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  1. 1. The advances in medicine improved the lives of people from western civilization<br />Jennifer Cheatham <br />
  2. 2. The Scientific Revolution<br />Vesalius’ most influential work on anatomical research was published in 1543 called On the Fabric of the Human Body. <br />William Harvey founded blood circulation from his experiments on animals. His conclusions are described in On the Motion of the Heart, 1628. <br />``````````````````````````````concluded from his experiments <br />
  3. 3. Eighteenth Century<br />The first vaccination of smallpox was developed by Doctor Edward Jenner. Smallpox used to be contained through inoculation, a dangerous procedure. His vaccines were made with the non fatal cowpox to prevent the deadly disease of smallpox. <br />
  4. 4. Louis Pasteur discovered small organisms called microbes which cause various diseases.<br />English surgeon Joseph Lister developed carbolic acid, an effective disinfectant that kills germs caused by gangrene and other infections. <br />The discovery of sterilization reduced puerperal fever, which kills women after childbirth. <br />
  5. 5. Nineteenth Cenutry<br />Philippe Pinel was a French physician. He was the first to develop a humane treatment for psychiatric patients. His contributions include classifications of mental disorders. He favored therapy that involved close contact and observations of the patients. <br />The stethoscope as developed by Dr. Laennec. It was first used to hear internal sounds of the body. Doctors could identify emphysema, pneumonia, or tuberculosis using the stethoscope.<br />
  6. 6. Chemists began to investigate on the uses of gases.In 1772, Joseph Priestly discovered nitrous oxide or “laughing gas” and in 1800 HumphryDavy discovered that the gas had anesthetic properties when inhaled. In 1818 Michael Faraday determined that inhalation of ether had the same effect. From this came the development of light anesthesia, used by dentists. In the early 1820s Henry Hill Hickman experimented with both carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide to perform painless surgeries. <br />
  7. 7. In 1849 physician John Snow published a pamphlet On the Mode of Communication of Cholera. He discovered that cholera spread through the contamination of food or water. Snow was able to plot the source by mapping deaths in the neighborhoods. A high concentration was found in the water supply from downstream, concluding that sewage contaminated the water. <br />German physician Robert Koch is considered as the founder of bacteriology. He worked on anthrax and TB. In 1878, he identified the germ that caused blood poisoning. Koch developed new techniques for conducting experiments. He grew pure cultures of germs by mixing potatoes and gelatin. His work is influential and he was able to disprove the belief that ‘bad air’ caused disease. <br />
  8. 8. Homeopathy <br />Homeopathy is based on the principles of a German doctor, Samuel Hahnemann. He experimented with substances and discovered curative properties in the substances. He discovered safe and cheap remedies to treat and cure ill patients with heavy dilutions. <br />
  9. 9. 1920s and 1930s<br />The discovery of exposure to radiation induced cancer. In 1928 George Papanicolaou identified malignant cells. <br />The discovery of undetected bacteria created antibiotics. Various substances were created to inhibit bacterial growth. <br />In 1929 Alexander Fleming published a study which was made from a mold culture that inhibited bacteria.<br />The connection between glands and sex was discovered by the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin, HCG and in 1928 the first reliable pregnancy test was introduced. <br />Other medical discoveries include tissue rejection for organ transplants and the isolation of insulin, a hormone that regulates energy and metabolism. <br />
  10. 10. Sources<br /><br /><br /><br />