Chapter 2 Great Decisions Teacher


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Chapter 2 Great Decisions Teacher

  1. 1. Chapter 2<br />Afghanistan and Pakistan<br />Great Decisions <br />
  2. 2. British India<br />India<br />Pakistan <br />Bangladesh<br />
  3. 3. British India<br />Tried to take over Afghanistan but couldn’t <br />Used it as a buffer zone ( against Russia )<br />British established a 3 tiered Border<br />First line : areas under direct British rule from areas under Pashtun tribal Control --- Today the lnie that separates the NWFP ( North Western Frontier Province ) and Balochistan from the FATA ( Federally Administered Tribal Areas )<br />Durand Line : separating the Tribal areas from the areas under the control of the Afghani emir ( accepted by international community)<br />
  4. 4. Pashtunistan<br />A group concentrated in Afghanistan, NWFP, and FATA<br />The Durand Line cut through the Pashtun Tribal Area<br />
  5. 5. The Weakening of British India<br />Afghanistan’s full sovereignty 1919<br />India’s independence in 1947<br />Pakistan was a new state<br />Afghanistan claimed that all treaties or borders with British India had lapsed because now Pakistan is a state on its own<br />Afghanistan refused to recognize the Durand Line and called for the self determination of Pashtunistan<br />The Duran line is the Western International border of Pakistan<br />
  6. 6. Afghanistan<br />The dynasty fell in 1973<br />The king was overthrown by his cousin, Daud– who was murdered by Communist military officers in 1978<br />This led to the US, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia supporting the mujahidin against the Soviets<br />After the fall of the Soviets – ethnic conflicts amongst tribes increased<br />
  7. 7. Pakistan supported the rise to power – Taliban<br />The resistance organized the Northern Alliance – opposed the Taliban <br />They control the norther and western afghanistan and the capital Kabul <br />
  8. 8. THE US ATTACK<br />THE UN BONN AGREEMENT<br />The Bush administration wanted to destroy al Qaeda’s bases in Afghanistan <br />The U.S asked the UN to take charge to sponsor political transition in Afghanistan <br />Afghanistan had not had a govt. since 1979<br />Interim authority for 6 months <br />Must choose and ELJ (emergency LoyaJirga ) or an emergency grand council to choose the next govt.<br />Then created a CLJ or a constitution<br />Then fair elections<br />HamidKarzai was elected president<br />September 11, 2001<br />
  9. 9. G-8<br />G-8 Members were appointed different sectors to reform<br />Germany – police<br />Japan – demobilization, disarmament<br />Britain – Counternarcotics<br />Italy – Justice<br />U.S- limited involvement in Afghan National Army<br />
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  11. 11. Insurgency escalated<br />2006 – Taliban launched major offenses <br />2007 – 2008 – attacks continued to rise<br />Taliban gained a lot of support – controlled more than 50 districts out of 365 and government controlled 62 out of 365<br />
  12. 12. Pakistan<br />Uses the wars in the region to stabilize itself<br />Wanted to bring Afghanistan under its influence by supporting Pashtun Islamists <br />Supported the US in ending the Taliban movement in Afghanistan and searching for Al Qaeda – because otherwise the US would ally with India<br />However this wasn’t true the taliban was still very much supported in Pakistan<br />President Bush found out and confronted Prez. Musharaf with it<br />
  13. 13. Al - Qaeda<br />Located in the FATA region ( Federally administered Tribal Areas) of pakistan on the afghan border <br />
  14. 14. Afghan Taliban<br />Mullah Mohamed Umar- leader or amir of the Taliban <br />He leads the Quetta Shura (directs operations in Southern Afghanistan)<br />JalaludinHaqqani – another center of Afghan Taliban <br />Collaborate more closely with Al-Qaeda<br />Responsible for military activity in Eastern Afghanistan and Kabul<br />Islamic party – Mujahidin group – NE afghanistan and NW Pakistan <br />
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  16. 16. IN Pakistan’s View:<br />The US failed to engae the Taliban<br />The US has done a poor job in stabilizing Afghanistan<br />They signed a nuclear treaty with India ( pakistan’s threat)<br />Pakistan will only deliver Al-Qaeda if the US engages Taliban and includes them in the govt of Afghanistan <br />
  17. 17. Policy considerations (afghanistan)<br />Strengthen government legitimacy<br />Differentiating between the Taliban and Al-Qaeda<br />International army will only remain to secure the area<br />Improvements in security<br />ANA, ANP – Afghan National Army, and Afghan National police<br />Controlling Drugs – Crop eradication<br />
  18. 18. Policy Considerations : Pakistan<br />More of a threat towards international community<br />International community should work together to eliminate the threats<br />This effort should work more with Pakistan<br />Highlighting how important it is that Pakistan is stable<br />Frank discussion<br />Durand Line Issue<br />