Chapter 32 Plant Nutrition and Transport 0 Lecture by  L. Brooke Stabler
Introduction:  Planting Hope in the Wake of Katrina <ul><li>Many plants can remove toxins such as heavy metals from soils ...
Introduction:  Planting Hope in the Wake of Katrina <ul><li>Concerns associated with phytoremediation include </li></ul><u...
 
 
 
<ul><li>THE UPTAKE AND TRANSPORT  OF PLANT NUTRIENTS </li></ul>0 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
32.1 Plants acquire their nutrients from soil and air <ul><li>Plants take up carbon dioxide from the air to produce sugars...
<ul><li>Inorganic molecules taken up by plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen </...
<ul><li>Organic molecules produced by plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipids </li></...
CO 2 O 2 H 2 O Minerals
 
32.2 The plasma membranes of root cells control solute uptake <ul><li>Minerals taken up by plant roots are in a watery sol...
<ul><li>There are two pathways by which water and minerals enter the xylem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intracellular route—water...
<ul><li>PLANT NUTRIENTS AND THE SOIL </li></ul>0 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
32.6 Plant health depends on a complete diet of essential inorganic nutrients <ul><li>Essential elements  are those that a...
32.6 Plant health depends on a complete diet of essential inorganic nutrients 0 <ul><li>Macronutrients—components of organ...
<ul><li>Micronutrients—often act as cofactors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chlorine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron </li></ul></u...
Solution lacking potassium (experimental) Complete solution containing all minerals (control)
32.7 CONNECTION: Fertilizers can help prevent nutrient deficiencies <ul><li>The availability of nutrients in soil affects ...
 
 
 
32.8 Fertile soil supports plant growth <ul><li>Soils are affected by geography and climate </li></ul><ul><li>Soil horizon...
B A C
<ul><li>A soil’s physical and chemical characteristics affect plant growth  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil particle sizes infl...
Air space Water Root hair Soil particle surrounded by film of water
Clay particle Root hair K + K + K + K + K + K + K + K + H +
32.9 CONNECTION: Soil conservation is essential to human life <ul><li>Human practices in agriculture have degraded soils <...
 
<ul><li>Soil conservation efforts are needed to reduce the problems associated with agriculture  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eff...
 
32.10 CONNECTION: Organic farmers follow principles of sustainable agriculture <ul><li>The USDA has established guidelines...
 
32.11 CONNECTION: Agricultural research is improving the yields and nutritional values of crops <ul><li>Advances in geneti...
 
32.12 Most plants depend on bacteria to supply nitrogen <ul><li>Most of the nitrogen in the biosphere is in the atmosphere...
(regulated by guard cells surrounding stomata) Flow of water H 2 O H 2 O Cohesion and adhesion in xylem Transpiration Wate...
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria N 2 H + NH 3 NH 4 + (ammonium)  NO 3 – (nitrate)  NH 4 + Amino acids, etc. Nitrifying bacteria Am...
<ul><ul><li>1. Describe phytoremediation and its uses  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Give examples of essential elements a...
<ul><ul><li>6. Give examples of ways genetic engineering has been used to preserve the environment and improve crops </li>...
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  • Large sunflower.
  • Woman in a garden.
  • Sunflowers after flooding.
  • Teaching Tips 1. Module 32.1 references the discussion of photosynthesis in Chapter 7. If you have not already addressed the content of Chapter 7, consider discussing the sources of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that are used in the construction of carbohydrates resulting from photosynthesis. 2. With the exception of small amounts of glycogen obtained from meat and lactose obtained from dairy products, we humans get all of our dietary carbohydrates from plants.
  • Teaching Tips 1. Module 32.1 references the discussion of photosynthesis in Chapter 7. If you have not already addressed the content of Chapter 7, consider discussing the sources of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that are used in the construction of carbohydrates resulting from photosynthesis. 2. With the exception of small amounts of glycogen obtained from meat and lactose obtained from dairy products, we humans get all of our dietary carbohydrates from plants.
  • Teaching Tips 1. Module 32.1 references the discussion of photosynthesis in Chapter 7. If you have not already addressed the content of Chapter 7, consider discussing the sources of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that are used in the construction of carbohydrates resulting from photosynthesis. 2. With the exception of small amounts of glycogen obtained from meat and lactose obtained from dairy products, we humans get all of our dietary carbohydrates from plants.
  • Figure 32.1A The uptake of nutrients by a plant.
  • Figure 32.1B Redwood trees, giant products of photosynthesis.
  • Teaching Tips 1. Root hairs are yet another example of an adaptation to increase the surface area of an organism. The divisions within the human lung, as well as microvilli, and plant leaves, are other examples. Increased surface areas are typically found where something is exchanged: gases exchanged at respiratory surfaces, nutrients absorbed by microvilli, light absorbed by leaves, and water and minerals absorbed by root hairs. If this chapter is one of the final topics addressed in your course, illustrating these broad principles with examples from a variety of subjects can provide a unifying review.
  • Teaching Tips 1. Root hairs are yet another example of an adaptation to increase the surface area of an organism. The divisions within the human lung, as well as microvilli, and plant leaves, are other examples. Increased surface areas are typically found where something is exchanged: gases exchanged at respiratory surfaces, nutrients absorbed by microvilli, light absorbed by leaves, and water and minerals absorbed by root hairs. If this chapter is one of the final topics addressed in your course, illustrating these broad principles with examples from a variety of subjects can provide a unifying review.
  • It is important to distinguish between the acquisition of nutrients and the acquisition of food. Plants do not obtain their food from the environment, like animals. Instead, plants are autotrophs that generate their own food. The essential elements required by plants are not sources of calories. Students might suspect that macronutrients are large and micronutrients are small. Instead, the word roots macro- and micro- refer to the quantities of nutrients required in each category. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Students often confuse the terms symbiosis and mutualism, falsely thinking that they mean the same thing. You might wish to clarify these terms to emphasize the win/win nature of mutualism. Teaching Tips 1. With abundant antibacterial products now on the market, students may believe that all bacteria are harmful. Before addressing the mutualistic roles of soil bacteria and plants, challenge your students to explain why planting seeds in sterilized soil could be problematic.
  • Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Students often confuse the terms symbiosis and mutualism, falsely thinking that they mean the same thing. You might wish to clarify these terms to emphasize the win/win nature of mutualism. Teaching Tips 1. With abundant antibacterial products now on the market, students may believe that all bacteria are harmful. Before addressing the mutualistic roles of soil bacteria and plants, challenge your students to explain why planting seeds in sterilized soil could be problematic.
  • Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Students often confuse the terms symbiosis and mutualism, falsely thinking that they mean the same thing. You might wish to clarify these terms to emphasize the win/win nature of mutualism. Teaching Tips 1. With abundant antibacterial products now on the market, students may believe that all bacteria are harmful. Before addressing the mutualistic roles of soil bacteria and plants, challenge your students to explain why planting seeds in sterilized soil could be problematic.
  • Figure 32.6 A hydroponic culture experiment.
  • Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Students often confuse the terms symbiosis and mutualism, falsely thinking that they mean the same thing. You might wish to clarify these terms to emphasize the win/win nature of mutualism. Teaching Tips 1. Students who know that most (78%) of Earth’s atmosphere consists of nitrogen may be confused to learn that nitrogen shortage is the most common nutritional problem for plants. As Modules 32.7 and 32.12 indicate, plants cannot use nitrogen in its most common form, which is found in the atmosphere. However, they can use dissolved nitrate ions and ammonium ions.
  • Figure 32.7A The effect of nitrogen availability on corn growth: corn grown in nitrogen-rich soil (left) and nitrogen-poor soil (right).
  • Figure 32.7B Nitrogen deficiency in a tomato leaf.
  • Figure 32.7C Steam produced by the metabolic activity of organisms within a compost pile.
  • Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Students often confuse the terms symbiosis and mutualism, falsely thinking that they mean the same thing. You might wish to clarify these terms to emphasize the win/win nature of mutualism. Teaching Tips 1. Students with limited backgrounds in botany might be surprised to learn that roots need oxygen. Aeration of the soil by burrowing worms and other animals helps create small spaces for air. Highly compacted soils limit the movement of air and can interfere with plant survival.
  • Figure 32.8A Three soil horizons visible beneath grass.
  • Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Students often confuse the terms symbiosis and mutualism, falsely thinking that they mean the same thing. You might wish to clarify these terms to emphasize the win/win nature of mutualism. Teaching Tips 1. Students with limited backgrounds in botany might be surprised to learn that roots need oxygen. Aeration of the soil by burrowing worms and other animals helps create small spaces for air. Highly compacted soils limit the movement of air and can interfere with plant survival.
  • Figure 32.8B A close-up view of root hairs in soil.
  • Figure 32.8C Cation exchange.
  • Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Students often confuse the terms symbiosis and mutualism, falsely thinking that they mean the same thing. You might wish to clarify these terms to emphasize the win/win nature of mutualism. Teaching Tips 1. The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Natural Resources Conservation Service provides numerous links and information on soil conservation at www.nrcs.usda.gov/feature/.
  • Figure 32.9A Flood irrigation.
  • Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Students often confuse the terms symbiosis and mutualism, falsely thinking that they mean the same thing. You might wish to clarify these terms to emphasize the win/win nature of mutualism. Teaching Tips 1. The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Natural Resources Conservation Service provides numerous links and information on soil conservation at www.nrcs.usda.gov/feature/.
  • Figure 32.9B Planting to prevent soil erosion in a hilly area.
  • Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Students often confuse the terms symbiosis and mutualism, falsely thinking that they mean the same thing. You might wish to clarify these terms to emphasize the win/win nature of mutualism. Teaching Tips 1. At http://attra.ncat.org/organic.html, the National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service provides extensive online publications describing the USDA rules and requirements for certified organic farming.
  • Figure 32.10 An organic farmer harvesting sweet corn.
  • For the Discovery Video Colored Cotton, go to Animation and Video Files. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Students often confuse the terms symbiosis and mutualism, falsely thinking that they mean the same thing. You might wish to clarify these terms to emphasize the win/win nature of mutualism. Teaching Tips 1. The acronym GMO stands for “genetically modified organisms.” 2. Roundup Ready corn, a product manufactured by Monsanto, is resistant to the commercial herbicide Roundup. Thus, farmers can spray fields of Roundup Ready corn directly with Roundup, killing weeds but not the corn. An Internet search will quickly reveal the controversy over this and other genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which can encourage interesting discussions and promote critical thinking skills. Module 12.9 discusses some of the issues related to the use of GM organisms.
  • Figure 32.11 Plant researchers with high-protein rice.
  • Teaching Tips 1. With abundant antibacterial products now on the market, students may believe that all bacteria are harmful. Before addressing the mutualistic roles of soil bacteria and plants, challenge your students to explain why planting seeds in sterilized soil could be problematic. 2. Mycorrhizae provide an excellent example of a mutualistic relationship. Unless the various types of symbiotic relationships have already been discussed, consider illustrating mutualism and parasitism with the relationships in Modules 32.12–32.14.
  • 32 Lecture Presentation

    1. 1. Chapter 32 Plant Nutrition and Transport 0 Lecture by L. Brooke Stabler
    2. 2. Introduction: Planting Hope in the Wake of Katrina <ul><li>Many plants can remove toxins such as heavy metals from soils by taking them up with their roots and storing them in their bodies </li></ul><ul><li>The use of plants to clean up polluted soil and groundwater is called phytoremediation </li></ul>0 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    3. 3. Introduction: Planting Hope in the Wake of Katrina <ul><li>Concerns associated with phytoremediation include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Release of toxins into the air via evaporation from plant leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disposal of plants with high concentrations of pollutants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible toxicity to animals that eat plants with high concentrations of pollutants </li></ul></ul>0 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    4. 7. <ul><li>THE UPTAKE AND TRANSPORT OF PLANT NUTRIENTS </li></ul>0 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    5. 8. 32.1 Plants acquire their nutrients from soil and air <ul><li>Plants take up carbon dioxide from the air to produce sugars via photosynthesis; oxygen is produced as a product of photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Plants obtain water, minerals, and some oxygen from the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Using simple sugars as an energy source and as building blocks, plants convert the inorganic molecules they take up into the organic molecules of living plant tissue </li></ul>0 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    6. 9. <ul><li>Inorganic molecules taken up by plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnesium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorus </li></ul></ul>32.1 Plants acquire their nutrients from soil and air 0 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    7. 10. <ul><li>Organic molecules produced by plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleic acids </li></ul></ul>32.1 Plants acquire their nutrients from soil and air 0 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    8. 11. CO 2 O 2 H 2 O Minerals
    9. 13. 32.2 The plasma membranes of root cells control solute uptake <ul><li>Minerals taken up by plant roots are in a watery solution </li></ul><ul><li>Water and minerals are absorbed through the epidermis of the root and must be taken up by root cells before they enter the xylem </li></ul><ul><li>Selective permeability of the plasma membrane of root cells controls what minerals enter the xylem </li></ul>0 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    10. 14. <ul><li>There are two pathways by which water and minerals enter the xylem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intracellular route—water and solutes are selectively taken up by a root epidermal cell, usually a root hair, and transported from cell to cell through plasmodesmata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extracellular route—water and solutes pass into the root in the porous cell walls of root cells; they do not enter any cell plasma membrane until they reach the root endodermis </li></ul></ul>32.2 The plasma membranes of root cells control solute uptake 0 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    11. 15. <ul><li>PLANT NUTRIENTS AND THE SOIL </li></ul>0 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    12. 16. 32.6 Plant health depends on a complete diet of essential inorganic nutrients <ul><li>Essential elements are those that a plant must obtain to complete its life cycle of growth and reproductive success </li></ul><ul><li>There are 17 elements essential to plant growth and reproduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Macronutrients —plants require relatively large amounts of these elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Micronutrients —plants require relatively small amounts of these elements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both types of nutrients have vital functions </li></ul>0 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    13. 17. 32.6 Plant health depends on a complete diet of essential inorganic nutrients 0 <ul><li>Macronutrients—components of organic molecules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potassium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnesium </li></ul></ul>Make up 98% of plant dry weight Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    14. 18. <ul><li>Micronutrients—often act as cofactors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chlorine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manganese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zinc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nickel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molybdenum </li></ul></ul>32.6 Plant health depends on a complete diet of essential inorganic nutrients 0 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    15. 19. Solution lacking potassium (experimental) Complete solution containing all minerals (control)
    16. 20. 32.7 CONNECTION: Fertilizers can help prevent nutrient deficiencies <ul><li>The availability of nutrients in soil affects plant growth and health </li></ul><ul><li>Growers can often determine which nutrients are missing from soil by looking at plant symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient deficiencies can be alleviated by adding inorganic chemical fertilizers or compost to soil </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen is the element that most commonly limits plant growth in nature </li></ul>0 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    17. 24. 32.8 Fertile soil supports plant growth <ul><li>Soils are affected by geography and climate </li></ul><ul><li>Soil horizons are layers of soil with different characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A horizon— topsoil subject to weathering; layer contains humus (decayed organic matter) and many soil organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B horizon—clay and dissolved elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C horizon—rocks of the “parent material” from which soil is formed </li></ul></ul>0 Animation: How Plants Obtain Minerals from Soil Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    18. 25. B A C
    19. 26. <ul><li>A soil’s physical and chemical characteristics affect plant growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil particle sizes influence the amount of water and air present in a soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil particles and plant roots participate in cation exchange —the transfer of positive ions such as calcium, magnesium, and potassium from soil to plant roots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil particles tend to bond cations and can make uptake by plants difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anions are readily taken up by plants and not affected as much by soil </li></ul></ul>32.8 Fertile soil supports plant growth 0 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    20. 27. Air space Water Root hair Soil particle surrounded by film of water
    21. 28. Clay particle Root hair K + K + K + K + K + K + K + K + H +
    22. 29. 32.9 CONNECTION: Soil conservation is essential to human life <ul><li>Human practices in agriculture have degraded soils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation can cause build up of salts in soils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plowed lands are subject to erosion by wind and rain, which removes topsoil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical fertilizers are costly and may contaminate groundwater </li></ul></ul>0 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    23. 31. <ul><li>Soil conservation efforts are needed to reduce the problems associated with agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient drip irrigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practices to reduce erosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternatives to traditional fertilization </li></ul></ul>32.9 CONNECTION: Soil conservation is essential to human life 0 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    24. 33. 32.10 CONNECTION: Organic farmers follow principles of sustainable agriculture <ul><li>The USDA has established guidelines for foods labeled “organic” </li></ul><ul><li>Organic farming guidelines are intended to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustain biological diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain soil quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce or eliminate use of chemical pesticides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid use of genetically modified plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce or eliminate use of chemical fertilizers </li></ul></ul>0 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    25. 35. 32.11 CONNECTION: Agricultural research is improving the yields and nutritional values of crops <ul><li>Advances in genetic engineering have led to many improvements in crop plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistance to disease and insects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces the need to use pesticides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistance to weed-killing herbicides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces the need to till the soil, which causes erosion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved nutritional quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less land needed to feed more people </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    26. 37. 32.12 Most plants depend on bacteria to supply nitrogen <ul><li>Most of the nitrogen in the biosphere is in the atmosphere as N 2 gas </li></ul><ul><li>Plants can only absorb nitrogen as ammonium or nitrates from the soil; they cannot absorb it from air </li></ul>0 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    27. 38. (regulated by guard cells surrounding stomata) Flow of water H 2 O H 2 O Cohesion and adhesion in xylem Transpiration Water uptake (cohesion of H 2 O molecules to each other and adhesion of H 2 O molecules to cell walls) (via root hairs)
    28. 39. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria N 2 H + NH 3 NH 4 + (ammonium) NO 3 – (nitrate) NH 4 + Amino acids, etc. Nitrifying bacteria Ammonifying bacteria Organic material Root Air Soil
    29. 40. <ul><ul><li>1. Describe phytoremediation and its uses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Give examples of essential elements and tell why they are important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Explain how soil characteristics and fertility influence plant growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Give examples of ways that agriculture can degrade soil and practices that help conserve soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Describe organic agriculture and its aims </li></ul></ul>You should now be able to 0 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
    30. 41. <ul><ul><li>6. Give examples of ways genetic engineering has been used to preserve the environment and improve crops </li></ul></ul>You should now be able to 0 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

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