Industrialization

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Industrialization

  1. 2. The Industrial Revolution
  2. 3. Why Did Industrialization Begin in England First?
  3. 4. 18th Century Origins <ul><li>Good Government </li></ul><ul><li>Many farm laborers </li></ul><ul><li>Effective central bank </li></ul><ul><li>Strong economy </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific Revolution </li></ul>
  4. 5. Agricultural Revolution <ul><li>Jethro Tull </li></ul><ul><li>Seed Drill </li></ul>
  5. 6. Crop Rotation, Charles Townsend, & Increased Production
  6. 7. Improved Livestock <ul><li>Year Sheep (lbs) Cattle (lbs) 1710 28 370 </li></ul><ul><li>1795 80 800 </li></ul>
  7. 8. The Enclosure Movement
  8. 9. Increased Population <ul><li>More people meant more workers </li></ul>
  9. 10. Natural Resources & Favorable Geography & Climate Metals, Woolens, & Canals
  10. 11. Technological Innovation <ul><li>Coal & Iron work better than wood and water! </li></ul><ul><li>Innovations make steel feasible. * “Puddling” [1820] – “pig iron.” * “Hot blast” [1829] – cheaper, purer steel. * Bessemer process [1856] – strong, flexible steel. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Coalfields & Industrial Areas
  12. 13. Coal Mining in Britain: 1800-1914 1800 1 ton of coal 50, 000 miners 1850 30 tons 200, 000 miners 1880 300 million tons 500, 000 miners 1914 250 million tons 1, 200, 000 miners
  13. 14. Young Coal Miners
  14. 15. Child Labor in the Mines Child “hurriers”
  15. 16. New Inventions of the Industrial Revolution
  16. 17. Please Answer : What was the problem this invention solved and how did it work: <ul><li>Cotton Gin </li></ul><ul><li>Friction Match </li></ul><ul><li>Reaper </li></ul><ul><li>Vulcanized Rubber </li></ul><ul><li>Sewing Machine </li></ul>
  17. 18. John Kay’s “Flying Shuttle”
  18. 19. The Power Loom
  19. 20. James Watt’s Steam Engine
  20. 21. Steam Tractor
  21. 22. Steam Ship
  22. 23. An Early Steam Locomotive
  23. 24. The Impact of the Railroad
  24. 25. Other Inventions <ul><li>Telegraph (1837) </li></ul><ul><li>Ice-making machine (1851) </li></ul><ul><li>Metronome (1816) </li></ul><ul><li>Ophthalmoscope (1851) </li></ul><ul><li>Stethoscope (1819) </li></ul><ul><li>Pistol (revolver) (1835) </li></ul><ul><li>Safety Pin (1949) </li></ul><ul><li>Braille (1829) </li></ul><ul><li>Screw Propeller (1837) </li></ul>
  25. 26. Quick Review Question <ul><li>Why is this time period called the Industrial Revolution? </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>Other Reasons for Industrial Revolution </li></ul>
  27. 28. Richard Arkwright: “Pioneer of the Factory System” The “Water Frame”
  28. 29. Factory Production <ul><li>Concentrates production in one place [materials, labor]. </li></ul><ul><li>Located near sources of power [rather than labor or markets]. </li></ul><ul><li>Requires a lot of capital investment [factory, machines, etc.] more than skilled labor. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Textile Factory Workers in England 1813 2400 looms 150, 000 workers 1833 85, 000 looms 200, 000 workers 1850 224, 000 looms >1 million workers
  30. 31. The Factory System <ul><li>Rigid schedule. </li></ul><ul><li>12-14 hour day. </li></ul><ul><li>Dangerous conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Mind-numbing monotony. </li></ul>
  31. 32. Textile Factory Workers in England
  32. 33. Young “Bobbin-Doffers”
  33. 34. Comparative Weight of Factory & Non-Factory Children [in lbs.] Age Average weight of males in factories Average weight of males not in factories Age Average weight of females in factories Average weight of females not in factories 9 51.76 53.26 9 51.13 52.40 10 57.00 60.28 10 54.80 54.44 11 61.84 58.36 11 59.69 61.13 12 65.97 67.25 12 66.08 66.07 13 72.11 75.36 13 73.25 72.72 14 77.09 78.68 14 83.41 83.43 15 88.35 88.83 15 87.86 93.61
  34. 35. The &quot;Haves&quot;: Bourgeois Life Thrived on the Luxuries of the Industrial Revolution
  35. 36. 19c Bourgeoisie: The Industrial Nouveau Riche
  36. 37. Criticism of the New Bourgeoisie
  37. 38. Stereotype of the Factory Owner
  38. 39. “ Upstairs” / “Downstairs”
  39. 40. Factory Wages in Lancashire, 1830 Age of Worker Male Wages Female Wages under 11 2s 3d. 2s. 4d. 11 - 16 4s. 1d. 4s. 3d. 17 - 21 10s. 2d. 7s. 3d. 22 - 26 17s. 2d. 8s. 5d. 27 - 31 20s. 4d. 8s. 7d. 32 - 36 22s. 8d. 8s. 9d. 37 - 41 21s. 7d. 9s. 8d. 42 - 46 20s. 3d. 9s. 3d. 47 - 51 16s. 7d. 8s. 10d. 52 - 56 16s. 4d. 8s. 4d. 57 - 61 13s. 6d. 6s. 4d.
  40. 41. The &quot;Have-Nots&quot;: The Poor, The Over-Worked, & the Destitute
  41. 42. An English Mill Town
  42. 43. Industrial Staffordshire
  43. 44. The New Industrial City
  44. 45. Early-19c London by Gustave Dore
  45. 46. Workers Housing in Newcastle
  46. 47. Private Charities: The “Lady Bountifuls”
  47. 48. The New Urban Poor
  48. 49. Private Charities: Soup Kitchens
  49. 50. Protests / Reformers
  50. 51. The Luddites: 1811-1816 Ned Ludd [a mythical figure supposed to live in Sherwood Forest] Attacks on the “frames” [power looms].
  51. 52. The Luddite Triangle
  52. 53. The Luddites
  53. 54. Peterloo Massacre, 1819: British Soldiers Fire on Br. Workers! Painted by George Cruickshank
  54. 55. The Chartists Key          Chartist settlements           Centres of Chartism        Area of plug riots, 1842
  55. 56. The “Peoples’ Charter” <ul><li>Drafted in 1838 by William Lovett. </li></ul><ul><li>Radical campaign for Parliamentary reform of the inequalities created by the Reform Bill of 1832. </li></ul><ul><li>Votes for all men. </li></ul><ul><li>Equal electoral districts. </li></ul><ul><li>Abolition of the requirement that Members of Parliament be property owners. </li></ul><ul><li>Payment for Members of Parliament. </li></ul><ul><li>Annual general elections. </li></ul><ul><li>The secret ballot. </li></ul>
  56. 57. The Chartists A physical force—Chartists arming for the fight. A female Chartist
  57. 58. Anti-Corn Law League, 1845 <ul><li>Give manufactures more outlets for their products. </li></ul><ul><li>Expand employment. </li></ul><ul><li>Lower the price of bread. </li></ul><ul><li>Make British agriculture more efficient and productive. </li></ul><ul><li>Expose trade and agriculture to foreign competition. </li></ul><ul><li>Promote international peace through trade contact. </li></ul>
  58. 59. New Ways of Thinking
  59. 60. Thomas Malthus <ul><li>Population growth will outpace the food supply. </li></ul><ul><li>War, disease, or famine could control population. </li></ul><ul><li>The poor should have less children. </li></ul><ul><li>Food supply will then keep up with population. </li></ul>
  60. 61. David Ricardo <ul><li>“ Iron Law of Wages.” </li></ul><ul><li>When wages are high, workers have more children. </li></ul><ul><li>More children create a large labor surplus that depresses wages. </li></ul>
  61. 62. The Utilitarians: Jeremy Bentham & John Stuart Mill <ul><li>The goal of society is the greatest good for the greatest number. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a role to play for government intervention to provide some social safety net. </li></ul>
  62. 63. The Socialists: Utopians & Marxists <ul><li>People as a society would operate and own the means of production, not individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Their goal was a society that benefited everyone, not just a rich, well-connected few. </li></ul><ul><li>Tried to build perfect communities [utopias]. </li></ul>
  63. 64. Br. Govt. Response to the Dislocation Created by Industrialization
  64. 65. Government Response <ul><li>Abolition of slavery in the colonies in 1832 [to raise wages in Britain]. </li></ul><ul><li>Sadler Commission to look into working conditions * Factory Act [1833] – child labor. </li></ul><ul><li>New Poor Law [1834] – indoor relief. * Poor houses. </li></ul><ul><li>Reform Bill [1832] – broadens the vote for the cities. </li></ul>
  65. 66. The Results of Industrialization at the end of the 19c
  66. 67. Total British National Income
  67. 68. Industrialization on the Continent
  68. 69. Railroads on the Continent
  69. 70. European Industrial Production
  70. 71. Shares in World Trade: Leading European Nations
  71. 72. Bibliographic Sources <ul><li>“ Images of the Industrial Revolution.” Mt. Holyoke College. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/rschwart/ind_rev/images/images-ind-era.html </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Peel Web: A Web of English History.” http://dspace.dial.pipex.com/mbloy/c-eight/primary.htm </li></ul>

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