Eggs

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Eggs

  1. 2. <ul><li>Nutrient Content of a Large White or Brown Egg </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient (unit)Whole EggEgg WhiteEgg YolkCalories (kcal)721755Protein (g)6.293.602.70Total lipid (g)4.9704.51Total carbohydrate (g)0.390.240.61Fatty acids (g)4.1304.32Saturated fat (g)1.5501.62Monounsaturated fat (g)1.9101.99Polyunsaturated fat (g)0.6800.71Cholesterol (mg)2120210Thiamin (mg)0.040.000.03Riboflavin (mg)0.240.150.09Niacin (mg)0.040.040.00Vitamin B6 (mg)0.070.000.06Folate (mcg)241.025Vitamin B12 (mcg)0.650.030.33Vitamin A (IU)2440245Vitamin E (mg)0.4800.44Vitamin D (IU)18018Choline (mg)125.600Betaine (mg)0.300Calcium, Ca (mg)27222Iron, Fe (mg)0.920.030.46Magnesium, Mg (mg)641Copper, Cu (mg)0.050.010.01Zinc, Zn (mg)0.560.010.39Sodium, Na (mg)70558Manganese, Mn (mg)0.020.000.01Source: USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 19 (Review Release 20) </li></ul><ul><li>Contribution of Eggs to the American Diet </li></ul><ul><li>NutrientPercentage(%)Food Energy1.3Protein3.9Fat2.0Vitamin A4.3Vitamin E4.3Riboflavin6.4Vitamin B62.1Vitamin B12 3.7Folate5.1Iron2.4Phosphorous3.6Zinc2.8 </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Eggs are an important contributor to the nutritional quality of the American diet. Eggs are high in protein and vitamins, but low in calories and carbohydrates. Eggs are a naturally nutrient-dense food, meaning they have a high proportion of nutrients to calories: one large egg has only 75 calories but provides 13 essential nutrients! Eggs are an excellent source of choline and a good source of riboflavin. Many of egg’s incredible nutrients are found in the egg yolk, including, folate, lutein, zeaxanthin and vitamin D.  Plus egg protein has just the right mix of essential amino acids needed by humans to build tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>Because they are so nutrient-dense, eggs are a great source of nutrition for people of all ages.  Since eggs are one of the most nutrient-dense foods available, they deserve to be part of everyone's healthy eating diet. </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>With science on our side, we can once again enjoy the wonderfully nutritious egg. Along with milk, eggs contain the highest biological value (or gold standard) for protein. One egg has only 75 calories but 7 grams of high-quality protein, 5 grams of fat, and 1.6 grams of saturated fat, along with iron, vitamins , minerals, and carotenoids. </li></ul><ul><li>The egg is a powerhouse of disease-fighting nutrients like lutein and zeaxanthin. These carotenoids may reduce the risk of age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of blindness in older adults. And brain development and memory may be enhanced by the choline content of eggs. </li></ul><ul><li>But the full health benefits of eggs can only be realized if you store them properly -- in the refrigerator -- and cook them thoroughly to kill any potential bacteria. As a child, I loved my father's eggnogs, made with fresh, raw eggs blended with milk, vanilla and ice. These delicious treats are no longer considered a good option -- unless pasteurized eggs are used in place of the raw eggs. </li></ul><ul><li>Creating Designer Eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Not all eggs are created equally. Manufacturers and chicken farmers have taken steps to enhance eggs' nutritional properties, spawning an entire industry devoted to improving the dietary quality of the egg. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Designer&quot; eggs may come from chickens that are allowed to roam freely (free range) or whose feed is supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids. Hens given feed that is free of animal products produce vegetarian eggs, while those given all-organic feed produce organic eggs. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>On average designer eggs cost about $1 more per dozen than regular eggs, which currently cost $1.44 according to America's United Egg Producers. </li></ul><ul><li>Along with kelp and flax seed, chickens that lay low-fat eggs are fed canola oil or other types of non-animal fats. Hens raised on this special diet produce eggs with lower saturated fat that are fortified with omega-3 fatty acid, iodine and vitamin E. </li></ul><ul><li>The trend is due in part to the popularity of low-carb diets but also to recent research that suggests eggs are healthier than previously thought when it comes to cholesterol. </li></ul><ul><li>Marigold extract can also be added to the chicken's diet to encourage eggs high in lutein, a nutrient that helps maintain the health of the eye. </li></ul><ul><li>Eggland's Best Eggs, America's largest producer of designer eggs, has seen a 25 per cent jump in sales in 2003 compared to the previous year. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Table 3. Comparison of Fat and Antioxidant Levels in Designer and Generic Eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Generic Reduced Modified </li></ul><ul><li>Egg Fat Egg Omega-3 Egg </li></ul><ul><li>Total Fat (g) 4.5 4.0 4.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Saturated Fat (g) 1.5 1.2 1.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Linolenic acid (mg) 17 >50 1000 </li></ul><ul><li>DHA (mg) 18 >50 100-150 </li></ul><ul><li>Total Omega 3 (mg) 33 >100 100-150 </li></ul><ul><li>Linoleic Acid (mg) 500 >100 100 </li></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol (mg) 213 190 213 </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin E (IU) 1.1 7.5 6.0 </li></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>CAGE-FREE EGGS Cage-free and free-range eggs (see below) appeal to people who object to caging animals; however, the cage-free system does not necessary provide optimal safety to the hens. The “free” hens can be very crowded on a henhouse floor, and injury can result. Instead, better standards may come from a United Egg Producers Certified Egg (see below). </li></ul><ul><li>FERTILE EGGS Typical eggs are not fertile, i.e., the hen has not had contact with a rooster, and no chick can develop from the egg. Some producers sell fertile eggs because some consumers believe that they are more nutritious or have some hormonal advantage. However, there is no nutritional benefit or other known advantage. </li></ul><ul><li>FREE-RANGE EGGS Free-range eggs are produced by hens that have daily access to an outdoor area where they can peck for worms, grubs and insects, and exercise their legs and wings. Both the natural diet and the exercise is believed to produce better meat in a poultry chicken, and is considered more humane in a laying hen. Generally, the chickens are housed in large barns, and a flap door is raised, weather permitting, for the hens to exit for a period of time each day. </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>CAGE-FREE EGGS Cage-free and free-range eggs (see below) appeal to people who object to caging animals; however, the cage-free system does not necessary provide optimal safety to the hens. The “free” hens can be very crowded on a henhouse floor, and injury can result. Instead, better standards may come from a United Egg Producers Certified Egg (see below). </li></ul><ul><li>FERTILE EGGS Typical eggs are not fertile, i.e., the hen has not had contact with a rooster, and no chick can develop from the egg. Some producers sell fertile eggs because some consumers believe that they are more nutritious or have some hormonal advantage. However, there is no nutritional benefit or other known advantage. </li></ul><ul><li>FREE-RANGE EGGS Free-range eggs are produced by hens that have daily access to an outdoor area where they can peck for worms, grubs and insects, and exercise their legs and wings. Both the natural diet and the exercise is believed to produce better meat in a poultry chicken, and is considered more humane in a laying hen. Generally, the chickens are housed in large barns, and a flap door is raised, weather permitting, for the hens to exit for a period of time each day. </li></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>Omega-3 Eggs. Omega-3 fatty acids are primarily found in oily fish, and therefore, most people do not consume adequate levels of this beneficial fatty acid, which helps build cell membranes , are primarily components of brain , retina and other nerve tissue, and play a key role in the prevention and management of chronic diseases. Hens that produce omega-3 enhanced eggs are fed a special vegetarian diet that consists of canola, flaxseed and linseed—all rich in omega-3 essential fatty acids. The result is that they produce eggs with higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids than other types of eggs. Depending on how many eggs you eat daily, they may or may not meet your RDA for omega-3s, which can easily be consumed via capsule. They are more expensive because of the higher cost of the feed, and are just an alternative way to get these nutrients into your diet (you can take daily pills or eat salmon and other omega-3 enhanced foods like milk and yogurt). Photo of egg yolk by Dirk De Kegel | SXC. </li></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>Vitamin-Enhanced Eggs. Similarly, hens are fed higher levels of vitamins such as B6, B12 and E, and lutein (which fights macular degeneration), which results in higher amounts of the vitamins in the egg. Like Omega-3 enriched eggs, these eggs are similarly more expensive, and are an indirect way to take these supplements. </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIC EGGS Organic eggs follow the USDA organic certification guidelines, and will have the USDA seal on the carton. Like free-range hens, these hens must have daily outdoor access in an area covered with natural vegetation. However, more stringently, the vegetation cannot have been treated with chemical pesticides . Their feed and bedding (straw) must be wholly organic, i.e., free of chemical pesticides, herbicides or fertilizers. They cannot be given any antibiotics or hormones. Should a hen require antibiotics for medical reasons, it cannot be returned to an organic flock. Once the eggs are laid, no artificial coloring or vitamins are added. Thus, the yolks can be paler in color. However, the flavor is much more vibrant. Learn more about organic eggs . </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Egg Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>For an average of just 12 cents each, eggs provide varying amounts of 13 important nutrients, including high-quality protein, choline, riboflavin and vitamin B12. </li></ul><ul><li>Calories. A large egg has 75 calories, and packs a lot of protein and other nutrition to satiate hunger. The yolk provides the majority of the 21 vitamins and minerals, including about 40% of the protein. The lutein and zeaxanthin found in the yolk are thought to protect the eye from damage due to aging associated with ultraviolet light exposure, cataract development and age-related macular degeneration. It also contains 6.29g protein, 27g calcium, 6mg magnesium, 96mg phosphorus, 67mg potassium , 244 IU vitamin A and 4.97g total fat. </li></ul><ul><li>Fat. A large egg has just 1.5 grams of saturated fat, and provides 2.6g of healthy mono- and polyunsaturated fats. It contains less than 0.5g of trans fats, which is the acceptable limit for foods to claim no trans fat content. </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>Health Benefits Of Eggs </li></ul><ul><li>According to the American Egg Board, research demonstrates that including eggs in the diet can help prevent common age-related conditions without negatively influencing the risk for heart disease. They can help preserve eyesight and maintain lean body mass as we age. </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle Health. Sarcopenia, age-related muscle loss, generally starts to set in around age 45, when muscle mass begins to decline at a rate of about 1% each year.[1] Regular exercise and high-quality protein foods, like eggs, can help maintain lean muscle mass. </li></ul><ul><li>Eyesight. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness. Research suggests that lutein and zeaxanthin, two antioxidants found in foods like egg yolks and leafy greens, may help reduce the risk of AMD by increasing macular pigment optical density. In fact, studies show that consuming one egg a day can significantly increase lutein and zeaxanthin levels without negatively impacting blood cholesterol or lipid levels.[2,3] Additional research has found that the lutein in eggs may be better absorbed by the body than it is from other sources, such as dietary supplements or spinach.[4] </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>No, they have the same nutritional value. The shell color is a function of the color of the hen: White breeds produce white eggs and brown breeds produce brown eggs (simple!). The reason that brown eggs tend to be costlier is that brown breeds are larger and require more feed. The color of the yolk is based on the feed. A diet of wheat and white corn meal would produce an almost colorless yolk; but adding yellow corn meal and/or marigolds produces the deep yellow yolk preferred in the U.S. </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>How long are eggs fresh after purchase? Eggs can be stored in their cartons in the refrigerator for four to five weeks beyond the carton’s Julian date, which reflects the consecutive days of the year (January 1 is 001 and December 31 is 365). Once an egg begins to age, it loses moisture through its shell, which is porous, and begins to dry out. The membranes that hold the egg structure begin to loosen; that’s why the yolk may not be anchored in the center of the white. An older egg would be most appropriate for a mixed dish, a batter or a hard cooked egg, which should be easier to peel than a freshly laid egg. </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the best way to store eggs? Eggs should be refrigerated at 40°F. THe USDA advises that eggs left out for more than two hours may be subject to bacteria growth, and should be discarded. (It is fine to let raw eggs come to room temperature before using—20 to 30 minutes. But they should be used and cooked or re-refrigerated within two hours.) Leave the eggs in their carton on an inside refrigerator shelf where temperature does not vary—not on the refrigerator door. The carton insulates the eggs from loss of moisture. </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>What’s the story about salmonella in eggs? In the 1980s, a specific strain of salmonella bacteria was found growing in the reproductive organs of egg-laying hens. It  is rare, but in one in 20,000 eggs, the Salmonella bacteria may infect an egg. Cooking destroys the bacteria, which is why people are advised not to use raw eggs in egg nog, steak tartare, Caesar salad, etc. To use “safe raw eggs” in recipes, the USDA recommends heating the eggs in a liquid from the recipe over low heat, stirring constantly, until the mixture reaches 160°F. Then combine it with the other ingredients and complete the recipe. </li></ul>

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