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Global Electrical Safety

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Global Electrical Safety

  1. 1. Global Developments in Electrical Safety P.G. Sreejith E-Mail: pillai_sreejith@hotmail.com
  2. 2. Electrical Accidents-Statistics <ul><li>India </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Almost 12 people die due to electrocution every day (Source -NCRB) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>42 % of total fires occur due to electrical sources (Source -OISD) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8% deaths that occur in factories are due to electricity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Electrical Accidents-Statistics <ul><ul><ul><li>United States </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>25% of all fires occur due to electricity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>411 deaths from job related electrical accidents per year (NIOSH) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electrocution - the fifth leading cause of death (1982 - 1990) NIOSH </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Present Status - ES-India <ul><li>ES Awareness is slowly growing </li></ul><ul><li>Use of HRCs /RCCBs is the rise, finer details are yet to be understood by many </li></ul><ul><li>More ES workshops / seminars are conducted in India </li></ul><ul><li>Statutory regulations are enforced strictly (Karnataka, Delhi - Use of RCCBs mandatory in residential buildings) </li></ul><ul><li>Many industries are re-aligning their Electrical practices based on international standards (NFPA, IEEE, etc.) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Various ES Standards / organizations-US <ul><li>NFPA - NEC ( 1897 ) </li></ul><ul><li>NESC ( 1913 ), from IEEE </li></ul><ul><li>NIOSH (Research example: development of voltage detector that will signal the person if he gets close to live power)- 1970 </li></ul><ul><li>OSHA ( 1970 ) </li></ul><ul><li>NFPA 70 E & B ( 1979 ) -approved by OSHA </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Trauma Centre, Chicago ( 1990 ) </li></ul><ul><li>NESF( 1994 ), by UL, NFPA, NEMA, CPSC </li></ul>
  6. 6. Global Developments in Electrical Safety <ul><li>Electrical Safety Products </li></ul><ul><li>ES Auditing Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>ES System Certifications </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Risk-Based Maintenance System </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical RM Programme </li></ul>
  7. 7. ES Products... <ul><li>Residual Current-Operated Circuit Breakers (RCCBs) </li></ul><ul><li>Arc Fault Current Interrupters (AFCIs) </li></ul><ul><li>Glowing Connection Detector (GCDs) </li></ul><ul><li>Infra-Red Hotspot Detection Tool </li></ul><ul><li>Thermography Surveys </li></ul>
  8. 8. ES Products <ul><li>Automatic Defibrillators </li></ul><ul><li>Complete Home ES Kit </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic Fire Detection & Extinguishing System </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Product Safety Recalls </li></ul><ul><li>Linear Heat Sensing Cables (LHSC) </li></ul>
  9. 9. GFCIs & RCCBs <ul><li>GFCIs - 5 mA, RCCBs - 30, 100, 300 mA </li></ul><ul><li>Delayed tripping RCCBs (200 mS) </li></ul>
  10. 10. AFCIs <ul><li>Arcs - temperatures up to 20,000 degree C, Sun’s outer temperature- 5000 degree C </li></ul><ul><li>No material on earth can withstand arc temperature </li></ul><ul><li>RCCBs cannot detect arcing faults </li></ul><ul><li>AFCIs - the innovative ES device after RCCBs </li></ul><ul><li>AFCIs detects arcing waveforms and trips </li></ul><ul><li>AFCIs - mandatory in all US homes from 2002 January onwards </li></ul>
  11. 11. Arcing types
  12. 12. Arcing Waveforms A loose wire at one terminal of a light bulb. Arcing generated by a loose wire at a screw terminal.
  13. 13. GCDs <ul><li>GCs are fires waiting to happen </li></ul><ul><li>Loose connections at socket terminals will cause glowing connections </li></ul><ul><li>Use of GCDs- recommended by Forensic engineers </li></ul><ul><li>Glowing connections -will not detected by fuses, MCBs, RCCBs, AFCIs </li></ul><ul><li>GCDs operate at 83 degree C </li></ul><ul><li>Glowing connection hazards were detected by a UL study </li></ul>
  14. 14. Infra-Red Hotspot Detector <ul><li>Used as part of effective EPM </li></ul><ul><li>Hotspot surveys on critical, high capacity motor terminations, measurement of continuously running critical motors </li></ul><ul><li>Uses infra-red technology, with laser sighting </li></ul><ul><li>Does not penetrate glass, plastic </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation of readings - very critical </li></ul>
  15. 15. HFFR Cables <ul><li>Halogen-Free Fire Retardant cables </li></ul><ul><li>Emits very low smoke, compared to PVC & even FRLS cables </li></ul><ul><li>Increasingly Used by many instead of FRLS (Fire Retardant low Smoke) cables </li></ul>
  16. 16. Thermography Surveys <ul><li>Part of predictive maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>In the De-Terrified scenario, may be offered by general insurance companies </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of potential survey points / equipment and interpretation - very crucial </li></ul><ul><li>NFPA 70 E recommends Thermographic surveys </li></ul>
  17. 17. Automatic External Defibrillators (AED) <ul><li>250,000 deaths every year due to sudden cardiac arrest </li></ul><ul><li>AEDs - to be part of Emergency Medical Kit </li></ul><ul><li>For every minute that passes w/o defibrillation, the chances of survival decreases by 10% </li></ul><ul><li>Has a voice prompt, cost USD 3000/- </li></ul><ul><li>UK - not a legal requirement, but a Statutory requirement in US </li></ul><ul><li>No legal liability for deaths involving the use of AEDs </li></ul>
  18. 18. Linear Heat Sensing Cables <ul><li>Advantageous than detectors, more effective </li></ul><ul><li>LHSC applications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable trays in cable galleries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transformers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Switch gears </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Automatic Fire D&E System Fire Trace - local flooding application inside electrical switch gears / power panels- detects heat and the heat -sensitive tube punctures, letting out Ozone-friendly fire extinguishing gas
  20. 20. More ES Products <ul><li>Non-Contact type voltage detector (magnetic field) </li></ul><ul><li>Plug-In Wiring Checker (detects 14 wiring defects, ideal for testing sockets, BS 1363, faulty N, missing E, reverse P& N) </li></ul><ul><li>Videoscanner, Metalliscanner (detects metallic pipes, conduits, rebar, within 15” concrete) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Home ES Kit <ul><li>Cutler Hammer, USA offers Home Safety kit, comprising of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surge protector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GFCI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AFCI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MCBs </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Electrical Product Safety Recalls <ul><li>Part of product liability </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical products recalled: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power tool battery packs (defective battery fixings) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building Wire (wrong earth wire identification) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM 15” PC monitor( overheating of electrical components resulting in smoke) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 pin plugs (improper earth connection) </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. ES Auditing Techniques <ul><li>Electrical Risk Assessment using Semi-Quantitative Risk Ranking (SQRR) technique </li></ul><ul><li>Usage of software to carry out Lightning Risk Assessment, Hazardous Area Classification </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical HAZOP (Electrical Hazard & Operability) studies </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Hazard Spotting Exercises </li></ul>
  24. 24. Electrical Risk Assessment (SQRR Technique) Risk Ranking based on severity, probability High Risk - Statutory Non-compliance, F&E hazards, Shock hazards, Risks that could result in immediate threat to life & property. Immediate correction Medium Risk - Maintenance flaws,Operational issues-correction at the next available opportunity . Low Risk - Mainly improvement measures, long term implementation
  25. 25. ES System Certification <ul><li>Integrated Occupational Health & Safety Management System certification (OHSAS 18001) </li></ul><ul><li>ATEX Certification (applicable to manufacturers / user industries, applicable in EU, mandatory by July 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>UL certification for Lightning Protection (based on NFPA 780 standard) </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Fires & Forensic Investigations </li></ul>
  26. 26. Electrical Fires & Forensic Investigations <ul><li>Forensic studies are commissioned by insurance companies in Japan, US, etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product liability claims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reconstruction of electrical fires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major electrical equipment failures (MBD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigation of Transformer fires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bus duct failures </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Electrical Risk- Based Maintenance <ul><li>Risk & Reliability based Maintenance Schedules </li></ul><ul><li>Re-Aligning the Electrical Systems in Line with Specialized International Standards to Improve electrical Safety (IEEE, NFPA 70B) </li></ul><ul><li>Usage of Tools / Condition Monitoring Methods to have Effective Predictive Maintenance System </li></ul>
  28. 28. Lightning -Common Myths <ul><li>Lightning strikes only the tall objects/ structures </li></ul><ul><li>Lightning does not strike the same object twice </li></ul><ul><li>You are safe inside a metal bodied car during lightning! </li></ul>
  29. 29. Electrical Risk Management Programme <ul><li>Identification of electrical hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Ranking (SQRR of electrical risks) </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Mitigation / Control using ALARP (As Low As Reasonably Practicable) principle </li></ul>Continuous electrical hazard identification
  30. 30. HAC Risk Assessment <ul><li>Extension to the existing HAC approach </li></ul><ul><li>Would be part of future European legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of ignition sources considered in HAC </li></ul><ul><li>With this new HAC approach, the equipment optimization is expected to increase </li></ul>
  31. 31. New HAC-based Risk Assessment Matrix
  32. 32. Risk-Based ES Audit <ul><li>Electrical Safety Audits focussed on potential risks </li></ul><ul><li>The audit methodology designed to identify all potential electrical risks (FTA, ETA, HAZOP, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-Quantification of events using available failure data </li></ul>
  33. 33. Wrap-Up <ul><li>Need for Electrical Safety is universal </li></ul><ul><li>ES awareness is increasing </li></ul><ul><li>Partnership between regulators, employers, manufacturers- growing </li></ul><ul><li>Many injuries are prevented </li></ul><ul><li>Learning from experience- very essential </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative ES devices are being used by people </li></ul><ul><li>Much More to be done in the field of ES in India!! </li></ul>
  34. 34. Technology can afford to get obsolete but not a technocrat!! [email_address]

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