CATHIE Description Inquiry-based learning is rooted in the scientific method of investigating phenomenon in a structured and methodical manner. Related to teaching and learning, it is an information-processing model that allows pupils to discover meaning and relevance to information through a series of steps that lead to a conclusion or reflection on the newly attained knowledge. In most cases, teachers use a &quot;guided inquiry&quot; method to facilitate the learning experience and structure the inquiry around specific goals of instruction. The benefits of inquiry-based learning include the development of critical thinking, creative thinking, and problem solving. As an inductive thinking model, it has a particular appeal for boys. Brain research points to this. Levels of Inquiry When considering inquiry activities in schools, consider the experiences and skills of your students. There are four levels of inquiry ( Callison ). Controlled . In a controlled inquiry, the teacher and/or media specialist chooses the topic and identifies materials that students will use to address their questions. Students are often involved with specific exercises and activities to meet particular learning outcomes such as retelling stories, evaluating sources, or comparing approaches. Students often have a specific product such as a Venn diagram, paragraph, or poster. Guided . In a guided inquiry, student have more flexibility in their resources and activities however they are expected to create a prescribed final product such as a report or presentation. Modeled . In a modeled inquiry, students act as apprentice to a coach such as a media specialist or classroom teacher. The student has flexibility in terms of topic selection, process, and product. The educators and students work side-by-side engaging in meaningful work. Free . In a free inquiry, students work independently. They explore meaningful questions, examine multiple
Everybody can participate in this – differentiates readiness Which are: in my hand, in my head and in my heart (about feelings)
CHRIS Awareness of critical literacy is crucial for the inquiry-based model. It impacts the kinds of questions we ask our students and how they received/react/respond. It also impacts the kinds of questions our students will ask in response to a variety of texts. Consequently, we may be required to be flexible in our planning as well as what we are willing to accept in a finished product. You are going to watch a short video clip featuring Allan Luke. His work is becoming canonical in the field of critical literacy studies. He currently teaches at the University of Queensland in Australia. Click on keys to show LNS video clip On video, fast-forward to Allan Luke clip at 7:44 – The Moral Imperative
CHRIS There are a lot of misconceptions and misunderstandings about what critical literacy is and is not. In many cases, critical literacy is equated to critical thinking and/or media literacy. The latter are associated with a specific skill set, while the former is more in line with a world view
CHRIS Professor Cambourne believes that society can be made better, fairer and kinder if people were more productive and critical literacy was made accessible to as many people from as many cultures as possible.
CHRIS -that said, the whole notion of teaching how to extrapolate bias almost seems absurd -everything is biased… -instead, it is far more effective to ask to students to identify the producer’s/author’s/artist’s POSITIONING positioning can be defined as one’s view of the world as influenced by gender, class, power, race, and identity
CHRIS Possible responses: Prepares students for a rapidly changing, information overload society Recognizes literacy is as much about ideologies, identities, and values as it is about codes and skills Asks students to actively engage with the ideas in a text Provides students with ways of thinking that uncover social inequalities and injustices
CHRIS The currency for full participation in society because it gives access to ways of knowing, institutions, etc., that traditionally and systematically oppress those who don’t know how to access Empowers one’s voice; gets noticed
CHRIS One way to make critical literacy a regular part of your programming is when you are dealing with media. Media literacy has been deemed a basic skill and one which our students must be proficient with by the time they leave our system. Distribute the following handouts to participants: *Media Literacy: Core Concepts and Key Questions *A Framework for Analyzing Media Texts
CHRIS Have the image on the Smart board; allow participants to come up and physically draw on the image with the markers.
CHRIS Distribute to participants: What Kinds of Critical Questions Can I Ask of Text? Ask: What then, do you think are the key areas that critical literacy must address? On Smart board, have the words gender, power, class, race and identity concealed, then revealed
CHRIS One of the main purposes of the Empowerment Spiral is to move students towards ACTION and ADVOCACY. With this type of awareness as a foundation students will be able to identify some causes and may pursue solutions to social justice issues (making the personal political) i.e. after analyzing a web-based media construction e.g. Martin Luther King.org, students may be moved to act on behalf of equity and work towards the eradication of racism in our time however, big or small this work may be. Watch the following example, created by grade 6 students. Can you identify which media piece has been “remixed” to create a new message? (Click green button) Large group discussion: Why is this a good example of the empowerment spiral in action?
CHRIS Additional notes: Reading for implicit meaning: -all students who were unsuccessful on the 2009 OSSLT struggled with the graphic text selection (Eco-Friendly Fish Farm); media pieces are forms of graphic text that can be incorporated in programming to help students refine the skills need to read graphic texts Making Connections: -interestingly enough, students tend to do well on this section of the OSSLT -clearly prefer to make real-life connections because they are able to draw on personal experience and prior knowledge Refer participants to their package for strategies for incorporating critical literacy in the classroom.
What would be appreciated is your willingness to share what you’ve done. If you could make your resources available electronically, we will happily upload them to the conference on First Class.
The 21st Century Learning Part 2
The 21 st Century Learner The Inquiry-Based Learning Model December 3, 2009.
Today’s Objectives <ul><li>This morning: </li></ul><ul><li>Explore the Inquiry-Based Learning Model </li></ul><ul><li>PMI Lesson Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Where Critical Literacy Fits In… </li></ul><ul><li>This afternoon in Learning Centre 1: </li></ul><ul><li>Delicious </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson Plan Extension </li></ul>
A Blessing <ul><li>May your gift of teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Awaken minds to new ideas </li></ul><ul><li>And expand hearts beyond boundaries. </li></ul><ul><li>May your desire to educate </li></ul><ul><li>Evoke the unique gifts of each student </li></ul><ul><li>And the deep desires of each heart. </li></ul><ul><li>May your love of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Lead students to awe and wonder </li></ul><ul><li>At their participation In our sacred universe. </li></ul><ul><li>May your story-telling inspire </li></ul><ul><li>Imagination and Creativity </li></ul><ul><li>And your example lead those you teach </li></ul><ul><li>To be generous and noble. </li></ul><ul><li>And, as you bless your students on their way, </li></ul><ul><li>May you delight at the gift your life offers to the future . </li></ul>
<ul><li>Inquiry-based teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><li>Deep and meaningful questioning </li></ul>The BIG Ideas
Powerful Questioning <ul><li>If I had an hour to solve a problem and my life depended on the solution, I would spend the first 55 minutes determining the proper question to ask, for once I knew the proper question, I could solve the problem in less than 5 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Albert Einstein </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Q-Chart </li></ul>2 . Readers Comprehend at Different Levels Increasing the Depth of Questioning Is Did Can Would Will Might Who What Where Why When How
Careers Civics Business Geography History P M I
Critical Literacy is <ul><li>It focuses on literacy and learning in conjunction with interacting social, political, cultural and cognitive contexts. </li></ul><ul><li>It is most effective when it is the lens/view through a course is taught; it permeates all aspects of the classroom, from the organization and administration of the course to the work itself. </li></ul><ul><li>It reflects a new mindset and a paradigm shift in education… </li></ul>
<ul><li>What Critical Literacy is: </li></ul><ul><li>-refers to a stance one takes toward texts </li></ul><ul><li>-engages students in asking questions that problematize or grapple with the complexities of text – oral, print, electronic; includes video games, brochures, websites, news magazines, textbooks </li></ul>A Snapshot
<ul><li>-can be traced back to the work of Paulo Freire, who taught people to “read the word” in order to “read the world” </li></ul><ul><li>-seeking alternative explanations </li></ul><ul><li>-examining attitudes, dispositions, values and beliefs that readers bring to a text that shape the way they read and perceive it </li></ul><ul><li>-examining the way that text influences the reader – the assumptions and beliefs that underlie a text and the perspectives and voices that are missing or silenced </li></ul><ul><li>-social action fairness, equity and social justice </li></ul>Learners are not only code breakers, meaning makers and text users, but they are also text analysts and critics who second-guess the meaning of texts and look beneath texts to sources and purposes of production. (Luke and Freebody 1990)
<ul><li>What Critical Literacy is not : </li></ul><ul><li>-teaching a universal set of literacy skills </li></ul><ul><li>-approaching literacy as a neutral activity </li></ul><ul><li>-a method or program </li></ul><ul><li>*can’t buy a box set or kit… </li></ul><ul><li>“ There is no magical method.” (Luke) </li></ul><ul><li>-about traditional comprehension questions (e.g. what is the main idea?) </li></ul><ul><li>-synonymous with critical thinking skills </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>-application across all curricular areas , modes of expression, texts and new technologies </li></ul><ul><li>-encourages students to be active readers and questioners </li></ul><ul><li>- applies critical thinking skills, deepens comprehension and fosters integrative thinking </li></ul><ul><li>-readers interact with the text </li></ul><ul><li>-encourages students to research language </li></ul><ul><li>-respects the literacy practices of minority cultures </li></ul><ul><li>-develops a sense of agency, control over text, voice and identity </li></ul><ul><li>-compels learners to social action </li></ul><ul><li>-empowering </li></ul>
Critical Literacy is closely connected with Social Constructivism : 1. Learning cannot be separated from the context. 2. The learner’s goals are central to what is learned. 3. Knowledge and meaning are socially constructed through negotiation, evaluation and transformation. Professor Brian Cambourne, 2000.
A critical literacy mantra: “ There is no such thing as neutral text…”
Why was this text produced? Most text are organized to gain profit and/or power. Purpose What lifestyles, values and points of view are represented in, or omitted from, this text? Texts have embedded values and points of view. Content How might different people understand this text differently? Different people experience the same text differently. Audience How do I relate to this text? All text are constructed using creative language with its own rules. Format Who created this text? All texts are “constructed” Authorship Key Question Core Concept Keywords
A Framework for Analyzing Media Texts What media form or text type is this? What techniques are used to attract my attention? What is the purpose of the message and who is the audience? How might other people understand this message? Who created this message and why? Who benefits from this message? Who may be disadvantaged? Meaning
The Practical Side of Critical Literacy… <ul><li>Front matter of all revised curriculum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implications for the kinds of resources we use and how we approach the courses we teach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OSSLT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading for implicit meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making connections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>21 st Century Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engaging with existing texts in a different way to make new meaning that is relevant and authentic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Engagement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compels social action </li></ul></ul>
Your Challenge! How will you take some of what you have learned in Parts One and Two and incorporate into your existing planning? What evidence can you bring to show that you have attempted to meet the needs of the 21 st Century Learner?