Dealing With Conflict


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  • Get examples of typical conflict situations from participants’ experiences. How do you know that there is conflict? Show a video of a conflict situation developing from a neutral exchange to a conflict. Ask the group to observe and describe: what is the issue, how does conflict manifest itself, when did discussion start becoming a conflict, how did it escalate….etc.
  • Discuss what they saw on the video, present this “spiral of conflict” and have group identify what they saw on the video that fits the categories in this conflict spiral
  • Here’s how mediators have judged the effectiveness of each conflict resolution mode…. In the next video, a facilitator attempts to get the group to resolve the issue. Observe how the facilitator handles the process... Note: show “wrong way”, then get the group to discuss the results of different approaches for conflict resolution. Then ask..”what should the facilitator have done differently?” Discuss then show next 2 slides to support their answers.
  • Further explain that conflict always has a history and have deeply-ingrained causes beyond what one can surmise from the present interaction (iceberg). Intro for video: Now that we know what conflict is, how it looks and how it develops, would you be able to handle conflict? let us watch how this can be done. Observe: what is person doing right? What is person doing wrong? (Show video – wrong way) Discuss video and mistakes. Ask what could have been done better. Follow with next 4 slides on: 2-step process for managing conflict, venting and how to handle emotions, facilitator’s interventions for venting.
  • Show video again to illustrate portion on how to resolve the conflict. Have participants identify the facilitator’s interventions
  • Show video again to illustrate the points on handling the venting stage.
  • It is very important that the venting stage is completed before a solution can be agreed upon. Rushing through the venting, or glossing over the emotions will result in the resurgence of the issues in trickier ways that will block the search for solutions.
  • There are several ways to resolve a conflict and each participant will have his or her own preferred mode. Tell me what are the advantages and disadvantages of each one.
  • Dealing With Conflict

    1. 1. Dealing with Conflict Eunson, Baden. 1997. The Communication Skills Series Dealing with Conflict. Sydney, Australia: Jacaranda Wiley Limited.
    2. 2. Workshop Objectives <ul><li>Become more aware of the signs of conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the impact conflict has on participatory decision-making. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize and accept responsibility to handle conflicts when they occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn an approach to conflict resolution </li></ul>
    3. 3. Misconceptions about Conflict <ul><li>Misconception #1 </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict is inherently bad and unhealthy. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Misconceptions about Conflict <ul><li>Misconception #2 </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict doesn’t occur that often in a stakeholder consultation session. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Misconceptions about Conflict <ul><li>Misconception #3 </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict is always a matter of right vs. wrong. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Misconceptions about Conflict <ul><li>Misconception #4 </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts are always a result of clashing personalities. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Misconceptions about Conflict <ul><li>Misconception #5 </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict is only prevalent in crisis situations. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Misconceptions about Conflict <ul><li>Misconception #6 </li></ul><ul><li>Most conflicts resolve themselves over time. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Misconceptions about Conflict <ul><li>Misconception #7 </li></ul><ul><li>People usually know when they’ve disturbed someone else. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Misconceptions about Conflict <ul><li>Misconception #8 </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts only impact the disputing parties. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Misconceptions about Conflict <ul><li>Misconception #9 </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts continue mostly because of stubbornness and a lack of caring. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Misconceptions about Conflict <ul><li>Misconception #10 </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with conflict is not the facilitator’s responsibility. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Eunson, Baden. 1997. The Communication Skills Series: Dealing with Conflict. Sydney, Australia: Jacaranda Wiley Limited.
    14. 14. One View of Conflict <ul><li>Conflict is inevitable, but combat is optional. </li></ul><ul><li>~Max Lucado, theologian </li></ul>
    15. 15. Avoiding … doesn’t deal with the issue
    16. 16. Accommodating … just smoothes things over
    17. 17. Competing … divides groups and creates win/lose
    18. 18. Compromising … helps find the middle ground
    19. 19. <ul><li>Collaborating … </li></ul><ul><li>helps people to work together to find best solution for everyone </li></ul>
    20. 20. Usage of Approaches Avoiding Accommodating Competing Compromising Collaborating 10% of situations 5% of situations 0% of situations 20% of situations 65% of situations
    21. 21. Beware of the Iceberg! Conflict <ul><li>Mistrust </li></ul><ul><li>Previous Experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Dealing with Conflict <ul><li>Effectively diagnosing a conflict: </li></ul><ul><li> - determining the root causes </li></ul><ul><li>Taking action to manage the conflict based on the diagnosis </li></ul>
    23. 23. Circle of Conflict
    24. 24. <ul><li>Negative experiences in the past </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Poor or failed communication </li></ul><ul><li>Repetitive negative behavior </li></ul>Relationships Causes, Drivers of Conflict: Diagnosis
    25. 25. <ul><li>Factors unrelated to substance of dispute </li></ul>External Moods Causes, Drivers of Conflict: Diagnosis
    26. 26. <ul><li>Limited physical resources </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal power </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal control </li></ul>Structure Causes, Drivers of Conflict: Diagnosis
    27. 27. <ul><li>Substantive </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological </li></ul><ul><li>Procedural </li></ul>Interests Causes, Drivers of Conflict: Diagnosis
    28. 28. Data Causes, Drivers of Conflict: Diagnosis <ul><li>Lack of information </li></ul><ul><li>Misinformation </li></ul><ul><li>Too much information </li></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><li>Belief system </li></ul><ul><li>Right & wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Good & evil </li></ul><ul><li>Just & unjust </li></ul>Values Causes, Drivers of Conflict: Diagnosis
    30. 30. Interventions
    31. 31. Interventions <ul><li>Clarify perceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Control emotions through procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Block negative behavior by changing structure </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage problem solving attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge the external issues </li></ul><ul><li>Reconvene when external issue has diminished </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly define roles </li></ul><ul><li>Establish fair decision </li></ul><ul><li>making process </li></ul><ul><li>Change time constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on common interests </li></ul><ul><li>Address 3 types of interests differently </li></ul><ul><li>Read agreements on what data are important </li></ul><ul><li>Agree on process to collect data </li></ul><ul><li>Develop common criteria to access data </li></ul><ul><li>Jointly collect, jointly assess data </li></ul><ul><li>Allow parties to agree or disagree </li></ul><ul><li>Search for super-ordinate goal </li></ul>
    32. 32. The Moving Beyond Model Readiness to Resolve Anger Confusion & Distress Denial Something Ending Acceptance A New Beginning
    33. 33. 2 Steps: How to Handle Conflict? Based on the Moving Beyond Model <ul><li>Venting Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>… .Transition </li></ul><ul><li>Resolving Issues </li></ul>
    34. 34. Step 1: Venting <ul><li>Slow things down </li></ul><ul><li>Stay totally neutral </li></ul><ul><li>Be assertive </li></ul><ul><li>Revisit the norms </li></ul><ul><li>Visualize with a flip chart </li></ul>
    35. 35. <ul><li>Listen actively </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Do not allow dysfunctional behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Make interventions </li></ul>
    36. 36. Facilitator’s interventions <ul><li>Gaining buy-in from all members as to the purpose and outcome of the discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Getting everyone’s input </li></ul><ul><li>Summarizing a complex set of ideas to the satisfaction of group members </li></ul><ul><li>Linking people’s ideas together so they feel they’re saying the same thing </li></ul>
    37. 37. Participants Behavior… <ul><li>… .to encourage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paraphrasing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appreciating others’ ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building on other’s ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inviting critiques of own ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>… .to control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interrupting people in mid-sentences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not acknowledging the ideas that others have put on the table </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criticizing other’s ideas as opposed to giving them useful feedback </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Transition <ul><li>Check whether the participants are ready to move to resolving the problems </li></ul>
    39. 39. Eunson, Baden. 1997. The Communication Skills Series: Dealing with Conflict. Sydney, Australia: Jacaranda Wiley Limited.
    40. 40. Transition Questions <ul><li>Anything else? </li></ul><ul><li>Is that all? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you need to move </li></ul><ul><li>Under what conditions would </li></ul>forward? you move forward?
    41. 41. Step 2: Resolving Issues
    42. 42. Participants’ Behavior ... <ul><li>… .to encourage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Openness to alternative solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dealing with facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staying calm and friendly even in the course of disagreements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>… to control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pushing own ideas, ignoring others’ inputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Getting defensive when own ideas are analyzed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blocking alternative suggestions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using feelings to force a decision </li></ul></ul>
    43. 43. Facilitating Consensus Building <ul><li>Agree on clear outcome statements </li></ul><ul><li>Describe conditions that will show outcome has been achieved </li></ul><ul><li>Set time frames </li></ul><ul><li>Agree on action steps (what will be done & how, by whom, when, and results indicators) </li></ul><ul><li>Check if the group is satisfied with the consensual decision-making process and its results </li></ul>
    44. 44. Thank you