Psych 101 Chapter One

22,155 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
0 Comments
21 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
22,155
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
153
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1,115
Comments
0
Likes
21
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Psych 101 Chapter One

    1. 1. <ul><ul><li>Chapter 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is Psychology? </li></ul></ul>
    2. 2. Chapter Preview <ul><li>Defining Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Historical Foundations of Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporary Approaches to Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Specializations and Careers in Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Application: Health and Wellness </li></ul>
    3. 3. Psychology: Defined <ul><li>The scientific study of behavior and </li></ul><ul><li>mental processes </li></ul><ul><li>Key components of this definition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental Processes </li></ul></ul>
    4. 5. Psychology and Common Sense <ul><li>Is psychology simply common sense? </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes yes, but sometimes no… </li></ul><ul><li>Hindsight Bias </li></ul><ul><li>Unexpected Findings </li></ul>
    5. 6. Positive Psychology <ul><li>Psychology has traditionally focused on the negative aspects of human experience, but the discipline is concerned with much more than disordered behavior! </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Psychology Movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiences people value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traits associated with optimal functioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive group and civic values </li></ul></ul>
    6. 7. Where can you use psychology..?
    7. 9. Historical Approaches <ul><li>Western Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Biology and Physiology </li></ul><ul><li>Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) </li></ul><ul><li>First Psychology Laboratory (1879) established at the University of Leipzig </li></ul>
    8. 10. Structuralism <ul><li>Wundt: Identify structures of the mind </li></ul><ul><li>Research described dimensions of feeling: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pleasure / Displeasure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tension / Relaxation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excitement / Depression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Methodology: Introspection </li></ul>
    9. 11. Functionalism <ul><li>William James and Pragmatism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the functions of the mind </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focused on interactions with environment </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive significance: “Why?” </li></ul><ul><li>Flow of thought: Stream of consciousness </li></ul>
    10. 12. Psychology and Evolution <ul><li>Charles Darwin (1859) </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There exists a constant struggle for resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature will favor those traits that promote reproduction and survival </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental changes alter evolution’s course </li></ul></ul>
    11. 17. Contemporary Approaches <ul><li>Seven Current Psychological Perspectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychodynamic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humanistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociocultural </li></ul></ul>
    12. 18. The Biological Approach <ul><li>Focuses on the brain and nervous system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central to understanding behavior, thought, and emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neuroscience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure, function, development, genetics, biochemistry of the nervous system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chapter 3: Biological Foundations of Behavior </li></ul>
    13. 20. The Behavioral Approach <ul><li>Focuses on the environmental determinants of observable behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Notable Behaviorists: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Watson, B.F. Skinner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Early conflicts with cognitive psychologists </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 7: Learning </li></ul>
    14. 22. The Psychodynamic Approach <ul><li>Emphasizes unconscious thought, conflict between internal drives and society, and early family experiences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All influence behavior, thought, and emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Notable Psychodynamic Theorists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson, Alfred Adler </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chapter 11: Personality </li></ul>
    15. 24. The Humanistic Approach <ul><li>Focuses on positive human qualities, capacity for self-actualization, free will </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed in response to the behaviorist and psychodynamic approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Notable Humanistic Theorists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chapter 11: Personality </li></ul>
    16. 26. The Cognitive Approach <ul><li>Emphasizes the importance of mental processes to problem solving, learning and memory </li></ul><ul><li>Mental processes control behavior through memories, perceptions, and thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 9: Thinking, Language, and Intelligence </li></ul>
    17. 28. The Evolutionary Approach <ul><li>Emphasizes the relevance of evolutionary theory to all behavior and mental processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current function reflects changes that occurred in response to ancestral environments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Notable Evolutionary Psychologists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>David Buss, Leda Cosmides, John Tooby </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chapter 3: Biological Foundations of Behavior </li></ul>
    18. 29. The Sociocultural Approach <ul><li>Examines how social and cultural environments influence behavior and mental processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In contrast to the evolutionary approach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Studies differences between ethnic and cultural groups within a country </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 12: Social Psychology </li></ul>
    19. 31. Contemporary Approaches Example: Altruism <ul><li>Seven Current Psychological Perspectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychodynamic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humanistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociocultural </li></ul></ul>
    20. 33. Critical Controversy: Altruism <ul><li>Altruism Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary behavior intended to help others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not motivated by expectation of personal gain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Altruism: The Evolutionary Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kin selection and inclusive fitness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Altruism: The Sociocultural Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social relationships unfold over time </li></ul></ul>
    21. 34. Areas of Specialization <ul><li>Specializations are not mutually exclusive </li></ul><ul><li>Highlighted by “Intersections” in the text </li></ul><ul><li>American Psychological Association </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abbreviated: APA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently 56 divisions / specializations </li></ul></ul>
    22. 35. Areas of Specialization <ul><li>Physiological Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Neuroscience </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Sensation and Perception </li></ul>
    23. 36. Areas of Specialization <ul><li>Cognitive Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation and Emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Personality Psychology </li></ul>
    24. 37. Areas of Specialization <ul><li>Social Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial and Organizational Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical and Counseling Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Health Psychology </li></ul>
    25. 38. Areas of Specialization <ul><li>Community Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>School and Educational Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology of Women </li></ul>
    26. 39. Areas of Specialization <ul><li>Forensic Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Sport Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-Cultural Psychology </li></ul>
    27. 40. Intersection: Culture and Emotion <ul><li>Complete the “Happiness” scale in the text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sum your ratings and divide the total by 5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher scores = higher perceived happiness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Despite numerous cultural differences, most people report being happy </li></ul><ul><li>But culture can impact perceived happiness </li></ul>
    28. 41. Intersection: Culture and Emotion <ul><li>Individualistic Cultures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals viewed as unique and distinct from their social group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value independence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collectivistic Cultures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize social group and the individual’s role within that group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value interdependence </li></ul></ul>
    29. 42. Careers in Psychology <ul><li>What do psychologists do? And where? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social and Human Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research Laboratories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical and Private Practice Settings </li></ul></ul>
    30. 43. Careers in Psychology
    31. 44. Careers in Psychology
    32. 45. Psychology: Health and Wellness <ul><li>Psychology is concerned with Mind-Body Connections </li></ul><ul><li>The mind impacts the body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The body impacts the mind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples? </li></ul></ul>
    33. 46. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Explain what psychology is and describe the positive psychology movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the roots and early scientific foundations of psychology. </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize the main themes of seven approaches to psychology. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate areas of specialization and careers in psychology. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the connections between the mind and the body. </li></ul>
    34. 47. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Defining Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The scientific study of behavior and mental processes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Historical Foundations of Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Origins in philosophy and physiology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structuralism – Wilhelm Wundt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functionalism – William James </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary Theory – Charles Darwin </li></ul></ul>
    35. 48. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Contemporary Approaches to Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seven current approaches – complementary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specializations and Careers in Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business, social and human services, research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education, research, clinics and private practice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Application: Health and Wellness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The mind-body connection is a “two-way street” </li></ul></ul>

    ×