Gender and the ICC

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Gender and the ICC

  1. 1. Gender and the International Criminal Court (ICC): A Focus on Rape and Sexual/Gender Violence in War/Conflict Situations Lourdes Veneracion-Rallonza 11 th Summer Institute on International Women’s Human Rights 5 May 2009
  2. 2. What do we know about wartime rape? <ul><li>Endemic in warfare (e.g. Gottschall 2004; Askin 2003 & 1997; Gardam and Jarvis 2001; Charlesworth and Chinkin 2000; Wald 1997; Allen 1996; Niarchos 1995; Stiglmayer 1994; Chinkin 1994; Meron 1993; Wells 1984; Brownmiller 1975; Keen 1965) </li></ul><ul><li>Most common form of violence against women during armed conflict situations and thus, most common type of violation of women’s human rights in this context (e.g. Chriss 2004; Askin 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Crime committed with impunity (e.g. Bedont 2000; Bedont and Martinez 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Trivialized and mischaracterized in international humanitarian law (e.g. Dixon 2002, Ni Aolain 2000; Copelon 2000; Charlesworth 1999; Bassiouni 1999; Gardam 1997; Pratt and Fletcher 1994; Chinkin 1994; Anleu 1992; Kushalani 1982) </li></ul>
  3. 3. What do we know about wartime rape? <ul><li>Rape used as a weapon of war finally recognized after Yugoslav and Rwandan Conflicts </li></ul>
  4. 4. What do we know about wartime rape? <ul><li>Rape as a weapon of war linked with the character of the war itself </li></ul>
  5. 5. International Humanitarian Law (IHL) <ul><li>is commonly referred to as the ‘laws of war’ or the body of law that tries to mitigate the horrors of armed conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Since the mid-19th century, there were 103 declarations, treaties, conventions, resolutions, and judgments on the law of war </li></ul>
  6. 6. International Humanitarian Law (IHL)
  7. 7. International Humanitarian Law (IHL): Law of the Hague <ul><li>pertains to the rules of armed itself and governs the use of weapons in war </li></ul><ul><li>sets the constraints for the conduct of military operations </li></ul><ul><li>Hague Convention of 1899 </li></ul><ul><li>Hague Convention of 1907 </li></ul>
  8. 8. International Humanitarian Law (IHL): Law of Geneva <ul><li>meant to protect individual persons and civilian populations within the control of the enemy against violent or unreasonable acts </li></ul><ul><li>“ to the legal protection of human beings against the misuse of power” </li></ul><ul><li>Though not imposing restrictions on the means and method of war, the Law of Geneva does provide for the treatment of prisoners of war and civilians </li></ul>
  9. 9. International Humanitarian Law (IHL): Law of Geneva <ul><li>First Geneva Convention “for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field” </li></ul><ul><li>Second Geneva Convention “for the Amelioration of the Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of the Armed Forces at Sea” </li></ul><ul><li>Third Geneva Convention “relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War” </li></ul><ul><li>Fourth Geneva Convention “relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War” </li></ul><ul><li>Protocol I (1977) or the Protocol Additional to the Geneva Convention of 12 August 1949 Relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Protocol II (1977) or the Protocol Additional to the Geneva Convention of 12 August 1949 Relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Protocol III (2005) or the Protocol Additional to the Geneva Convention of 12 August 1949 Relating to the Adoption of an Additional Emblem </li></ul>
  10. 10. International Humanitarian Law (IHL): Law of Geneva --- Where are the women? <ul><li>Of the 559 articles of the 4 Geneva Conventions and 2 Additional Protocols, 37 specifically mention or refer to women. </li></ul>
  11. 11. International Humanitarian Law (IHL): Law of Geneva --- Where are the women? <ul><li>With regards to wartime rape, ‘protective provisions’ have been linked with the concept of ‘women’s honor’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Women shall be especially protected against any attack on their honour , in particular against rape , enforced prostitution , or any form of indecent assault ” (Fourth Geneva Convention, Article 27) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Women shall be the object of special respect and shall be protected in particular against rape , forced prostitution and any other forms of indecent assault ” (Additional Protocol I, Article 76(1)) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ outrages upon personal dignity, in particular humiliating and degrading treatment, rape, enforced prostitution and any form of indecent assault” ( Additional Protocol II, Article 4(2)(e)) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. “ war-time rape must be seen as a crime against the personhood of a woman and not against the honor bestowed upon her by her society or family. Rape is an attack against her bodily integrity, her autonomy, her very dignity as a human being. It degrades her both as an individual and as a member of a collective” (Veneracion-Rallonza 2006)
  13. 13. Without such recognition, rape will continue to be a crime committed in a culture of impunity... <ul><li>International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg (Ni Aolain 2000; Meron 1993) </li></ul><ul><li>International Military Tribunal for the Far East (Joseph 2006) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Historic and Legal Precedents: Post-Cold War Conflicts <ul><li>International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) </li></ul><ul><li>- lists rape as a crime against humanity </li></ul><ul><li>- Of the 93 cases brought to the ICTY, 26 indictments were on wartime rape; of these indictments, 12 were meted convictions </li></ul><ul><li>- rape was also understood to be a form of torture (Mucic et al and Furundžija cases) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Historic and Legal Precedents: Post-Cold War Conflicts <ul><li>International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) </li></ul><ul><li>- lists rape as a crime against humanity and as grave breach of Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocol II </li></ul><ul><li>- in the case of the ICTR which currently has 73 cases, 26 indictments involved the crime of wartime rape and sexual violence; of these indictments, 8 convictions were </li></ul><ul><li>- jurisprudence also found rape as torture and constitutive of genocide (Akayesu case) </li></ul>
  16. 16. The International Criminal Court <ul><li>World’s first criminal court </li></ul><ul><li>Involved state and non-state actors in the drafting of the Rome Statute, Elements of Crime, and Rules of Procedure </li></ul><ul><li>To date, out of the one hundred eight ( 108 ) countries that have ratified or acceded to the Rome Statute </li></ul><ul><li>- twenty ( 20 ) enacted legislations: (1) Argentina; (2) Australia; (3) Canada; (4) European Union; (5) France; (6) Germany; (7) Liechtenstein; (8) Netherlands; (9) Norway; (10) Panama; (11) Peru; (12) Portugal; (13) Senegal; (14) Slovenia; (15) South Africa; (16) Spain; (17) Switzerland; (18) Trinidad and Tobago; (19) United Kingdom; (20) Uruguay. </li></ul><ul><li>- fourteen ( 14 ) drafted legislations: (1) Arab League; (2) Belgium; (3) Bolivia; (4) Bosnia and Herzegovina; (5) Columbia; (6) Commonwealth; (7) Costa Rica; (8) Democratic Republic of Congo; (9) Ecuador; (10) Italy; (11) Kenya; (12) Malta; (13) Mexico; (14) Serbia and Montenegro. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The International Criminal Court (Article 5) <ul><li>Genocide </li></ul><ul><li>acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes against humanity </li></ul><ul><li>acts committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population, with knowledge of the attack </li></ul><ul><li>War crimes </li></ul><ul><li>committed as part of a plan or policy or as part of a large-scale commission of such crimes (i.e. grave breach of Geneva Conventions and serious violations of laws and customs applicable to internal armed conflicts) </li></ul><ul><li>VENE's Academic Related WorkPOLSCI PhD WORKPhD Dissertation ProjectOnline Journal Articles for DissertationICCRome Statute of the ICC_1998.pdf </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Rome Statute <ul><li>Of 128 articles, 9 mention ‘gender’ </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Provisions in the Rome Statute.doc </li></ul><ul><li>3 provisions are specific to rape and sexual violence: criminalization as war crime and crime against humanity </li></ul><ul><li>Rape Provisions in the Rome Statute.doc </li></ul>
  19. 19. Elements of Crime and Rules of Procedure <ul><li>Progressive re-conceptualization of rape </li></ul><ul><li>EOC of Rape.doc </li></ul><ul><li>Gender sensitive rules of court </li></ul><ul><li>RPE of Rape and Sexual Violence.doc </li></ul>
  20. 20. Existing ‘ Realpolitik’ <ul><li>Issue of complementarity: sovereignty vs. genuine justice </li></ul><ul><li>Continued deployment of rape as a weapon of war </li></ul><ul><li>(Northern) Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Central African Republic, Sudan (Darfur Region) </li></ul><ul><li>“ What does the ICC mean for women?” </li></ul>

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