Intentional Tort By Dr. Tabrez Ahmad Associate Professor of Law KIIT Law School India

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Intentional Tort By Dr. Tabrez Ahmad Associate Professor of Law KIIT Law School India

  1. 1. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad Associate Professor of Law Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  2. 2. <ul><li>Nature of a Tort: </li></ul><ul><li>Tort liability is imposed by law rather than voluntary assumed as is the case with contract liability. </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  3. 3. <ul><li>When does a tort occur? </li></ul><ul><li>There are 4 elements in a tort action: </li></ul><ul><li>1. A duty to one person </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  4. 4. <ul><li>2. The breach of that duty (either by doing something or failing to do something) </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  5. 5. <ul><li>3. The breach must proximately cause the plaintiff’s injury </li></ul><ul><li>4. An injury to the plaintiff </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  6. 6. <ul><li>What is an intentional act? </li></ul><ul><li>An act is intentional where the actor: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Intended the physical consequences of his/her act or </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  7. 7. <ul><li>2. Knew, or should have known, that those consequences were substantially certain to occur as a result of his/her conduct </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  8. 8. <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Bhaskar locks his shop at the end of the day. Unknown to Bhaskar, Kanad was in the restroom. </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  9. 9. <ul><li>As a result, Kanad could not exit the store until Bhaskar returned the next day. </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  10. 10. <ul><li>Has Bhaskar Committed a false imprisonment? </li></ul><ul><li>Why or why not? </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  11. 11. <ul><li>Intentional Torts: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Battery </li></ul><ul><li>2. Assault </li></ul><ul><li>3. False Imprisonment </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  12. 12. <ul><li>4. Infliction of Emotional Distress </li></ul><ul><li>5. Defamation </li></ul><ul><li>6. Invasion of Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>7. Trespass </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  13. 13. <ul><li>8. Nuisance </li></ul><ul><li>9. Trespass to Personal Property </li></ul><ul><li>10. Conversion </li></ul><ul><li>11. Interference with Contractual Rights </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  14. 14. <ul><li>12. Disparagement </li></ul><ul><li>13. Fraudulent Misrepresentation </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  15. 15. <ul><li>Battery: </li></ul><ul><li>A battery occurs where the defendant has intentionally caused an offensive touching upon an item which is physically associated with the plaintiff. </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  16. 16. <ul><li>Prima facie defined: “At first look” – a claim “good on the face of it” </li></ul><ul><li>What does it mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Why have such a requirement? </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  17. 17. <ul><li>Moving party argues that the Complaint, assuming factual allegations to be true, fails to state a valid legal claim </li></ul><ul><li>Facts extraneous to the Complaint are not considered – the motion focuses on “the four corners of the Complaint” </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  18. 18. <ul><li>Van Camp v. McAfoos : </li></ul><ul><li>Plaintiff’s complaint fails to state a claim if it does not contain an allegation of fault – an allegation that the defendant acted either intentionally or negligently </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  19. 19. <ul><li>Literally asks the judge to “direct” the jury to render a verdict for the moving party </li></ul><ul><li>-- comes after the plaintiff has produced all his evidence at trial </li></ul><ul><li>-- moving party is arguing that the plaintiff has failed to prove the elements of any legal claim </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  20. 20. <ul><li>Battery requires that the defendant act, “intending to cause a harmful or offensive contact,” and that “a harmful [or offensive] contact results.” </li></ul><ul><li>-- Snyder v. Turk </li></ul><ul><li>-- Cohen v. Smith </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  21. 21. <ul><li>What counts as “contact” ? </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  22. 22. <ul><li>What damages are available for offensive (not physically harmful) battery? </li></ul><ul><li>Must damages be proved with precision? </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  23. 23. <ul><li>1. Defendant must act volitionally </li></ul><ul><li>2. Defendant must intend to cause a harmful or offensive touching of the plaintiff </li></ul><ul><li>3. Contact with or touching of the plaintiff </li></ul><ul><li>4. Plaintiff must be either harmed or offended by the touching ( note causal link ) </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  24. 24. <ul><li>Either of the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Acting with the purpose to achieve the invasive result, </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>Acting with knowledge that the invasive result is substantially certain to occur </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  25. 25. <ul><li>D intends to commit a tort on A </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But commits that tort on B instead. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can B sue D for that tort? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But commits a different tort on A </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can A sue D for the different tort? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But commits a different tort on B instead. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can B sue D for the different tort? </li></ul></ul></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  26. 26. <ul><li>Children: May be held liable for intentional torts, as long as they form the requisite intent and the other elements are proved </li></ul><ul><li>Parents: Are not liable for torts of their children, unless (1) the parents themselves are at fault and primarily liable, OR (2) a statute makes them liable. </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  27. 27. <ul><li>Polmatier & White v. Muniz </li></ul><ul><li>General rule : Mental infirmity is not a blanket defense. The issue is whether the defendant formed the required “intent.” </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  28. 28. <ul><li>Defendant must intend to touch the plaintiff </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>must intend to harm or offend the plaintiff </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  29. 29. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>1.Where the D </li></ul><ul><li>deliberately poisons the plaintiff </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  30. 30. <ul><li>2.Where the D knocks a hat off the plaintiff’s </li></ul><ul><li>head </li></ul><ul><li>3.Where the D shakes the car that the D knows the plaintiff is seated in. </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  31. 31. <ul><li>Assault: </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs where the defendant intentionally cause the plaintiff to reasonably be in apprehension of an imminent, offensive touching. </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  32. 32. <ul><li>False Imprisonment: </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs when the defendant intentionally confines (either physically or by overcoming the plaintiff’s will) </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  33. 33. <ul><li>the plaintiff to a definable area from which there is no reasonably apparent means of escape . </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  34. 34. <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Pleasure Inn </li></ul><ul><li>Shopkeeper’s Privilege </li></ul><ul><li>Arrest Privilege </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  35. 35. <ul><li>Defamation: </li></ul><ul><li>Elements: </li></ul><ul><li>1. False Communication </li></ul><ul><li>2. Injury to the Reputation </li></ul><ul><li>3. Published Statement </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  36. 36. <ul><li>A defamatory statement is one which is false and lowers the person’s esteem in the community or subjects the person to hatred, contempt, or ridicule. </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  37. 37. <ul><li>Defamation (continued): </li></ul><ul><li>Libel: When the defamatory statement is in written form. </li></ul><ul><li>Slander: When the defamatory statement is oral </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  38. 38. <ul><li>* The defamatory statement must be communicated to a third person or persons other than the one who is defamed. </li></ul><ul><li>* Can not defame a dead person. </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  39. 39. <ul><li>Defenses to defamation suits: </li></ul><ul><li>Absolute Privilege </li></ul><ul><li>Qualified Privilege </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutional </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  40. 40. <ul><li>Invasion of Privacy: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Appropriation of Name or Likeness </li></ul><ul><li>*Use of another’s name without consent </li></ul><ul><li>*For benefit </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  41. 41. <ul><li>2. Intrusion </li></ul><ul><li>*Unreasonable and offensive interference with person’s seclusion </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  42. 42. <ul><li>3. Public Disclosure of Private Facts </li></ul><ul><li>* Publicity (communication to public peers) </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  43. 43. <ul><li>* Of private information regarding an individual can be truthful </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  44. 44. <ul><li>4. False Light </li></ul><ul><li>* Highly Offensive </li></ul><ul><li>* Publicity </li></ul><ul><li>* Placing another in false light </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  45. 45. <ul><li>* The defendant publicly knew was untrue or acted in reckless disregard of truth </li></ul><ul><li>* There is a difference between an accident and reckless disregard </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  46. 46. <ul><li>Interference with Property Rights: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real Property </li></ul></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  47. 47. <ul><ul><li>Trespass: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intentionally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enters or remains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on property belonging to another or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>causes a thing or another to do so or </li></ul></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  48. 48. <ul><ul><li>fails to remove something he has a duty to remove. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Injury (damage) does not have to occur. </li></ul></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  49. 49. <ul><li>Interference with Property Rights: </li></ul><ul><li>Airspace </li></ul><ul><li>Nuisance </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  50. 50. <ul><li>Personal Property: </li></ul><ul><li>Intention </li></ul><ul><li>dispossession or </li></ul><ul><li>unauthorized use of other’s property </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  51. 51. <ul><li>Liability: </li></ul><ul><li>Dispossession </li></ul><ul><li>Trespass to personal property </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion </li></ul>Monday, June 8, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT

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