Sociocultural Factors


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Sociocultural Factors

  1. 1. SOCIOCULTURAL FACTORS Wilson Burgos Aroca José Luis Moreno Solano
  2. 2. INDEX <ul><li>CULTURE </li></ul><ul><li>STEREOTYPES OR GENERALIZATIONS? </li></ul><ul><li>ATTITUDES </li></ul><ul><li>SECOND CULTURE ACQUISITION </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIAL DISTANCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to measure social distance ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TEACHING INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE </li></ul><ul><li>LANGUAGE POLICY AND POLITICS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ESL and EFL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistic Imperialism and Language Rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language Policy and the “English Only” Debate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LANGUAGE, THOUGHT, AND CULTURE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Whorfian Hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CULTURE IN THE LANGUAGE CLASSROOM </li></ul><ul><li>CONCLUSIONS </li></ul>
  4. 4. CULTURE <ul><li>According to </li></ul><ul><li>Jhon Donne: “ No man is an island, entire of itself; every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main” </li></ul><ul><li>Larson and Smalley: a “blueprint” that “guides the behavior of people in a community and is incubated in family life” </li></ul>
  5. 5. CULTURE <ul><li>Matsumoto: </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic </li></ul><ul><li>System of rules </li></ul><ul><li>Established by groups and units </li></ul><ul><li>Survival </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes, values, beliefs, norms, and behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Shared by a group </li></ul><ul><li>Harbored differently by each specific unit </li></ul><ul><li>Communicated across generations </li></ul><ul><li>Potential to change across time </li></ul>
  6. 6. CULTURE ATKINSON Learners socially construct identities within learning communities and native cultural milieu.
  7. 7. STEREOTYPES OR GENERALIZATIONS? <ul><li>Example: How do women drive? </li></ul><ul><li>An oversimplified manner of viewing a culture, using exaggerating categories. </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes form due to our own perception view to others (a closed-minded view of other cultures). </li></ul><ul><li>Culture differences must be learnt and accepted when learning an L2. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn individual perception into appreciation. </li></ul>
  8. 8. EXTENDED ACTIVITY <ul><li>Brainstorming stereotypes in different countries and cultures. </li></ul>
  9. 9. ATTITUDES <ul><li>Coming from stereotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Gardner and Lambert: “Motivation as a construct made up of certain attitudes” </li></ul><ul><li>Based on insufficient knowledge, misinformed stereotyping, and extreme ethnocentric thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Better proficiency by students who did not want to stay in the USA. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive attitudes can help learning and L2. </li></ul><ul><li>The role of teachers to change negative attitudes. </li></ul>
  10. 10. SECOND CULTURE ACQUISITION <ul><li>Learning a second language involves learning a second culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Robinson – Stuart and Nocon: Culture learning is a “magic carpet ride to another culture” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A foreign language could present culture as “a list of facts to be cognitively consumed” by the student. (No interaction with culture) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a “ process of perceiving, interpreting, feeling, being in the world… ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acculturation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A reorientation of thinking and feeling. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. SECOND CULTURE ACQUISITION <ul><li>Culture shock </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1st stage: excitement and euphoria of the new culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2nd stage: Intrusion of more and more cultural differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3rd stage: Acceptance of differences in thinking and feeling surround them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4th stage: Assimilation, adaptation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anomie </li></ul>
  12. 12. EXTENDED ACTIVITY <ul><li>Sharing with the class the process of second culture acquisition. </li></ul>
  13. 13. SOCIAL DISTANCE <ul><li>Refers to the cognitive and affective proximity of two cultures that come into contact within an individual. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Jhon Schumann: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cohesiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congruence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanence </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. HOW TO MEASURE SOCIAL DISTANCE? <ul><li>Lack of objectivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived Social Distance through the Professed Difference in Attitude Questionnaire (PDAQ). </li></ul><ul><li>Optimal distance model (at stage 3 of second culture acquisition). </li></ul><ul><li>Second culture acquisition in adults and children (differences). </li></ul>
  15. 15. TEACHING INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE <ul><li>The need of being sensitive to the fragility of students when promoting cultural understanding and self awareness. </li></ul><ul><li>Sociocultural competence: best model of L2 – C2 is to learn a language where culture in directly experienced. </li></ul>
  16. 16. TEACHING IMPLICATION <ul><li>In your learning or teaching experiences, have you encountered situations where cultural classroom expectations have been misunderstood? </li></ul>
  17. 17. CULTURAL CATEGORIES TO STUDY CULTURAL NORMS <ul><li>Individualism: a loosely integrated society. Opposed to collectivists, which are tightly integrated. </li></ul><ul><li>Power distance: Inequality between societies in a culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertainty avoidance: Perceiving situations as unstructured, unclear, unpredictable…preference to avoid those situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Masculinity: Biological and social roles of sexes in a culture. </li></ul>
  18. 18. EXTENDED ACTIVITY <ul><li>Creating a short sketch where the cultural categories to study cultural norms are evidenced. </li></ul>
  19. 19. LANGUAGE POLICY AND POLITICS <ul><li>Teaching English as a way of homogeneity </li></ul><ul><li>World Englishes: Nativization of the language, from inner circle countries to outer ones. </li></ul><ul><li>English as a native language (ENL) a second (ESL) or as a foreign (EFL) has been attacked by more than sociolinguistic reasons. </li></ul><ul><li>English must be seen in terms of broad range of its functions and its penetration into the society. </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion between native English-Speaking teachers (NESTs) and non native English-Speaking teachers (non-NESTs). </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating English proficiency in the four skills. </li></ul>
  20. 20. EXTENDED ACTIVITY <ul><li>Discussing political issues on language policies in Colombia </li></ul><ul><li>National Bilingual Program Colombia Bilingüe 2019 </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingual project in Huila </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingual project in your school </li></ul>
  21. 21. ESL AND EFL <ul><li>ESL : English within a culture where it is spoken natively. </li></ul><ul><li>EFL: English within a culture where it is not spoken natively. </li></ul><ul><li>The contexts in which English is taught determines the ways to teach it. </li></ul>
  22. 22. LINGUISTIC IMPERIALISM AND LANGUAGE RIGHTS <ul><li>Propagation of English in the world and implications on people’s linguistic and cultural aspects. </li></ul><ul><li>Reconstituting “cultural inequalities between English and other languages”. </li></ul><ul><li>The genocide of colonial language due to the spread of English. </li></ul><ul><li>Laws to promote native language development. </li></ul><ul><li>High respect of students’ culture and native language (diversity among human beings). </li></ul>
  23. 23. TEACHING IMPLICATIONS <ul><li>Should schools, institutes, and universities refrain from teaching English so that heritage languages and cultures can be preserved? </li></ul><ul><li>In what way has your language learning or teaching experience valued home languages and cultures? </li></ul>
  24. 24. LANGUAGE POLICY AND THE “ENGLISH ONLY” DEBATE <ul><li>Language policies: Sociopolitical domain of second language acquisition. </li></ul><ul><li>Language of the education: An entity decides to offer it in a designated language. </li></ul><ul><li>Discussions about the language of education: Linguistic and cultural imperialism and diversity. </li></ul><ul><li>The minority cultures and their suffering due to the “English only” policy. </li></ul>
  25. 25. LANGUAGE, THOUGHT AND CULTURE <ul><li>Words shape our lives: The case of advertisements. </li></ul><ul><li>What a language can hide of reality. </li></ul><ul><li>A language frames the way people think: Political rhetoric, an example. </li></ul><ul><li>The structure of a question can affect its answer. </li></ul>
  26. 26. LANGUAGE, THOUGHT AND CULTURE <ul><li>The discourse level of language, sometimes used for persuasion: influential in our cognitive and affective states. </li></ul><ul><li>Conversational discourse styles may be a factor of culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Lexical items used by a person shows the intersession of his culture and cognition. </li></ul>
  28. 28. THE WHORFIAN HYPOTHESIS <ul><li>Does language reflect a culture? </li></ul><ul><li>VS </li></ul><ul><li>Does language shape a culture? </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic relativity in the interaction of language and culture </li></ul><ul><li>The use of meta-languages </li></ul>
  29. 29. EXTENDED ACTIVITY <ul><li>Creating an advertisement that persuades the client to buy it. </li></ul>
  30. 30. TEACHING IMPLICATIONS <ul><li>To what extent have your foreign language learning or teaching experiences involved internalizing cultural thought patterns along with the language form themselves? </li></ul>
  31. 31. CULTURE IN THE LANGUAGE CLASSROOM <ul><li>Cultural activities in the classroom must include: </li></ul><ul><li>Customs and belief systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of stereotypes. </li></ul><ul><li>Degrees of willingness to participate openly. </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of linguistic imperialism. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment of Students’ Uncertainty Avoidance. </li></ul><ul><li>Roles of males and females. </li></ul><ul><li>Connections between language features and cultural ways of thinking, feeling and acting. </li></ul><ul><li>Previous experiences on students’ native culture. </li></ul>
  32. 32. CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>Culture is a big influence when learning a second and a foreign language in terms of cominucating, socializing and stereotyping. </li></ul><ul><li>The creation of a new culture identity when acquiring a language. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture shocks to overcome in the learning process. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers as the support of stereotyping cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>The role of English in the world </li></ul>