodegradable plastics, polymers and coatings<br />Proteins can be used for animal and fish feed or pesticides<br />Image courtesy of MSNBC depicts a Continental Airlines 737 that ran one engine on a 50:50 mixture of jet fuel and biojet<br />Image courtesy of Sapphire Energy depicting a hose containing a 91 octane fuel (Jet fuel) from algae<br />
  147. 147. Costs<br />The current (2009) price of algal biomass is currently traded for more than 5000€/ton (roughly $7500)<br />This is due to the perceived nutritional value of biomass produced for animal feed and the small production scale<br />Most algae produced is skimmedfrom open ponds which is expensive and inefficient<br />High costs for classical photo-bioreactor designs<br />As demand increases and technology improves these costs can be driven down<br />Image courtesy of heatusa.com<br />
  148. 148. Leading research facilities<br />An aerial view of a open-pondalgae farm being used by PetroAlgae<br />A landscape view of PetroAlgae’s most recent field site in Melbourne, Florida<br />
  149. 149. Global Green Solutions Inc.<br />Known for converting waste biomass into low coststeam for industrial purposes and also to cogenerate electricity. <br />It is also a leader in algae research for biofuel use<br />Image of the homepage for Global Green Solutions Inc.www.globalgreensolutionsinc.com<br />
  150. 150. Large scale and an efficient lab experiment<br />Algae are grown in areas with lots of sunlight and at moderate temperatures<br />To make profit, a business would need to have a significant amount of land to lay out growth chambers, or have engineers create a multilevel building that allows equal lighting to all bioreactors.<br />What makes them successful?<br />Courtesy of University of Dayton Research Institute<br />
  151. 151. Places for improvement<br />Algal growth depends mostly on the amount of light and quality of light that reaches chlorophyll within the cells of the algae<br />The best bioreactors have the highest surface area and allow the most light in or contain an internal light source<br />Utilize methods to reduceauxilary energy demands<br />Long term research<br />Efficient mixing<br />Image courtesy of biofuelsdigest.com depicting a proposed Eco-Pod addition to Filene’s in Boston<br />
  152. 152. What needs to happen for its successful implementation (improvements)?<br />There needs to be technological developments to prevent contamination in open-air systems like ponds<br />For closed systems a consistent, cheap source of sterile CO₂ needs to be found and implemented. <br />Image courtesy of ozones.com<br />
  153. 153. Globally<br />Brazil (sugar cane, jatropha) Malaysia (canola oil)<br />Germany (rape seed) Indonesia (palm oil)<br />United States (corn oil)<br />
  154. 154. The European Commission confirmed a target of 10 percent biofuels; and, proposed that the fuels must be sustainable, not just renewable. <br />Biodiesel Pump in Europe<br />
  155. 155. According to the Nikkei Business Daily (via Tradingmarkets.com), Japan’s Suzuki Motor Company will begin selling cars that run completely on 100% ethanol in the US and Brazil by 2010.<br />Suzuki<br />
  156. 156. Special Thanks To…<br />Gwen Pearson and Kay Gross, Staff at KBS<br />Geoff Habron, our professor<br />Steve Hamilton, Susann Sippel, And Aaron McCright, our other professors<br />Researchers at the LTER<br />Dennis Pennington from MSU Extension<br />Researchers at the GLBRC<br />The Staff of the Conference Center<br />

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