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Vietnam War Negotiations


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Vietnam War Negotiations

  2. 2.
  3. 3. The global context<br />1945: End of the World War II<br />Domino’spolitic (Expansion of communism)<br />Cold War & extreme Bipolarisation between the USA and Soviet Union<br />The Domino Theory was that if North Vietnam wins the war then Laos Cambodia and the rest of Asia will turn communist. America and south Vietnam did not wan to be communist and let it spread throughout Asia.<br />
  4. 4. Context in Vietnam<br />France lostIndochinaafter the waragainst Vietminh (Vietnamesearmyfounded in 1941 by Ho Chi Minh)<br />July 1954: Geneva Peace Accord<br /><ul><li>Division of Vietnam in 2 parts (17th parallel)
  5. 5. ARVN (Army of the Republic of Vietnam)
  6. 6. NVA (NorthVietnameseArmy)
  7. 7. Gulf of Tonkin incident = Involvement of USA in the conflict + Trade Embargo againstNorth Vietnam</li></li></ul><li>
  8. 8.
  9. 9. OBJECTIVES<br />USA<br /><ul><li>Assault/Attack and take control of major cities
  10. 10. Support South Vietnam
  11. 11. Establish bases/camps on the keysectors and at the Cambodian/Vietnamese border</li></ul>North Vietnam<br /><ul><li>Lure americantroops in hostile areas, ie.Jungle
  12. 12. Impose communist model by force</li></li></ul><li>
  13. 13. TACTICS<br />US declareswar on North (LBJ)<br />Vietnam attackedourships<br />US fights NLF/Vietcong in South Vietnam<br />US. fights Ho Chi Minh / CommunistNorth Vietnam<br />US Troops use Agent Orange  Herbicide<br />US meetsstrong opposition frombothsides.<br />President Johnsonsigning the declaration of war<br />General Westmoreland<br />
  14. 14. Battle of « La Drang » Nov. 1965<br />Surprise attackfrom the Cambodian border by US forces: 400 US 7th Cavalerytroopsagaints 4000 NVA + vietcongssoldiers<br /><ul><li> B-212 transport helicoptergunships
  15. 15. Napalm jets
  16. 16. Artillery Support</li></ul>Lt. Col Hal Moore<br />Commander of the 7th Air CavaleryBattalion<br />
  17. 17. Targetsaccording to General Vo Nguyen<br />Minimum:<br />Tetoutbreakwouldhalt the northvietnambombardment and force us to negociate.<br /><ul><li>Maximum:
  18. 18. Drive the US forces out of the country=open the path for unification of the country</li></ul>As a results: <br /> -Tet offensive shookUS moral<br /> -Huge negative impact on public opinion<br />General Vo Nguyen<br />
  19. 19. Têt Offensive - 1968<br />In 1968 turning point: need to undermine US effort and willwith a « coup de grace ».<br />Slystrategy, attack on christmaseve: unexpected<br />Attack on 2 fronts: Us marine firebasesatKheSahn and major cities of South Vietnam= Dilema for the US<br />
  20. 20.
  21. 21. Prisoner’sdilemna<br />
  22. 22.
  23. 23. Agreement<br />Paris peace accords on January 23th, 27th, 1973 : 7 main points<br /> – 3 signatures –<br /><ul><li> Withdrawal of troops
  24. 24. Return of captured military personnel and foreign civilians
  25. 25. Exercise of the south Vietnamesepeople’s right to self determination
  26. 26. Reunification of Vietnam
  27. 27. International commission of control and supervision
  28. 28. End of all military activities in Cambodia and Laos
  29. 29. Establishment of a new equal and mutually beneficial relationship between the United-States and the democratic republic of Vietnam. </li></li></ul><li>VALIDATION<br />March 1973: US military forces withdrew from South Vietnam and prisoners were echanged<br />April 29th, 1975 : Fall of Saigon and Evacuation by helicopter of the last U.S. diplomatic, military and civilian personnel <br />
  30. 30. EXECUTION<br /><ul><li>Expansion of Communism = overthrowsaigonregime
  31. 31. Civil war
  32. 32. Extermination of opponents to communism</li></li></ul><li>CONTROL OF THE EXECUTION<br /> - July 2nd, 1976: SocialistRepublic of Vietnam wascreated.<br /> - Sept 27th 1977: Vietnam has becomemember of the U.N<br />
  33. 33. SOURCES<br /><br /><br /><br /><br />«  Weweresoldiers » by Randall Wallace (2002)<br />Rachel De lavergne<br />Narator 1<br />IsileLutmann<br />Narator 2<br />Mélissa Tribouillard<br />General Westmoreland<br />Vincent Debrabant<br />General Vo Nguyen<br />THANK YOU FOR WATCHING<br />