The Scramble For Africa

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The Scramble For Africa

  1. 1. The Scramble for Africa Chapter 25 section 2
  2. 2. Topics <ul><li>The Scramble for Africa </li></ul><ul><li>The Heart of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>North Africa </li></ul><ul><li>South Africa </li></ul><ul><li>African resistance </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>The Scramble for Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Why Africa??? </li></ul><ul><li>Exploration to Competition </li></ul><ul><li>The Belgian Congo </li></ul><ul><li>The Berlin Conference </li></ul>
  4. 7. A. Why Africa??? <ul><li>Close to Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Europe valued African trade. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long history. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many established trading posts. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>African empires did not expect relationship to change. </li></ul>
  5. 8. B. Exploration to Competition <ul><li>Early 1800’s Europeans began limited exploration of interior of Africa. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Malaria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited military power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As science and military power improved, Africa became more vulnerable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>David Livingstone explored Central Africa for 30 years </li></ul>
  6. 9. C. The Belgian Congo <ul><li>King Leopold II became interested in colonies by 1870’s </li></ul><ul><li>Declared Congo region of Africa to be under Belgian control. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Henry Stanley had helped Leopold to secure treaties with Africans to dominate region. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This alarmed other European Nations and began a scramble for colonies. </li></ul>
  7. 11. D. The Berlin Conference 1884 <ul><li>European countries feared war from competition. </li></ul><ul><li>European countries could claim African land if they controlled strategic points. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No African rulers were present. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Europe also agreed to bring “Commerce, Christianity and Civilization” to Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>end slavery in Africa. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 12. II. The Heart of Africa <ul><li>King Leopold II </li></ul><ul><li>Bring civilization to Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Diplomacy to indirect control </li></ul><ul><li>Abuses in the Congo </li></ul>
  9. 13. A. King Leopold II <ul><li>Wanted to “civilize” Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End the slave trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Really wanted the resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Had Henry Stanley sign 450 Treaties with African leaders to create a trade zone for Belgium </li></ul><ul><li>This became known as the Congo free State </li></ul>
  10. 14. B. Bring civilization to Africa <ul><li>King Leopold advocated the “Commerce, Christianity and Civilization” plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopted at Berlin Conference </li></ul></ul>
  11. 15. C. Diplomacy to indirect control <ul><li>Belgium passed laws claiming unused land as European </li></ul><ul><li>Europe convinced African leaders to pass laws forcing African workers into mines and plantations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxes were used to force Africans into mines and plantations. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 16. D. Abuses in the Congo <ul><li>Pacification campaigns </li></ul><ul><li>Forced taxes on Africans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To build infrastructure for European business </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Change from food to cash crops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rubber instead of food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass starvations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other human atrocities </li></ul>
  13. 17. III. North Africa <ul><li>France in Algeria </li></ul><ul><li>The Suez canal </li></ul><ul><li>Britain and the Suez </li></ul>
  14. 18. A. France in North Africa <ul><li>Took control of Algeria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large migration of French population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led to direct control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also led to brutal revolts in the 1950’s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>France also built Suez Canal </li></ul><ul><li>Britain viewed canal as essential to their interests </li></ul>
  15. 19. B. The Suez canal
  16. 21. C. Britain and the Suez <ul><li>Civil fighting broke out in 1882 in Egypt. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported by British </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Britain stepped in and established order. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made Egypt a protectorate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced France out </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Britain and Egypt will invade the Sudan and make it into a condominium. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To protect southern access to canal </li></ul></ul>
  17. 22. IV. South Africa <ul><li>The Boers </li></ul><ul><li>British Interest </li></ul><ul><li>The Boer War </li></ul><ul><li>Second Class Citizens </li></ul>
  18. 23. A. The Boers <ul><li>Boers came to South Africa. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strict Dutch , Calvinist Settlers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed they were a chosen people. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Britain seized control in 1806. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boers disliked British rule. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Began Great Trek into interior of Africa. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Boers create 3 states. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natal, Transvaal and Orange Free state. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defeated Zulu groups to create them. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 24. B. British Interest <ul><li>Originally interested in ports for trade </li></ul><ul><li>Gained control of coastline and port towns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content to leave Boers to interior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discovery of Diamonds will change this </li></ul>
  20. 26. C. The Boer War <ul><li>Diamonds were discovered in Boer territory. </li></ul><ul><li>Cecil Rhodes and other Brits enter interior. </li></ul><ul><li>Boers resent this and hostilities increase. </li></ul><ul><li>War breaks out. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain wins the war but at great cost. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South Africa will be part of the British empire. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boers will be able to govern themselves. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 27. D. Second Class Citizens <ul><li>Boers have home rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Become known as Afrikaners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Despise ad hate local Black population </li></ul></ul><ul><li>African population forced to follow Apartheid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Think Segregation </li></ul></ul>
  22. 28. V. African Resistance. <ul><li>Samouri Toure’ and the Mandingo Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Menelik II and Ethiopia </li></ul><ul><li>Liberia </li></ul>
  23. 29. A. Samouri Toure’ and the Mandingo Empire <ul><li>Purchased weapons from European traders. </li></ul><ul><li>Built his own weapon factory. </li></ul><ul><li>Defended his territory for 6 years. </li></ul>
  24. 30. B. Menelik II and Ethiopia <ul><li>Many European nations attempted treaties with Ethiopia. </li></ul><ul><li>Menelik pitted them against each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Also got European weapons. </li></ul><ul><li>Mountains also protected Ethiopia. </li></ul>
  25. 31. C. Liberia <ul><li>Was populated by former American slaves. </li></ul><ul><li>European nations left it alone. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feared U.S. involvement in Africa. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 32. Terms To Know <ul><li>Berlin Conference of 1884 </li></ul><ul><li>King Leopold II </li></ul><ul><li>Suez Canal </li></ul><ul><li>Social darwinism </li></ul><ul><li>Menelik II </li></ul><ul><li>Liberia </li></ul><ul><li>Zulu </li></ul><ul><li>Boers </li></ul><ul><li>Great Trek </li></ul>
  27. 33. Summary <ul><li>What event started the scramble for Africa? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe King Leopold II’s motivations. </li></ul><ul><li>What were the interests of the French and the British? </li></ul><ul><li>What happened to the rights of Africans? </li></ul>

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