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  1. 1. How to teach Listening <ul><li>Yohamer Ernesto Guevara </li></ul><ul><li>Jesús Alfonso Hermosa Tovar </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>What is listening? </li></ul><ul><li>RECEPTIVE SKILL </li></ul><ul><li>Involves making sense of the meaningful sounds of language by using context and our knowledge of language and the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Learners have to be able to understand the main idea of what is said as well as specific details. </li></ul><ul><li>They also need to check any predictions they have made; and understand the speaker’s meaning, emotions, and opinions. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Learners try to listen and understand word by word. </li></ul><ul><li>Learners assume failure. </li></ul><ul><li>Learners do not have idea of the listening context </li></ul><ul><li>Learners are not conscious of features of connected speech, word stress, or speed of speech. </li></ul><ul><li>Learners are not aware of the listening strategies. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Listening Demands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>G OOD PRONUNCIATION SKILLS: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TEACH PRONUNCIATION SINCE THE VERY BEGINNING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LISTENER ENGAGEMENT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PRE TEACH / WARM UP </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Listening <ul><li>Different Listening Stages </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-while-post </li></ul><ul><li>Different Listening Tasks </li></ul>
  7. 7. STEPS FOR DEVELOPING LISTENING LESSONS Pre - Listening While - Listening Post - Listening
  8. 8. Techniques for pre – listening instructions. PRE - LISTENING ACTIVATING PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE <ul><li>Contextualization. </li></ul><ul><li>Pre teach vocabulary. (Look at pictures, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Prediction. (What is coming) </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion (Discuss the topic) </li></ul><ul><li>Games </li></ul><ul><li>Guiding questions. </li></ul>
  9. 9. PROCESSING INFORMATION WHILE - LISTENING -Comparing. -Obeying instructions. -Filling in gaps. -Detecting differences. -Ticking of items. -Information transfer. -Sequencing. -Matching.
  10. 10. POST-LISTENING USE OF INFORMATION <ul><li>Answering to show </li></ul><ul><li>comprehension. </li></ul><ul><li>-Summarizing. </li></ul><ul><li>-Jigsaw listening. </li></ul><ul><li>-Writing follow up. </li></ul><ul><li>-Speaking as follow up. </li></ul>
  11. 11. H.D. Brown's Principles for Teaching Speaking Skills
  12. 12. <ul><li>PRINCIPLE #1 </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on both FLUENCY & ACCURACY pending on your objective. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Make sure your tasks have a linguistic language-based) objective, and seize the opportunity to help students to perceive and use the ” building blocks of language. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>PRINCIPLE #2 </li></ul><ul><li>Provide INTRINSICALLY MOTIVATING techniques </li></ul><ul><li>“ Appeal to students’ ultimate goals and interests, to their need for knowledge, for status, for achieving competence and autonomy … help them to see how the activity will benefit them. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>PRINCIPLE #3 </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage the use of AUTHENTIC LANGUAGE in meaningful contexts </li></ul><ul><li>“ It takes energy and creativity to devise authentic contexts and meaningful interaction, but with the help of a storehouse of teacher resource ” materials, it can be done. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>PRINCIPLE #4 </li></ul><ul><li>Provide APPROPRIATE FEEDBACK and correction </li></ul><ul><li>“ It is important that you take advantage of your knowledge of English to inject the kinds of corrective feedback that are ” appropriate for the moment. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>PRINCIPLE #5 </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalize on the NATURAL LINK between speaking and listening </li></ul><ul><li>“ The two skills can reinforce each other. Skills in producing language are often initiated ” through comprehension. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>PRINCIPLE #6 </li></ul><ul><li>Give students OPPORTUNITIES TO INITIATE oral communication </li></ul><ul><li>“ Part of oral communication competence is the ability to initiate conversations, to nominate topics, to ask questions, to control conversations, and to change the subject. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>PRINCIPLE #7 </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage the DEVELOPMENT OF SPEAKING STRATEGIES </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking Strategies asking for clarification (what?) asking someone to repeat something (pardon me?) using fillers (uh, I mean) to get time to process using conversation maintenance cues (uh-huh, right, yeah, OK, Hmm) getting someone’s attention (hey, say, so) paraphrasing for structures one can’t produce appealing for assistance from the interlocutor using formulaic expressions using mime and non-verbal expressions </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>REFERENCES </li></ul><ul><li>TEACHING AND LEARNING IN THE LANGUAGE CLASSROOM by Hedge, 2006 Cambridge University Press </li></ul><ul><li>PRINCIPLES OF LANGUAGE LEARNING AND TEACHING H.Douglas Brown </li></ul><ul><li>HOW TO TEACH ENGLISH by Jeremy Harmer 2005 </li></ul>
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  26. 33. LISTENING ACTIVITY <ul><li>SCHOOL: Private and/or school. </li></ul><ul><li>SUBJECT: English </li></ul><ul><li>LEVEL OF ENGLISH: Beginner/Intermediate </li></ul><ul><li>AGES: Teenagers. </li></ul><ul><li>TOPIC: What am I like? </li></ul><ul><li>OBJECTIVE / ACHIEVEMENT: At the end of the lesson, students will be able to use vocabulary related to personality factorssters by talking about extreme weather conditions, disasters and describing and weather in their country. And they students will also be able to visualize a scene based on sounds and music. </li></ul><ul><li>SKILLS PRACTICED </li></ul><ul><li>Reading : Students can read comments on different stereotypes. </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking : Students can talk and describe how they are like, and how other people are like. Students can also aks how some people are like. </li></ul><ul><li>Listening : Students can recognize and understand new words related to stereotypes and personality factors. And a follow up different personality descriptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Writing : Students can write an e-mail describing how Colombians are, and they are really like. </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary & Grammar: Students can understand stereotypes and personality terms. </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar : Students can use the expression “what are some ones like”. Present simple. </li></ul><ul><li>ASSESSMENT: -Students will be assessed by their performance of the tasks in each unit. </li></ul><ul><li>- and… </li></ul>
  27. 34. <ul><li>Pre–listening </li></ul><ul><li>Contextualize and predicition (British and French culture) </li></ul><ul><li>New vocabulary (stereotypes and personality types) such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Lazybones, chatterbox, killjoy, smart alec, high flier, workaholic, troublemaker, good sense of humor, reserved, family oriented, aristocratic, homey, stiff, formal, helpful, fun, cold, open-minded, les open, pompous, stuffy, awful, fabulous, polite, cultured, passionate, friendly, unfriendly, warm, rude, artistic, hospitable, quite, fashionable, laid back, easy-going, civilized, charming… </li></ul>
  28. 35. <ul><li>While–listening. </li></ul><ul><li>General understanding and listen for specific </li></ul><ul><li>information. </li></ul><ul><li>First listen to the video about the British and write down the as many descriptions as they can. </li></ul><ul><li>Then, listen the second video about the French and also write down as many descriptions as they can. </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing. </li></ul><ul><li>Now, in pairs, they can compare and contrast their findings and their thoughts. At this stage, they can also ask for clarification. </li></ul><ul><li>They can also express preferences according their findings. </li></ul>
  29. 36. <ul><li>Post-listening . </li></ul><ul><li>Possible activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Write an article about how Colombians are like to be shared among the institution. </li></ul><ul><li>Write an article to a pen friend, describing how Colombians are and she/he thinks how she/he is like. </li></ul><ul><li>Every student will pick a specific culture and she/he needs to find information about it, and then present in class how those people are like and why. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare an interview. (role play) </li></ul><ul><li>Etc.. </li></ul>
  30. 37. Thank you all