Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Taftip8 March2010 Edit Ii

  • Login to see the comments

Taftip8 March2010 Edit Ii

  1. 1. Human Trafficking in India:Opportunities for The Asia Foundation<br />SadikaHameed, Sandile Hlasthwayo, Evan Tanner, MeltemTürker, and Jungwon Yang – March 10, 2010<br />
  2. 2. Agenda<br />Part I: Introduction & methodology<br />Part II: Root causes & legal framework <br />Part III: Findings on NGO, donor, and government intervention efforts<br />Part IV: Recommendations<br />Title photo by Kay Chernush for the U.S. State Department<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Introduction<br /><ul><li> Two categories of trafficking: sex and labor, both of which are widespread in India
  4. 4. Half of the 612 districts in India are affected by trafficking
  5. 5. 3 million sex workers in India, with 40% being children
  6. 6. India is a source, transit point, and destination for trafficking
  7. 7. 90% of Indian trafficking is domestic, 10% is international</li></ul>Photo by Kay Chernush for the U.S. State Department<br />3<br />
  8. 8. Formally, Trafficking in Persons (TIP) means…<br />“the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of:<br />Threat or use of force or other forms of coercion<br />Abduction<br />Fraud<br />Deception<br />The abuse of power<br />A position of vulnerability<br />The giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person for the purpose of exploitation.” (UN Palermo Protocol, 2000)<br />4<br />
  9. 9. Informally, Trafficking in Persons means…<br /><ul><li>Preeti has not been allowed outdoors since she was enslaved in a household at age eight, fifteen years ago.
  10. 10. 17-year-old Rana is raped by twenty to fifty men every day.
  11. 11. 13-year-old Mehti has been underground weaving carpets for five years, with one meal a day.
  12. 12. 14-year-old Priyanka was sold by her father for US$22 into a life of torture, starvation, and agricultural labor.</li></ul>Photo by Kay Chernush for the U.S. State Department<br />5<br />
  13. 13. Objectives<br />Evaluate the political, social, economic, legal, and intervention landscape of the anti-trafficking movement in India<br />Research current NGO, donor, and government efforts to combat trafficking in India<br />Provide TAF with actionable recommendations with regards to a human trafficking program in India<br />Photo by Kay Chernush for the U.S. State Department<br />6<br />
  14. 14. Geographic Scope<br />Limiting of states/territories based on:<br />A pervasive and increasing trend in TIP<br />State & local government receptivity<br />Representation of source, transit, and destination points for TIP<br />Secondary data availability<br />Representation of a variety of dynamics that could influence TIP<br />Chosen states/territory (shown in black):<br />Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Goa, Jharkhand, Orissa (Odisha), Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal.<br />Collectively, the states/territories represent roughly 40% of India’s population. <br />7<br />
  15. 15. Methodology<br />Stage 1: Literature Review & Synthesizing of Secondary Data<br />Studied general global/India-specific TIP literature<br />Analyzed trafficking in nine representative states/territories<br />Researched anti-trafficking interventions in those regions<br />Conducted a legal framework analysis<br />Stage 2: Interviews<br />Supplemented intervention research with 19 NGO/donor interviews<br />8<br />
  16. 16. Data Constraints<br />The hidden nature of human trafficking<br />Illegality<br />Lack of records<br />Efforts to keep the practice hidden<br />Danger to current victims for speaking out<br />Social stigmatization of survivors<br />Challenge in distinguishing victims from voluntary migrants<br />Scope of the problem<br />Inability to conduct field research<br />9<br />
  17. 17. II. Root Causes & Legal Framework of TIP in India<br />
  18. 18. Root Causes Of Trafficking<br />11<br />
  19. 19. 12<br />NGO/Donor Perceptions of the<br />Problem of TIP in India<br />
  20. 20. Summary of Legal Framework<br />13<br />
  21. 21. Strengths and Weaknesses of Anti-Human Trafficking Efforts<br />14<br />
  22. 22. Strengths and Weaknesses of Anti-Human Trafficking Efforts (continued)<br />15<br />
  23. 23. III. Findings on Government, Donor, & NGO Efforts in Anti-TIP<br />
  24. 24. Types of Trafficking Intervention Programs<br />3Ps +C : Prevention, Prosecution, Protection and Capacity Building<br />17<br />
  25. 25. Representative Government Anti-TIP Efforts<br />Central Government<br />SwadharProgram<br /><ul><li>Supports 200 shelters (> 13,000 women and girls rescued)
  26. 26. Annual budget: $1 million
  27. 27. Designing national protocols & guidelines</li></ul>Ujjawala Program<br /><ul><li>Central gov’t grants to state gov’t projects in TIP
  28. 28. 53 state projects (> 1,700 victims)</li></ul>Central Government<br />Integrated Anti-Human Trafficking Units (IAHTUs)<br /><ul><li>In 2009, MoHAallocated $18 million to create 297 anti-human trafficking units
  29. 29. Multi disciplinary approach
  30. 30. Joint response by all stake holders, such as police, prosecutors, NGOs, civil society and media
  31. 31. Inter-departmental & inter-agency collaboration</li></ul>State Governments<br />TIP training to NGOs working on<br />HIV/AIDS<br /><ul><li>Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu
  32. 32. Victims have greater risk of contracting the disease
  33. 33. Leverages synergies
  34. 34. High value multiplier effect</li></ul>18<br />
  35. 35. Government Anti-TIP Efforts: Findings<br />The central government’s programs are –<br /><ul><li>Still in design/recently launched
  36. 36. Unclear outcomes</li></ul>The state-led intervention programs emphasize –<br /><ul><li>Prevention  Protection  Prosecution </li></ul>State government interventions often fail because –<br /><ul><li>Poor coordination
  37. 37. Low awareness
  38. 38. Lack of an integrated plan
  39. 39. High level of corruption</li></ul>NGOs’ perception of gov’t efforts generally positive; however, it was indicated that government still lacks political will, coordination, and capacity<br />19<br />
  40. 40. Non-Governmental Organizations/ Donor Anti-TIP Efforts<br />Based upon<br /><ul><li>50 NGOs profiled
  41. 41. 19 NGOs interviewed</li></ul>20<br />
  42. 42. 1. Program Types<br />Many organizations with anti-TIP initiatives not exclusively focused onTIP.<br />The number of anti-TIP NGOs varies across states.<br />iii. Priority for Different Types of Anti-TIP interventions<br />21<br />Bias towards prevention and protection interventions for source/transit states.<br />v. Destination state NGOs focus on capacity-building, protection, and prosecution; but not prevention. <br />
  43. 43. Non-Governmental Organizations/ Donor Anti-TIP Efforts (continued)<br />2. Types of Intervention<br />22<br />
  44. 44. Non-Governmental Organizations/ Donor Anti-TIP Efforts (continued)<br />3. Challenges of NGOs<br />Primary – <br />Funding<br />Secondary –<br />Implementation of laws<br />Lack of cooperation/coordination<br />Lack of human resources<br />23<br />
  45. 45. 4. NGO Collaborations with Other NGOs, International NGOs, and Networks<br /><ul><li>Entry into an NGO network increases collaboration significantly.
  46. 46. Collaboration amongst NGOs is a key opportunity area for improving.</li></ul>5. NGO Collaborations with Government & the Authorities<br /><ul><li>15/19 collaborate with governments.
  47. 47. In rescue operations, all work closely with law enforcement. </li></ul>24<br />
  48. 48. 6. Selected NGO/Donor Best Practices in Anti-TIP<br />Prevention: Live theater / Media<br /><ul><li>The UNODC’s “One Life, No Price”
  49. 49. Live theater performances
  50. 50. Anti-trafficking messages in religious festivals
  51. 51. Benefit from private sector funding</li></ul> Protection: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) programs<br /><ul><li>Helpful partnerships and networks to find former victims jobs
  52. 52. Identify opportunities for cooperatives
  53. 53. Strategic training opportunities for victims</li></ul>Prosecution: Use of local informants at transit points<br /><ul><li>Using vendors and rickshaw pullers
  54. 54. Railroad stations, bus depots, etc. </li></ul>25<br />
  55. 55. IV. Recommendations & Implementation Analysis<br />
  56. 56. Evaluation of Alternatives<br />Originating from<br />What’s not working – identified gaps <br />What’s working – best practices<br />Ranking of the recommendations<br />Selected 14 criteria based on <br />What makes programs successful/ unsuccessful<br />TAF feedback (particularly for weightings) & advisor feedback<br />Implementation analysis<br />Suggested partners<br />Photo by Kay Chernush for the U.S. State Department<br />27<br />
  57. 57. Primary Criteria <br />28<br />
  58. 58. Additional Criteria <br /><ul><li>Given lower weighting of 5% each.
  59. 59. Other criteria included—
  60. 60. TAF’score competencies
  61. 61. Adverse outcomes
  62. 62. $100K budget
  63. 63. Sustainability
  64. 64. Changes in government policy
  65. 65. Human capital
  66. 66. Ease of scaling up
  67. 67. Private sector partnership</li></ul>Photo by Kay Chernush for the U.S. State Department<br />29<br />
  68. 68. Results of Recommendations’ Ranking<br />30<br />
  69. 69. Creation of Economic Cooperatives (Ranking: 1/16)<br />PROTECTION<br />31<br />
  70. 70. Reaching Vulnerable Populations (Ranking: 2/16) <br />PREVENTION<br />32<br />
  71. 71. The Importance of Transit Points (Ranking: 2/16) <br />PROSECUTION<br />33<br />
  72. 72. Linking Resources with Need (Ranking: 2/16) <br />PROTECTION<br />34<br />
  73. 73. Central Monitoring & Evaluation (Ranking: 3/16) <br />CAPACITY BUILDING<br />35<br />
  74. 74. The Asia Foundation really values innovation, in addition to “tried and tested” programs.<br />Here are our two most “out of the box” ideas. <br />36<br />
  75. 75. Police Incentive Program (Ranking: 13/16) <br />PROSECUTION<br />37<br />
  76. 76. Rescue and Rehabilitation Experts (RREs)(Ranking: 12/16) <br />PROTECTION<br />38<br />
  77. 77. Acknowledgments<br /><ul><li>Kate Francis
  78. 78. Prof. Joe Nation, Marcos Rosales, Sarah Duffy
  79. 79. Prof. Erik Jensen and NanditaBaruah
  80. 80. Ford Dorsey Program in International Policy Studies</li></ul>39<br />

×