Small Library Management Day 1


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This presentation given by Arta Kabashi of AMIGOS covers Day 1 of the Small Library Management Training Program's IV: Reference workshop and covers the library as a community information resource, core reference issues, methods of virtual reference and the reference interview.

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  • What's new? A current catchphrase is "Go where the users are." New technologies - and new generations - create new demands for mobile services such as developing library blogs to promote services, using wiki software to involve users in creating web site content, creating webcasts (Podcasts), working to integrate the catalog with other online systems for seamless information delivery, and subscribing to RSS feeds to keep up with the latest concepts. The goal of reference work is to meet people's information needs. Reference work includes finding out what information people need and using library resources to provide that information. Libraries have many roles to play, but a library's reference and information service is especially valuable to the community it serves because of the characteristics of library service. Libraries have a variety of information for everyone in the community, but work especially hard to meet individual needs. Libraries strive to provide equal, objective service for all patrons. Libraries promote the value of information for problem-solving in everyday life or for entertainment and enlightenment.         The methods may differ, but the goal remains the same: find and fill information needs of the community. The need to conduct effective reference interviews, use skill in selecting search strategies, and be knowledgeable about resources, print or online, remains the same. The method of delivery and the need to be skilled in appropriate technologies is changing.
  • Why is the mission of the library important and why should you care?      The people who live and work in our communities have many information needs: Product evaluations . Before making a major purchase, it helps to know the quality and features of products. Health. People need information on how to stay healthy and how to understand medical conditions they or their families have. Government. People need to understand their own communities and the country, and know who their elected and appointed representatives are and how to contact them, so they can participate fully in making decisions. How-to-do-it. It takes knowledge to repair cars, build swings, bake cakes. Personal enrichment. People want to know words to poems or songs, locate travel guides, play games online, know the best Web sites for kids, or enjoy the paintings of a favorite artist. Work. Business people need statistics, addresses, legal information; children (school work is their work) need help with assignments; individuals need advice on changing careers and obtaining better jobs. School. School work requires information resources available in the library or guidance in locating the best Web homework sites. Readers' advisory. Sometimes patrons want a good book to read. The readers’ advisory interview uses many of the same behaviors as the reference interview, approachability is the key.
  • Does your library have proper signage? How hard is it to locate materials? How does the marketing department
  • 1. An interview is a special kind of conversation directed intentionally to some purpose. 2. In a police interrogation trust is low, the interviewer sets the agenda and the questions are structured and closed. Yes or no questions: Where you at X place during X time? Can someone confirm it etc. Think of your favorite cop show- for close ended questions. 3. As a librarian you want to be aware both of the context and content of the interview. If a student walks up and has a paper due in a day over a “classic novel” – he wants something fast and easy- not “War and Peace” or “ Les Miserables”
  • You may have to walk around the reference area Don’t alienate the user.
  • Nonverbal skills: the way we use our bodies, interpersonal space,how we say smth, the way we time our verbal exchanges, the way we look. If you want to turn people away: turn away from the user, look v. busy, avoid eye contact and become absorbed with the computer screen Play Utube Video Minimal encouragers: not threatening messages. Uh-Huh I see, Go on, That’s interesting Anything else, Can you give me an example Listen: You have to listen and not pretend you are listening-by using nonverbal cues-Allow time for the user to answer-They could just be thinking. One way of making sure you were listening- repeat back the question. Don’t try to interrupt or try to finish a user’s sentence-Unless is for signage to the bathroom- Unt example- Use your own. When I asked for books on papermaking- she asked “are you interested in recycling? Gave the wrong call number.
  • Sense making –user oriented approach designed to understand what it is that the user really needs. The strategy of sense making grew out of Dervin’s 30 years of research on how people seek and use information. According to her information needs grow out of specific situations in a persons life. Sense making questions diminish premature diagnosis and help the communication process. A triangle- Situation-Gap-Use? Instead of of asking: Do you want information on crime? A crime story? Ask a sense making question: What are you working on? What do you need this information for? How do you plan to use this information? You might find out the user was interested in finding more information about capital punishment crime.
  • Select terms and identify sources that will most likely help. Remember triange –Situation- Gap- Use
  • Select terms and identify sources that will most likely help. Remember triange –Situation- Gap- Use
  • Change the following Questions to sense making questions: Do you have any information on Greece? I need some sources on the color red? Where is the Civil War section? Do you have fiction books here?
  • Understand that both you and the user could miss information- thus ask for clarification or restate the question.
  • The reference workflow begins with the patron, who contacts the library. How the patron contacts the library depends on what ways the library has provided to the patron to communicate with it. Possible communication avenues include chat, e-mail, telephone, walk-in, and fax. QuestionPoint provides the features and functions for you to use all five of these to capture and track your patron’s questions and information requests. Once a request or question enters the QuestionPoint service, it may travel several different routes. The librarian who claims it or is assigned the question may consult another librarian at her library or at another library. She may consult web sites, databases, experts, reference materials, her own knowledge, and (because she’s using QuestionPoint) local and global knowledge bases. After she composes her answer or response, she is able to respond online by e-mail or chat. And she is able to then feed the completed record back into the global and local knowledge bases to be re-used.
  • Small Library Management Day 1

    1. 1. Managing Reference Service in a Small Library- Day 1 Arta Kabashi [email_address] 1-800-843-8482 ext. 2857
    2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Recognize the role of library as information source for the community </li></ul><ul><li>Create policy statements that reflect institutional values </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct a successful reference interview </li></ul><ul><li>Know how to utilize virtual reference in your library </li></ul>
    3. 3. Agenda- Day 1 <ul><li>The Library as Information Source for Community </li></ul><ul><li>Core Reference Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Method of Virtual Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Reference Interview </li></ul>
    4. 4. The Small Library in the community? <ul><li>Is the library Necessary? </li></ul><ul><li> People &People </li></ul><ul><li>Over 50% of Americans visit libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge: How to keep users involved </li></ul><ul><li>How to get new users involved! </li></ul>
    5. 5. Mission, Vision and Policy <ul><li>“ If Anything is certain, it is that change is certain. The world we are planning for today will not exist in this form tomorrow” Phillip Crosby </li></ul><ul><li>“ Organizing is what you do before you do something, so that when you do it , it is not all mixed up” A.A. Milne </li></ul>
    6. 6. Library Mission <ul><li>What are the information needs of your community and of individuals who use your library? </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    7. 7. Reference Definition <ul><li>Reference Transaction : </li></ul><ul><li>are information consultations in which library staff recommend, interpret, evaluate, and/or use information resources to help others to meet particular information needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Reference transactions do not include formal instruction or exchanges that provide assistance with locations, schedules, equipment, supplies, or policy statements. </li></ul><ul><li>Rusa Guidelines 2008 [] </li></ul>
    8. 8. User Perspective <ul><li>Do users understand what's available at libraries or know how to ask for the information they really need? </li></ul>
    9. 9. Policies- What are they? <ul><li>A plan or course of action, as of a government, political party, or business, intended to influence and determine decisions, actions, and other matters: American foreign policy; the company's personnel policy. </li></ul><ul><li>A course of action, guiding principle, or procedure considered expedient, prudent, or advantageous: Honesty is the best policy. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Benefits of Policy-making? <ul><li>Engages the community </li></ul><ul><li>Helps community leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies library service priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Realigns Services to meet community needs </li></ul>
    11. 11. Benefits of Policies continued <ul><li>Identifies core values of the library </li></ul><ul><li>Defines clear targets and establishes procedures to track progress </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a framework for response </li></ul>
    12. 12. Steps in Policy-Making <ul><li>Determine Need </li></ul><ul><li>Determine Value </li></ul><ul><li>Create working-team </li></ul><ul><li>Develop Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Set Goals and Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor and Update </li></ul>
    13. 13. Activity 1 <ul><li>Evaluate the current policy statement of your current institution, and identify 3 elements that need to be updated. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Questions <ul><li>Questions Comments? </li></ul>
    15. 15. What is reference? <ul><li>What is reference and why is it important?   Libraries meet the information needs of the communities they serve. </li></ul><ul><li>A user's first question may be a way to find out if you are approachable and not an expression of the information need. </li></ul><ul><li>  The reference process involves many steps: encouraging users, finding need, finding information, and follow-up to be sure needs have been met. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Reference Interview-Definition <ul><li>Conversation directed intentionally to some purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Police interrogation vs. oral interview or research </li></ul><ul><li>Establish trust and stay on topic </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct is just as important as content </li></ul><ul><li>Patron: &quot;Can you tell me what the gestation period of the lemming is?“ </li></ul><ul><li>Librarian: &quot;Just a minute&quot; Patron: &quot;Thanks very much&quot; Upon which the patron hung up. </li></ul><ul><li>Cassell, Kay Ann.(2006) Reference Information Services in the 21 st Century: An Introduction . New York: Neil Schuman Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Reference Humor [] </li></ul>
    17. 17. Reference Interview- Steps <ul><li>Stages to an interview: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Establish rapport </li></ul><ul><li>2.Negotiate question/ understand the big picture </li></ul><ul><li>3.Develop a strategy for the search </li></ul><ul><li>4.Locate information and evaluate it </li></ul><ul><li>5.Ensure question is answered- follow up </li></ul><ul><li>6. Close the interview </li></ul>
    18. 18. Activity # 1- Angry librarian <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>How does librarian utilize: </li></ul><ul><li>Approachability </li></ul><ul><li>Interest </li></ul><ul><li>Listening/Inquiring </li></ul><ul><li>Searching </li></ul><ul><li>Follow Up </li></ul>
    19. 19. Step 1. Establish Rapport <ul><li>Users expect to find someone willing to help </li></ul><ul><li>Use nonverbal skills positively </li></ul><ul><li>Turn around, move toward the user, smile, maintain eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Look approachable </li></ul><ul><li>Be proactive and scan the reference area </li></ul><ul><li>When Online or Telephone </li></ul><ul><li>Greet the user in a friendly way, be sympathetic, remain in contact with the user </li></ul>
    20. 20. <ul><li>Do </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t </li></ul>Establish Rapport
    21. 21. Step 1- Cont-more skills <ul><li>Nonverbal skills- eye contact, smile, nod, pause, posture </li></ul><ul><li>She looked puzzled, and pursed her lips, and rolled her eyes… </li></ul><ul><li>She started to grimace or wince and let out an ooooow </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledgment </li></ul><ul><li>Restate or play back content/ inquiry: </li></ul><ul><li>Patron: Do you have any books on Art? Ref: Yes. Did you have a certain artist in mind, or a period or style in mind? </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal encouragers </li></ul><ul><li>Listen </li></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>Do </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t </li></ul>Skill: Interest/Listening
    23. 23. Step 2- Negotiate the question <ul><li>Use “Sense-Making” Brenda Dervin </li></ul><ul><li>Employ Neutral questioning </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of help would you like? What have you done about this so far? </li></ul><ul><li>Use open ended vs. close ended questions </li></ul><ul><li>How much information do you need? Do you need current or historical information? </li></ul><ul><li>Include the user in your fact finding </li></ul><ul><li>Involve the user in the conversation- </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrase the inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>Patron: I got a quote from a book I turned in last week but I forgot to write down the author and title. It's big and red and I found it on the top shelf. Can you find it for me? </li></ul><ul><li>Answer: What were you looking for when you found the book the first time? </li></ul>
    24. 24. Step 3- Develop a Strategy <ul><li>Construct a search </li></ul><ul><li>Again..Ask the user to help you with search terms </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the kind of information needed </li></ul>
    25. 25. Step 3- Develop a Strategy <ul><li>Construct a search </li></ul><ul><li>Again..Ask the user to help you with search terms </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the kind of information needed </li></ul>
    26. 26. Activity 2: Information on Travel <ul><li>Role Play: </li></ul><ul><li>User: Excuse me but can you tell me where to find the information on travel? </li></ul>
    27. 27. Activity Sense making-Closed Questions <ul><li>Sense making Questions Vs. Open closed questions </li></ul>
    28. 28. Step 4- Locate the information <ul><li>Bibliographic Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Describe what you are doing </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why you are doing it </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate how much time the task will take </li></ul><ul><li>*Assess the need, gap, and the help required* </li></ul>
    29. 29. Step 5-Follow-Up <ul><li>Invite the user to ask for additional help </li></ul><ul><li>Discover if a need has been met </li></ul><ul><li>Reassure the user that it is OK to come back and ask another question. </li></ul>
    30. 30. Step 6- Closure <ul><li>Use both verbal and nonverbal skills </li></ul><ul><li>Use closure to refer user elsewhere when needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Use in 3 scenarios: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Indicate discussion has been completed </li></ul><ul><li>2. Focus user’s attention </li></ul><ul><li>3. Establish good communication for next encounter </li></ul>
    31. 31. Communication Barriers <ul><li>Not acknowledging the user </li></ul><ul><li>Not Listening </li></ul><ul><li>Playing twenty questions </li></ul><ul><li>Interrupting at inappropriate times </li></ul><ul><li>Making assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Not following up </li></ul>
    32. 32. Reference- Behaviors to Avoid <ul><li>Without Speaking She Began to Type Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Bypassing the reference interview </li></ul><ul><li>An elderly man asks for books on entomology. The librarian asks, “Are you trying to get rid of ants?” </li></ul><ul><li>An unmonitored referral </li></ul><ul><li>Without saying anything she handed me a piece of paper and assumed I could locate them by the numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Negative closure-How to make users go away </li></ul><ul><li>Well, we are very busy right now, but if you come back later , someone will be available. </li></ul><ul><li>Making the User feel silly or insecure </li></ul><ul><li>Patron: Do you have anything good to read? </li></ul><ul><li>Librarian: No, ma'am. I'm afraid we have 75,000 books, and they're all duds. </li></ul>
    33. 33. Activity 3 –Behavior to Avoid <ul><li>User: I was trying to look normal-to take a normal user’s approach to the library… So I said that I was looking for some books on flying. She [the staff member] just turned around and started punching on her terminal….After a few minutes I realized she wasn’t going to ask me anything more, and I knew I’d get sent to the wrong section. So I said “Well, actually I’m looking for jet lag, but I don’t know if it is in ‘flying or not. She just kept punching, but I intuited that she was getting another subject heading. And then she said that there is nothing on jet lag. Then, she wrote down a number and tore it off the paper and gave it to me….The specific number she gave me was a book on how to fly a light aircraft. </li></ul><ul><li>Interviewer: Did you ask again? </li></ul><ul><li>User: No, I didn’t feel like going to her again. I was too upset. </li></ul><ul><li>Interviewer: Did you tell her anything? </li></ul><ul><li>User: No. </li></ul><ul><li>Interviewer: How did you feel? </li></ul><ul><li>User: I felt like dropping out of [library school] …I thought if that is the experience the general public gets, they can’t be getting books they want, because I didn’t get anywhere near my subject. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Questions <ul><li>Questions Comments? </li></ul>
    35. 35. Virtual Reference: Definiton <ul><li>According to RUSA, virtual reference services are transactions: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Initiated Electronically, often in real-time, where patrons employ computers or other internet technology to communicate with reference staff, without being physically present. </li></ul>
    36. 36. Types of Virtual Reference Services <ul><li>Asynchronous </li></ul><ul><li>-Email </li></ul><ul><li>-Web forms </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronous </li></ul><ul><li>-Chat </li></ul><ul><li>-Voice over IP </li></ul><ul><li>- Videoconferencing </li></ul><ul><li>-Web Contact Center Software </li></ul>
    37. 37. Library Reference Workflow Patron interactions . . . Ref Lib Ref Lib Local KB Patron Global KB Chat (Follow-up) E-mail Telephone Walk-in Fax Web sites & databases E-mail/call others Look up In references Own knowledge
    38. 38. Pidgin
    39. 39. Pidgin
    40. 40. Qwidget
    41. 41. Qwidget for the Smart phone
    42. 42. Qwidget and Smart phone continued
    43. 43. Question Point & Mosio’s Text a Librarian
    44. 44. Virtual Reference -Policy <ul><li>Eligibility </li></ul><ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Licenced databases to answer questions </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying yourself to your users </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery of material to the users </li></ul><ul><li>Average length of the transactions </li></ul><ul><li>User satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Questionable questions </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up </li></ul>
    45. 45. Barriers to Virtual Reference <ul><li>Eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Gesture </li></ul><ul><li>Posture </li></ul><ul><li>Expression and Tone </li></ul><ul><li>Emoticons </li></ul><ul><li>Expression through Text </li></ul>
    46. 46. Barrier 1- Establish Rapport <ul><li>How can we connect virtually with nonverbal behaviors: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Listen, focus select </li></ul><ul><li>2. Avoid early judgment- do not assume </li></ul><ul><li>3. Reflect feelings- its sounds like… </li></ul><ul><li>4.Restate the question… as I understand it… </li></ul><ul><li>5. Encourage—And then? Tell me more? </li></ul>
    47. 47. Barrier # 2 Failure to get question right <ul><li>Pressure to respond quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Temptation to answer before being clear of the answer </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer cues and less feedback than the physical reference enviroment </li></ul><ul><li>Time delay in where you are searching but no clarification provided </li></ul><ul><li>Commencing search too soon. </li></ul>
    48. 48. Example <ul><li>Patron: </li></ul><ul><li>I am looking on information about gum control, bazookas especially? </li></ul><ul><li>Librarian: </li></ul><ul><li>Do you mean guns, as in Bazooka the weapon, or the gum? </li></ul>
    49. 49. Barrier # 3 Scripted Messages <ul><li>Scripted Messages </li></ul><ul><li>Unscripted messages </li></ul><ul><li>Lack personality </li></ul><ul><li>Directional </li></ul><ul><li>Can save time </li></ul><ul><li>Can make users wary of using the service </li></ul><ul><li>Convey warmth </li></ul><ul><li>Give the impression that you are listening </li></ul><ul><li>Higher chance of positive response from user </li></ul>
    50. 50. VR Communication- Best Practice <ul><li>Be welcoming and personable. Use the user’s name. </li></ul><ul><li>Type like you would talk </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t use library jargon or abbreviations </li></ul><ul><li>Its OK to use short phrases and informal language.. Don’t hang up on grammar and punctuation </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the conversation flowing… Thirty seconds of dead air is a long time. Pop back into the conversation or include the user in your search strategy. </li></ul>
    51. 51. Activity 4 <ul><li>Comment on the following transaction: </li></ul><ul><li>Patron: Can you help me find a book called Bedford Glossary? </li></ul><ul><li>Librarian: Thank you for your patience. Give me a few minutes to locate that item for you. </li></ul><ul><li>Patron: ok. </li></ul><ul><li>Librarian: Murfin, Ross C. Call # 803M975b1997. Status Available </li></ul><ul><li>Librarian: Here is the book and call number as per your request. </li></ul><ul><li>Patron: Thanks. </li></ul>
    52. 52. Activity Continued: <ul><li>Patron: Do you have the 17 th Edition of the Bluebook of Citations in reserve? </li></ul><ul><li>Librarian: Hi there, Welcome to Morris Messenger </li></ul><ul><li>Librarian: Ok Let me see what I can find. Hold on a minute. </li></ul><ul><li>Patron: Ok, thanks. </li></ul><ul><li>Librarian: Is this for a course on Reserves? </li></ul><ul><li>Patron: Yes, it is Paralegal 300A </li></ul><ul><li>Librarian: Call the reserve desk. They should have it. </li></ul><ul><li>Patron: ok/ </li></ul>
    53. 53. Review <ul><li>Today we learned about: </li></ul><ul><li>Library as an information source for the community </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of policy documents </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting a Successful Library Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Providing Virtual Reference </li></ul>
    54. 54. Questions