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Popherbsppt(2)

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Popherbsppt(2)

  1. 1. Popular Healing Herbs Supportive Science for Traditional Herbal Medicine
  2. 2. Alfalfa • Nourishing mineral tonic: calcium, potassium • Good source of Vitamin K • High in protein for a green plant • Digestive system tonic • Mildly phytoestrogenic • Saponins in leaves may help lower cholesterol, prevent atherosclerosis Biochanin A
  3. 3. Bilberry Cyanidin • Complex mixture of flavonoids including: – Proanthocyanidins – Anthocyanins Procyanidin B3 – Flavonol glycosides – Phenolic acids • Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, carcinostatic • Tonic for venous & lymphatic vessels • Helps improve night vision & prevent macular degeneration, glaucoma, cataracts
  4. 4. Bilberry Delphinidin • Complex mixture of flavonoids including: – Proanthocyanidins – Anthocyanins Procyanidin B3 – Flavonol glycosides – Phenolic acids • Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, carcinostatic • Tonic for venous & lymphatic vessels • Helps improve night vision & prevent macular degeneration, glaucoma, cataracts
  5. 5. Black Cohosh • Triterpenoid glycosides: Cimicifugoside, actein, 27-deoxyactein • Hormonally active compounds involved in balancing LH activity • Have antiestrogenic effect on human breast cancer cells • Herb is antispasmodic Cimicifugoside
  6. 6. Black Walnut • Black walnut contains naphthoquinones including juglone Juglone • Antibacterial • Antifungal Text • Antiparasitic • Use topically for fingernail fungus • Leaf high in tannins & used for eczema
  7. 7. Burdock • Root contains inulin, an oligosaccharide – Helps stabilize blood sugar levels – Feeds colon bacteria, increases butyrate – Reduces serum LDL, triglycerides • Seed contains polyacetylenes, lignans
  8. 8. Cascara Sagrada • Aged bark is a mild stimulant laxative • Cascarosides are one of many anthraquinone glycosides; some of these are also anticarcinogenic • Excessive use can cause pathological changes in colon mucosa glucose glucose Cascaroside A
  9. 9. Cayenne Peppers • Capsaicin & relatives are powerful topical analgesics: herpetic neuralgia, arthritis • Diaphoretic, stimulant, rubefacient, antiseptic • Capsanthin & Capsaicin
  10. 10. Cayenne Peppers • Capsaicin & relatives are powerful topical analgesics: herpetic neuralgia, arthritis • Diaphoretic, stimulant, rubefacient, antiseptic • Capsanthin & Capsanthin
  11. 11. Cranberry • Cranberries are rich in anthocyanins: – Cyanidin glycosides – Delphinidin glycosides – Peonidin glycosides • Contain glycosides of quercetin • Lignans also present • Proanthocyanidins inhibit binding of bacteria to urinary tract epithelium • Flavonoid extracts inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells • Many constituents are antioxidant
  12. 12. Dandelion • Bitter principles for digestive system: sesquiterpene lactones • Roots contain inulin – May influence blood sugar stability – Nourish beneficial colon bacteria – Help normalize blood lipid levels • Nourishing liver tonic • Diuretic, but conserves potassium • Flowers good source of antioxidant carotenoids
  13. 13. Echinacea E. angustifolia E. purpurea • Immunomodulating polysaccharides are long chains made of various sugar units • Stimulate non-specific immunity
  14. 14. Echinacea: Phenylpropanoids • Cichoric acid is a derivative of caffeic acid: antioxidant • Contributes to the immunostimulating effects of Echinacea purpurea
  15. 15. Elder • Anthocyanins (cyanidin, delphinidin), proanthocyanidins & other flavonoids • Strengthens venous & lymphatic vessels • Antioxidant • Antiviral • Carcinostatic
  16. 16. Feverfew • Parthenolides are a kind of sesquiterpene lactone • Inhibit prostaglandin synthesis Parthenolide • Antispasmodic • Anti-inflammatory • Inhibit platelet aggregation • Feverfew can reduce frequency & severity of migraine attacks
  17. 17. Flax Oil • Essential fatty acid: Alpha- linolenic (ALA), 52 – 60% [Omega 3] • Essential fatty acid: linoleic (LA), 16 – 18% [Omega 6] • Oleic acid (monounsaturated), 18 – 20% [Omega 9] • Saturated: stearic, palmitic, Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)
  18. 18. Flaxseed: Lignans • Flax meal (& high-lignan flax oils) are rich sources of cancer-preventative & hormone- balancing lignans: Secoisolariciresinol Matairesinol
  19. 19. Garlic • Fresh Garlic is a powerful antimicrobial • Strengthens immune system Allicin • Helps lower blood pressure • Normalizes blood lipid profiles • Inhibits platelet aggregation • Antioxidant
  20. 20. Garlic: Sulfur Compounds • Alliin (stable compound in Garlic) + • Alliinase (an enzyme in fresh, whole Garlic or correctly dried Garlic powders) • Crushing cells mixes these, &  allicin, the active antimicrobial compound • Allicin  sulfides, ajoene, dithiins, etc. Alliinase Alliin Allicin
  21. 21. Sulfur Compounds From Garlic Alliin Allicin Sulfides Dithiins Ajoenes Cysteine sulfoxide, precursor of alliin
  22. 22. Ginger • Gingerols make up the resinous fraction – the main pungent constituents of Ginger • Anti-inflammatory • COX-2 inhibitors • Antiemetic • Antioxidant
  23. 23. Ginger • Gingerols make up the resinous fraction – the main pungent constituents of Ginger
  24. 24. Ginkgo • Neuroprotective • Aids circulation in extremities • Enhances memory • Antioxidant • For cerebral insufficiency • For intermittent claudication • Standardized extract best • Flavonoids & diterpenes Photo © Martin Wall 2003 work synergistically
  25. 25. Ginkgo: Flavonols • Flavonols are major active constituents • Multiple glycosides of quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin & isorhamnetin • Contribute antioxidant & radical-scavenging activities • Work synergistically with the ginkgolide terpenes as anti-inflammatories; for cerebral vascular insufficiency; help protect blood vessels
  26. 26. Diterpenes in Ginkgo • Ginkgolides A, B, C, J, & M are diterpene lactones • Compounds unique to Ginkgo biloba • Synergistic with the flavonoids (flavonols, proanthocyanidins) for anti-inflammatory effect Ginkgolide A • Bronchodilators; used for asthma
  27. 27. Ginseng • Several compounds are involved in the adrenal tonic & adaptogenic properties: • Ginsenosides/ quinquenosides, steroidal saponins in Panax ginseng & P. quinquefolius • Phytosterols
  28. 28. Goldenseal & Oregon Grape • Contain berberine & related alkaloids: antibacterial, antifungal; antibiotic alternative • Tonic for mucous membranes • Useful for upper respiratory conditions & UTI’s
  29. 29. Alkaloids in Goldenseal • Berberine (yellow, bitter) • Berberastine • Hydrastine Photo © www.hebes.mdx.ac.uk Hydrastine, a strong antibacterial & fungicide
  30. 30. Alkaloids in Mahonia • Berberine & relatives predominate • Some hydrastine • Actions very similar to Goldenseal Berberine
  31. 31. Grape Seed Extract Procyanidin C2 • OPC’s : oligomeric proanthocyanidins • Also known as condensed tannins • Strengthen & protect blood vessels • May have cardiovascular benefits • Support the immune system • Antioxidants, free radical scavengers
  32. 32. Hawthorn • Hyperin, a glycoside of quercetin, is the main flavonoid in Hawthorn • Also contains OPC’s • Helps heart muscle to work more efficiently, strengthens contractions, stabilizes rhythm • Enhances the utilization of oxygen in cells • Contains many antioxidants • Antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory
  33. 33. Kava Kava • Kavapyrones (aka kavalactones) • Contribute to the relaxant, antispasmodic, analgesic & anxiolytic properties of Kava Photo © Martin Wall 2003
  34. 34. Licorice • Contains chalcones, relatives of flavonoids • Licochalcones: anti- parasitic: leishmania, malaria… • A glycoside of isoliquiritigenin inhibits aldose reductase & MAO Isoliquiritigenin
  35. 35. Licorice • Liquiritigenin (a flavonoid) & its glycoside, liquiritin, contribute to the anti-inflammatory & antispasmodic action of Licorice • May also be involved in ulcer-healing properties • Antimicrobial • MAO inhibitor
  36. 36. Licorice: Saponins • Glycyrrhizin (glycyrrhizinic acid): main triterpenoid saponin in root • Anti-inflammatory (synergistic with the flavonoids) • Inhibits secretion of stomach acid • Inhibits deactivation of cortisol • Responsible for raising blood pressure w/ excess ingestion ( sodium & water retention, potassium excretion, diuresis) • Immunostimulating, antihepatotoxic, antiviral
  37. 37. Lobelia • Bronchodilator • Antispasmodic • Respiratory stimulant • Reduces nicotine cravings: stimulates nicotinic receptor sites • Excess is emetic, toxic • Lobeline, an alkaloid, is involved in many of these effects Lobeline
  38. 38. Marshmallow • Rich in mucilages (heteropolysaccharides) • These mucilages are structurally similar to pectins • For healing irritated skin & mucous membranes; antitussive • Other mallows are similar
  39. 39. Lignans in Milk Thistle • Silymarin is a mixture of several flavonolignans – hybrid molecules made of a flavonoid + a lignan • Silybin, silydianin, silychristin • Hepatoprotective, antioxidant, protects cell membranes • Regenerative tonic for the liver
  40. 40. Lignans in Milk Thistle • Silymarin is a mixture of several flavonolignans – hybrid molecules made of a flavonoid + a lignan • Silybin, silydianin, silychristin Silymarin is poorly soluble • Hepatoprotective, in water; it is best absorbed antioxidant, protects when complexed to cell membranes to phosphatidyl choline (PS) • Regenerative tonic for aka ‘phytosome’ the liver
  41. 41. Nettles: Anti-inflammatory • Formic acid is found in Nettle stings along with histamine, serotonin & acetylcholine • Anti-inflammatory effect (counter-irritation): induces endogenous cortisol release • Nettles is also a great nourishing tonic • Freeze-dried Nettle is anti-allergenic Formic acid Histamine Nettle stingers
  42. 42. Neem • Leaves, fruit pulp, flowers antiseptic, anti-inflammatory • Astringent tonic • For fevers, infectious diseases • Effective against scabies, lice • Oil contains complex mixture of terpenoids including nimbin, Photo © William Ciesla 2003
  43. 43. Passionflower Harman • Sedative • Anti-anxiety • Antispasmodic • Helps with insomnia • Contains a mixture of flavonoids that are antispasmodic & anti- inflammatory • Harman alkaloids are present in small amounts; contribute to relaxant effect
  44. 44. Plantain: Iridoids • Aucubin & catalpol are iridoid glycosides, found in both species of Plantago • Antiseptic & anti- inflammatory (topical) • Diuretic, laxative
  45. 45. Plantain (Plantago) • Psyllium seed – bulk fiber – not digested or degraded by colon bacteria; has a moderate cholesterol-lowering effect; helps prevent colon cancer • Plantain leaf – heteroxylans type mucilage is emollient, soothing; excellent for wounds & burns
  46. 46. Polyvalent Plantain • Antiseptic: aucubin • Astringent, drawing: tannins • Anti-inflammatory: flavonoids, iridoids Skin healing: mucilage, allantoin, tannins, sorbitol
  47. 47. Red Clover Blossoms • Nourishing hormone balancer • Has been used as an anticancer herb for generations • Blood purifier for chronic skin disease; alterative • Mineral tonic; may help prevent osteoporosis • Flowers contain flavonoids
  48. 48. Red Clover: Isoflavones • Biochanin A • Formononetin • Concentrated in leaves; very little in flowers • Biochanin A is metabolized to genistein • Formononetin is metabolized to daidzein • Genistein & daidzein are the isoflavones in Soy
  49. 49. Red Clover: Isoflavones • Biochanin A Isoflavones are • Formononetin hormonally active communications • Concentrated in leaves; molecules; very little in flowers cardioprotective Biochanin A Formononetin
  50. 50. Rosemary: Phenylpropanoids • Rosmarinic acid 1 2 2 3 3 1
  51. 51. Rosemary: Phenylpropanoids • Rosmarinic acid is also found in Peppermint, Sage, Thyme, Oregano, Lemon Balm, Basil, Borage, & Comfrey • Antioxidant • Anti-inflammatory • Antiviral (herpes)
  52. 52. Sage (Salvia) • Phenylpropanoids: antioxidant, anti- inflammatory; help memory & concentration • Diterpenes: bitter principles, digestive bitters • Thujone (in essential oil) is anthelmintic, neuroactive; toxic in excess • Cineole & other antiseptic Thujone
  53. 53. St. Johnswort • Antiviral • Liver tonic • Detoxifying • Increases drug clearance from liver • Antidepressant, anti-anxiety • ‘Arnica for the nerves’ • Oil is used for burns
  54. 54. St. Johnswort: Synergy • St. Johnswort extracts were originally standardized to hypericin content • Later, hyperforin was correlated to antidepressant activity • Latest research shows flavonoids are important synergists Hypericin Hyperforin
  55. 55. St. Johnswort: Polyphenols • Flavonoids include hyperin (hyperoside) & rutin; antioxidants which contribute synergistically to the antidepressant Norathyriol activity • Proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins) may contribute to the antiviral activity • A xanthone, norathyriol, contributes to antidepressant
  56. 56. Saw Palmetto Berries • Lipidosterolic extract: 85 – 95% fatty acids & phytosterols • Activity in total oil- soluble fraction: synergistic • BPH, has anti- androgenic effect • Anti-inflammatory effect may be due to inhibition of local Photo © Martin Wall 2003 prostaglandins
  57. 57. Turmeric: Curcuminoids • Antioxidant • Antimutagenic • Antimicrobial • Hepatoprotective • Anti-inflammatory • COX-2 inhibitors • Digestive bitters
  58. 58. Turmeric: Curcuminoids Curcumin, from Turmeric, is a type of polyphenol; it is responsible for many of the herb’s healing properties
  59. 59. Valerian: Iridoids • Sedative & relaxant effects are due to a complex synergistic mixture of constituents • Many mono- & sesquiterpenes are present in volatile oil • Valepotriates are iridoids: valtrate (valtratum), isovaltrate, didrovaltrate, Valtrate etc.; sedatives
  60. 60. Valerenic: Sesquiterpenes Valerenic acid: an antispasmodic sesquiterpene in the volatile oil that contributes to the relaxant effect Valerenic acid
  61. 61. Lisa Ganora THE END

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