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World Cultures Toolkit 1 16


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World Cultures Toolkit 1 16

  1. 1. Unit I: World Cultures Toolkit World Cultures 9
  2. 2. Toolkit Objectives (do not record!) <ul><li>You will be able to identify and describe the various aspects which comprise and affect a group’s culture </li></ul><ul><li>You will be able to evaluate data from a variety of sources to analyze a country </li></ul><ul><li>You will be able to compare U.S. culture with those of other countries around the world </li></ul>
  3. 3. Sections of the Toolkit (do not record) <ul><li>In each section, you will gain an overview of the following areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faith Belief Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political Systems </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Geography <ul><ul><li>Essential Questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we use geographic tools? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How does where we live influence how we live? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do place and region affect population characteristics? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Definition* <ul><li>Geography – studies where people, places, and things are located and how they are related </li></ul>
  6. 6. Is this statement true? (DNR) <ul><li>“ People affect geography and geography </li></ul><ul><li>affects people” </li></ul>
  7. 7. Mapping Basics* <ul><li>Hemisphere </li></ul><ul><li>Equator, Prime Meridian </li></ul><ul><li>Continent </li></ul><ul><li>Country/State –occupies a specific territory and has full control of its affairs </li></ul>
  8. 8. Types of Maps* <ul><li>Political Map </li></ul><ul><li>A country's territories, boundaries, and cities </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Map </li></ul><ul><li>Physical features – ex. elevation, mountain ranges (also known as a relief map) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Types of Maps Which is which? What country is shown on the physical map? What area or region of the world is shown on the political map?
  10. 10. Types of Maps (cont.)* <ul><li>Thematic Map - represents a place based on a certain theme (population, climate, etc.) </li></ul>
  11. 11. “ Where am I?!”* <ul><li>Location – position on Earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>Absolute Location (“GPS” Coordinates) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Latitude – measures N/S of equator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long itude – measures E/W of Prime Meridian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: New Hope is located at coordinates 40 ° N , 74 °W </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Relative Location </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: “New Hope is near the east coast of the US” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Scale: </li></ul>
  12. 12. “Where am I?!” (cont)
  13. 13. Climate* <ul><li>Climate –average weather of a place or region </li></ul><ul><li>How does a country’s climate affect the ways people live? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Population* <ul><li>Population distribution – average number of people living in an area </li></ul><ul><li>“ Dense vs. Sparse” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Jersey – 1,134.4 people per square mile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alaska – 1.1 people per square mile </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What determines where people live? </li></ul><ul><li>Habitable lands – can land support food for people? </li></ul><ul><li>Push/Pull Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Push : force people to leave their homeland and migrate. Ex. disasters, war, persecution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pull: draw or attract people to another location. Ex. climate, job opportunities </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Population Distribution Thematic Map
  16. 16. “ Can we live here?”* <ul><li>Humans change the environment or adapt to it to make it habitable. </li></ul><ul><li>Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear land for arable , or farmable, land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build infrastructure (ex. canals, bridges, dams, highways) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adapt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eskimo igloos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Siesta </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Culture*
  18. 19. Culture* <ul><li>Culture : Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors shared and passed on by members of a group. </li></ul><ul><li>S ociety - group that shares a region/sense of identity </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic group - shares common and distinctive racial, national, linguistic, or cultural heritage </li></ul><ul><li>A r ace - humans distinguished from others by genetically transmitted physical characteristics </li></ul>
  19. 20. How can we “see” culture?*
  20. 21. How do people learn about their culture?* <ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended - </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Media </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Others? (no need to record) </li></ul>
  21. 22. How does culture spread or change?* <ul><li>Diffusion – movement of customs/ideas from one place to another </li></ul><ul><li>Assimilation –adopting customs/attitudes of a dominant culture (occurs in a multicultural society like ours) </li></ul><ul><li>Imperialism – control by one country of another country or region (ex. Tibet) </li></ul><ul><li>Westernization – adoption of western culture in other regions </li></ul>
  22. 24. Cultural Relativism* <ul><li>Cultural relativism </li></ul><ul><li>Customs/beliefs/actions of people always make the “best sense” in the context of their own culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Letting cows wander the streets in India may not make sense to us, but it makes perfect sense to those living in India. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 25. A Word of Caution…* <ul><li>What happens when cultural relativism is ignored? </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnocentrism – judging other cultures by standards of one’s own (unfair) </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotype –often negative description of an individual based on group membership </li></ul><ul><li>Racism – belief that one racial group is superior to another </li></ul><ul><li>Genocide – deliberate elimination of a different social group </li></ul>
  24. 26. Quick Write: In three to four sentences, explain your reasoning behind the following statement: How can it be argued that understanding cultural relativism is important when studying different cultures?
  25. 27. <ul><li>Belief Systems* </li></ul>
  26. 28. Belief System Tools <ul><li>What is a belief system? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is a belief system important? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the world’s major belief systems? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you know about each of the world’s belief systems? </li></ul>
  27. 29. Belief System Tools (cont.)* <ul><li>Belief systems - often referred to as religions - are based entirely on faith </li></ul><ul><li>Used to answer basic questions about the meaning/purpose of life </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Monotheism – belief in one god </li></ul><ul><li>Polytheism – belief in many gods </li></ul><ul><li>Animism (aka traditional) – belief in divine forces in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Atheism – belief that there is no god </li></ul>
  28. 30. Belief System Tools (cont.) * <ul><li>In addition, many people follow other regional religions </li></ul>East Asia @500 million Buddhism United States, Israel @14 million Judaism (M) India, South Asia @900 million Hinduism (P) Middle East and Asia (Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh) @1.5 billion (second largest in world – fastest growing) Islam (M) Americas, Europe @2.1 billion (largest in world) Christianity (M) Present areas # of Followers Religion
  29. 31. Belief System Tools (cont.)
  30. 32. <ul><li>Economics* </li></ul>
  31. 33. Economics * <ul><li>What is economics ? </li></ul><ul><li>Balancing unlimited wants and needs with limited resources </li></ul><ul><li>The production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services </li></ul>
  32. 34. Economic Systems (HW) * <ul><li>All economic systems must answer three questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Four types of economic systems (What are they and what are the characteristics of each?): </li></ul>
  33. 35. Economic Systems (HW)* <ul><li>All economic systems must answer three questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What should we produce? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How should we produce it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For whom shall we produce? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Four types of economic systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional – people produce most of what they need to survive; hunting, gathering, farming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market – business and industries produce and sell goods for money; based on supply and demand; capitalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Command – government controls, or “commands,” quantities and types of goods to be produced; communism/socialism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed – individuals make some economic decisions and government makes others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>today, most countries are mixed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 36. Standard of Living Tools* <ul><li>How can you tell a country’s standard of living? </li></ul><ul><li>GDP Per Capita – value of all goods/services produced in a nation per year divided by the number of people living in it. </li></ul><ul><li>Population Below the Poverty Line – % of impoverished people </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment Rate - % of people that want a job but can’t find one </li></ul><ul><li>Life Expectancy – how long a person, born today, can expect to live </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy Rate - % of people that can read - 6 th grade level </li></ul><ul><li>Infant Mortality Rate – # of babies that die within the first year of life (written as x/1000) </li></ul><ul><li>Population Growth Rate - how fast population is growing. Under 1% is considered good – over 1% is considered too fast </li></ul><ul><li>Age Structure – % of population that falls within age ranges (young, old) </li></ul>
  35. 37. GDP per Capita
  36. 38. Life Expectancy Around the World
  37. 39. The World Economy* <ul><li>Increasingly, countries are interdependent ; they depend on one another for goods, resources, and knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Exports –sent to markets outside a country </li></ul><ul><li>Imports –brought into a country </li></ul><ul><li>Natural resources –earth materials that have economic value (ex. ?) </li></ul><ul><li>Embargo – ban on trade </li></ul><ul><li>What nations does the U.S. rely on for imports? Exports? </li></ul>
  38. 40. Levels of Economic Development* <ul><li>Industrialized nation - most people have a high standard of living/access to many goods and services </li></ul><ul><li>Market economies </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing /service industries </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure , or the basic support systems needed to keep an economy going, is sophisticated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power, communications, transportation, water, sanitation, education </li></ul></ul>
  39. 41. Levels of Economic Development (cont.)* <ul><li>Developing Nation –most people have a low standard of living/few goods and services </li></ul><ul><li>Typically, a traditional or command economy </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture plays a major role </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure is weak </li></ul><ul><li>Most in Central/South America, Africa, and Asia </li></ul>
  40. 42. Political Systems*
  41. 43. Political System Tools <ul><li>What is a political system? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is a political system important? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the world’s major political systems? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you know about each of the world’s political systems? </li></ul>
  42. 44. Political Systems* <ul><li>Satisfies a group’s basic needs </li></ul><ul><li>maintains order/provides protection </li></ul>
  43. 45. Political System Tools (cont.)* <ul><li>Varies in level of power sharing… </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy – people have supreme power </li></ul><ul><li>Dictatorship –leader holds power by force. Ex: North Korea, Cuba </li></ul><ul><li>Monarchy –leaders inherit power, usually through family ties. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitutional monarchy – power shared with a legislative branch (UK, Japan) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absolute monarchy – power controlled by the monarch (Saudi Arabia) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oligarchy –small elite has ruling power Ex: China, USSR </li></ul><ul><li>Theocracy –government based on religious law. Ex: Iran, Saudi Arabia </li></ul><ul><li>Communism –government holds all political and economic power in the name of the people. Ex: China, Cuba </li></ul>
  44. 46. World Political Systems Blue – Presidential Republic Yellow – Semi-Presidential Republic (Pres. & PM share power) Red – Constitutional Monarchy/Parliamentary Purple – Absolute Monarchy Brown – Single-Party or Military (Dictatorship or Oligarchy)
  45. 47. Quick Write – So why do we need to teach and learn about World Cultures? You tell me!