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Dispelling the Haze: Crashes and Crime A Presentation of Facts and Informational Mathematics by the Ohio State Highway Pat...
Presentation Prepared by: Tpr. John C. Thorne III M.S.
Goals of Instruction <ul><li>To dispel myths about the nature and dangers of crime </li></ul><ul><li>To educate young adul...
Comparing Crime and Crashes:  What Should I Really be Afraid of?
2005 Uniform Crime Reports: FBI Nationwide Crime Statistics   <ul><li>16,692 Murders </li></ul><ul><li>93,934 Rapes </li><...
2005 UCR Crime Statistics: Ohio <ul><li>585 Murders </li></ul><ul><li>4,557 Rapes </li></ul><ul><li>18,696 Robberies </li>...
2005 UCR Crime Statistics: Clermont County Sheriff <ul><li>0 Murders </li></ul><ul><li>45 Rapes </li></ul><ul><li>12 Robbe...
2004 UCR Crime Statistics: Clermont Agencies <ul><li>Union Twp. </li></ul><ul><li>0 Murders </li></ul><ul><li>2 Rapes </li...
2005 UCR Crime Statistics: Clermont Agencies Contd. <ul><li>Miami Twp. </li></ul><ul><li>0 Murders </li></ul><ul><li>9 Rap...
2005 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Crash Data <ul><li>6,159,000 estimated total traffic crashes </li></ul...
2005 Traffic Crash Data: State of Ohio <ul><li>358,127 total traffic crashes </li></ul><ul><li>131,245 persons injured as ...
YOU DO THE MATH 16,692 Murders  43,443 Traffic Deaths 585 Murders  1,326 Traffic Deaths   Nationwide Ohio
2005 Data: <ul><li>The Cincinnati Metropolitan Reporting area to the UCR reported 115 murders in 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Th...
2005 Traffic Deaths in Clermont County <ul><li>28 people died on the roadways in Clermont County </li></ul><ul><li>7 were ...
Where is your Greater Danger?
WHY ARE YOU COMING TO MY SCHOOL TO TALK ABOUT THIS?
 
 
 
 
 
First... the basics
The Basics… <ul><li>Before we start to talk about speed, crashes, and seat belts, we need to understand basic physics prin...
Newton’s First Law of Motion <ul><li>A body at rest tends to remain at rest, while a body in motion tends to remain in mot...
Friction <ul><li>Friction is a force </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types of friction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Static Fricti...
Friction <ul><li>Static friction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The weight of an object pressing down on the surface of the earth c...
Friction <ul><li>Dynamic friction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The friction encountered by an object moving over a surface </li><...
Newton’s First Law of Motion <ul><li>Friction is a natural and omnipresent force that is acting on moving objects </li></u...
What do these laws have to do with me driving my car? How does my vehicle behave…normally?
Vehicle Behavior <ul><li>Your car, you, and everything inside of your car are bound by Newton’s Laws of Motion </li></ul><...
Pre-Crash Factors <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Following distance </li></ul><ul><li>Road and weather conditions </li></...
Speed <ul><li>One of the primary causes for motor vehicle crashes and fatalities </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps the most widely...
Speed <ul><li>Most people measure the speed of their vehicle in Miles per Hour, but have no real concept of how fast they ...
Speed <ul><li>To convert miles per hour into feet per second, multiply the speed in MPH by 1.466 </li></ul><ul><li>The res...
Common Speeds: MPH - FPS 124.61 85 109.95 75 95.29 65 80.63 55 65.97 45 58.64 40 51.31 35 36.65 25 21.99 15 Feet per Secon...
Speed <ul><li>When examining speed in feet/second the actual distance you are traveling becomes more tangible as well as t...
Speed <ul><li>A demonstration </li></ul><ul><li>In the time it took this to appear, if you were traveling at 35 mph you wo...
Following too Close <ul><li>“ Tailgating” or trying to “push” someone to go faster by riding close to the bumper of anothe...
Following too Close <ul><li>It is common to see vehicles following each other at a distance of 1-2 vehicle lengths (approx...
Following too Close <ul><li>Human physiological studies indicate an average perception reaction time of a human being at 1...
Driver Attention <ul><li>How often are you really paying full attention to the road? </li></ul><ul><li>Are you – </li></ul...
Road and Weather Conditions <ul><li>Speed limits are designed for maximum speed on a road for ideal conditions </li></ul><...
Let’s start to put this all together!!
Putting it Together <ul><li>Because your vehicle adheres to the laws of physics, we can determine how it will behave by us...
Putting it Together <ul><li>Equation for determining slide to stop: </li></ul><ul><li>Distance to stop = Speed (squared)/3...
Putting it Together <ul><li>Increases in speed increase distance needed to stop </li></ul><ul><li>Decreases in drag factor...
Putting it Together <ul><li>Convert your speed to ft/sec. (MPH x 1.466) </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply ft/sec. by average resp...
Putting it Together <ul><li>Does 5 mph over the limit really matter? </li></ul><ul><li>Do the math! </li></ul><ul><li>55 m...
Putting it Together <ul><li>When you enter your car and begin to travel, you are bound by Newton’s laws of motion </li></u...
Putting it Together <ul><li>Because of Newton’s First Law of Motion, there are three impacts in every crash! </li></ul><ul...
Seat Belts Why should I wear it?
Seat Belts <ul><li>To best understand why to wear a seat belt, examine Newton’s First Law of Motion. </li></ul><ul><li>You...
Seat Belts <ul><li>Have you ever had a CD or books sitting on your front seat and had to stop suddenly? </li></ul><ul><li>...
Seat Belts <ul><li>The same laws apply to you in the driver or passenger seats </li></ul><ul><li>If you are not somehow “a...
Seat Belts <ul><li>What are some outside forces that can, and will, bring you to a stop? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steering wh...
Seat Belts <ul><li>The seat belt is designed to lock when a sudden stop is detected </li></ul><ul><li>This device holds yo...
Ending thoughts… <ul><li>Keep in mind, an instant change in velocity from 35 mph to 0 mph is FATAL! </li></ul><ul><li>Stat...
Suggestions for the Future <ul><li>Leave a little bit more time when you have to be someplace </li></ul><ul><li>If you are...
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Math Physics Presentation

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Math Physics Presentation

  1. 1. Dispelling the Haze: Crashes and Crime A Presentation of Facts and Informational Mathematics by the Ohio State Highway Patrol
  2. 2. Presentation Prepared by: Tpr. John C. Thorne III M.S.
  3. 3. Goals of Instruction <ul><li>To dispel myths about the nature and dangers of crime </li></ul><ul><li>To educate young adults on the real and potential consequences of unsafe driving </li></ul><ul><li>To change unsafe driving habits through education of physical laws of vehicle behavior. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Comparing Crime and Crashes: What Should I Really be Afraid of?
  5. 5. 2005 Uniform Crime Reports: FBI Nationwide Crime Statistics <ul><li>16,692 Murders </li></ul><ul><li>93,934 Rapes </li></ul><ul><li>417,122 Robberies </li></ul><ul><li>862,947 Aggravated Assaults </li></ul>
  6. 6. 2005 UCR Crime Statistics: Ohio <ul><li>585 Murders </li></ul><ul><li>4,557 Rapes </li></ul><ul><li>18,696 Robberies </li></ul><ul><li>16,435 Aggravated Assaults </li></ul>
  7. 7. 2005 UCR Crime Statistics: Clermont County Sheriff <ul><li>0 Murders </li></ul><ul><li>45 Rapes </li></ul><ul><li>12 Robberies </li></ul><ul><li>15 Aggravated Assaults </li></ul>
  8. 8. 2004 UCR Crime Statistics: Clermont Agencies <ul><li>Union Twp. </li></ul><ul><li>0 Murders </li></ul><ul><li>2 Rapes </li></ul><ul><li>22 Robberies </li></ul><ul><li>5 Aggravated Assaults </li></ul><ul><li>Pierce Twp. </li></ul><ul><li>0 Murders </li></ul><ul><li>7 Rapes </li></ul><ul><li>4 Robberies </li></ul><ul><li>5 Aggravated Assaults </li></ul>
  9. 9. 2005 UCR Crime Statistics: Clermont Agencies Contd. <ul><li>Miami Twp. </li></ul><ul><li>0 Murders </li></ul><ul><li>9 Rapes </li></ul><ul><li>8 Robberies </li></ul><ul><li>17 Aggravated Assaults </li></ul><ul><li>Goshen Twp. </li></ul><ul><li>0 Murders </li></ul><ul><li>1 Rape </li></ul><ul><li>6 Robberies </li></ul><ul><li>25 Aggravated Assaults </li></ul>
  10. 10. 2005 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Crash Data <ul><li>6,159,000 estimated total traffic crashes </li></ul><ul><li>2,699,000 estimated total number of persons injured from traffic crashes </li></ul><ul><li>43,443 persons killed from traffic crashes </li></ul>
  11. 11. 2005 Traffic Crash Data: State of Ohio <ul><li>358,127 total traffic crashes </li></ul><ul><li>131,245 persons injured as the result of a traffic crash </li></ul><ul><li>1,326 persons killed as the result of a traffic crash </li></ul>
  12. 12. YOU DO THE MATH 16,692 Murders 43,443 Traffic Deaths 585 Murders 1,326 Traffic Deaths Nationwide Ohio
  13. 13. 2005 Data: <ul><li>The Cincinnati Metropolitan Reporting area to the UCR reported 115 murders in 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>This area includes 3 counties in Indiana., 7 counties in Kentucky., and 5 counties in Ohio in addition to the cities of Middletown and Cincinnati </li></ul><ul><li>The population of this area is over 2 million people </li></ul>
  14. 14. 2005 Traffic Deaths in Clermont County <ul><li>28 people died on the roadways in Clermont County </li></ul><ul><li>7 were ages 16-24 </li></ul><ul><li>4 died on SR 125 between Amelia and Bethel </li></ul><ul><li>16 people died because they were not wearing a seat belt </li></ul>
  15. 15. Where is your Greater Danger?
  16. 16. WHY ARE YOU COMING TO MY SCHOOL TO TALK ABOUT THIS?
  17. 22. First... the basics
  18. 23. The Basics… <ul><li>Before we start to talk about speed, crashes, and seat belts, we need to understand basic physics principles. </li></ul><ul><li>Newton’s laws of motion </li></ul>
  19. 24. Newton’s First Law of Motion <ul><li>A body at rest tends to remain at rest, while a body in motion tends to remain in motion in a straight line, unless acted upon by an unbalanced external force </li></ul><ul><li>Simply put – an object in motion stays in motion until something causes it to stop </li></ul>
  20. 25. Friction <ul><li>Friction is a force </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types of friction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Static Friction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic Friction </li></ul></ul>
  21. 26. Friction <ul><li>Static friction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The weight of an object pressing down on the surface of the earth creates this </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To initially get the object moving, this force must be overcome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The initial static friction to get an object moving will always be greater than the dynamic friction generated between the object and the surface it is moving over </li></ul></ul>
  22. 27. Friction <ul><li>Dynamic friction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The friction encountered by an object moving over a surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Varies based upon both the characteristics of the object and the characteristics of the surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressed in “g” forces or percentages of the force of gravity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the force required to move a 40lb. weight across a surface is 30 lbs., the surface can be assumed to have a dynamic friction, or “drag factor” of .75 “g’s” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The higher the drag factor, the quicker an object will slow to a stop on that surface </li></ul></ul>
  23. 28. Newton’s First Law of Motion <ul><li>Friction is a natural and omnipresent force that is acting on moving objects </li></ul><ul><li>Without friction, there would be no way to stop objects moving about </li></ul><ul><li>Objects on earth do not keep moving once they are accelerated due to the force of friction </li></ul>
  24. 29. What do these laws have to do with me driving my car? How does my vehicle behave…normally?
  25. 30. Vehicle Behavior <ul><li>Your car, you, and everything inside of your car are bound by Newton’s Laws of Motion </li></ul><ul><li>It is because you and your car are bound by these laws that traffic crashes and fatalities are a reality </li></ul><ul><li>By understanding these laws and why crashes happen, you may be able to avoid being involved in a crash </li></ul>
  26. 31. Pre-Crash Factors <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Following distance </li></ul><ul><li>Road and weather conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Attention span </li></ul>
  27. 32. Speed <ul><li>One of the primary causes for motor vehicle crashes and fatalities </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps the most widely known function of a police officer is to enforce speed laws </li></ul><ul><li>Why speed limits are in place and why they are enforced is based partially on Newton’s Laws of Motion </li></ul>
  28. 33. Speed <ul><li>Most people measure the speed of their vehicle in Miles per Hour, but have no real concept of how fast they are truly traveling </li></ul><ul><li>A mile is a lengthy distance that we do not readily view on a daily basis </li></ul><ul><li>A better way to gauge the speed you are traveling on the road is by converting miles per hour into feet per second </li></ul>
  29. 34. Speed <ul><li>To convert miles per hour into feet per second, multiply the speed in MPH by 1.466 </li></ul><ul><li>The result will indicate your speed in feet per second (FPS) </li></ul>
  30. 35. Common Speeds: MPH - FPS 124.61 85 109.95 75 95.29 65 80.63 55 65.97 45 58.64 40 51.31 35 36.65 25 21.99 15 Feet per Second Miles per Hour
  31. 36. Speed <ul><li>When examining speed in feet/second the actual distance you are traveling becomes more tangible as well as the time it takes you to cover that distance </li></ul><ul><li>This is especially useful when examining following distance and assured clear distance crashes </li></ul>
  32. 37. Speed <ul><li>A demonstration </li></ul><ul><li>In the time it took this to appear, if you were traveling at 35 mph you would have traveled roughly the distance of a football field </li></ul><ul><li>At 85 mph, you would have completed a 200 meter sprint with about 1 second to spare </li></ul>
  33. 38. Following too Close <ul><li>“ Tailgating” or trying to “push” someone to go faster by riding close to the bumper of another car </li></ul><ul><li>Combined with excessive or unsafe speed is the major causative factor for vehicle crashes </li></ul><ul><li>You can and will be written tickets for following too close!!! </li></ul>
  34. 39. Following too Close <ul><li>It is common to see vehicles following each other at a distance of 1-2 vehicle lengths (approx. 8-16 feet) while traveling at 65 mph </li></ul><ul><li>Could this be a major problem? </li></ul>
  35. 40. Following too Close <ul><li>Human physiological studies indicate an average perception reaction time of a human being at 1.5 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>This reaction time is the amount of time that it takes the human brain to recognize a stimulus and respond to it </li></ul>
  36. 41. Driver Attention <ul><li>How often are you really paying full attention to the road? </li></ul><ul><li>Are you – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Talking on a phone? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Playing the radio? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talking to a passenger? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking about American Idol? </li></ul></ul>
  37. 42. Road and Weather Conditions <ul><li>Speed limits are designed for maximum speed on a road for ideal conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Rain, snow, and ice affect the dynamic frictional value of a roadway (drag factor) </li></ul><ul><li>Reason for more crashes during these periods is driving behavior is not adjusted </li></ul>
  38. 43. Let’s start to put this all together!!
  39. 44. Putting it Together <ul><li>Because your vehicle adheres to the laws of physics, we can determine how it will behave by using mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily we can determine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time needed to stop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance needed to stop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The amount of distance covered over a given time </li></ul></ul>
  40. 45. Putting it Together <ul><li>Equation for determining slide to stop: </li></ul><ul><li>Distance to stop = Speed (squared)/30 x drag factor of roadway </li></ul><ul><li>D = (s)(s) ÷ 30f </li></ul>
  41. 46. Putting it Together <ul><li>Increases in speed increase distance needed to stop </li></ul><ul><li>Decreases in drag factor of roadway also increase distance to stop (rain, ice, gravel, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>What happens when you figure in response time? </li></ul>
  42. 47. Putting it Together <ul><li>Convert your speed to ft/sec. (MPH x 1.466) </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply ft/sec. by average response – reaction time (1.5 seconds) </li></ul><ul><li>Add product to already determined slide to stop distance </li></ul>
  43. 48. Putting it Together <ul><li>Does 5 mph over the limit really matter? </li></ul><ul><li>Do the math! </li></ul><ul><li>55 mph or 60 mph on a dry road </li></ul><ul><ul><li>55 mph slide to stop = 144 ft. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60 mph slide to stop = 171 ft. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difference = 27 ft. to slide to stop </li></ul></ul>
  44. 49. Putting it Together <ul><li>When you enter your car and begin to travel, you are bound by Newton’s laws of motion </li></ul><ul><li>When your speedometer reads 65 mph (95.29 ft/sec), the vehicle and everything inside of it is traveling at that speed </li></ul><ul><li>It does not seem that way because your speed is uniform and relative to your immediate surroundings </li></ul>
  45. 50. Putting it Together <ul><li>Because of Newton’s First Law of Motion, there are three impacts in every crash! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicle vs. vehicle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human vs. inside of vehicle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human organs vs. human body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is usually the third impact that is fatal! </li></ul>
  46. 51. Seat Belts Why should I wear it?
  47. 52. Seat Belts <ul><li>To best understand why to wear a seat belt, examine Newton’s First Law of Motion. </li></ul><ul><li>Your vehicle and everything in it are traveling at a given speed </li></ul><ul><li>Everything inside of your vehicle includes YOU! </li></ul>
  48. 53. Seat Belts <ul><li>Have you ever had a CD or books sitting on your front seat and had to stop suddenly? </li></ul><ul><li>What happens to the books or CD? </li></ul><ul><li>The static friction of their weight and the seat is not enough to keep the objects in place </li></ul><ul><li>They continue in motion until they strike the floor and stop </li></ul>
  49. 54. Seat Belts <ul><li>The same laws apply to you in the driver or passenger seats </li></ul><ul><li>If you are not somehow “attached” to the vehicle, the static friction between you and the seat will not be enough to stop you from going forward from a sudden stop. </li></ul><ul><li>You are a free floating object that will continue in motion until acted on by another force </li></ul>
  50. 55. Seat Belts <ul><li>What are some outside forces that can, and will, bring you to a stop? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steering wheel? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dashboard? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windshield? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The road? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Another car? </li></ul></ul>
  51. 56. Seat Belts <ul><li>The seat belt is designed to lock when a sudden stop is detected </li></ul><ul><li>This device holds your body to the seat, essentially making you “one” with the vehicle, thus sharing its momentum loss </li></ul><ul><li>When the vehicle slows, you slow at the same rate </li></ul>
  52. 57. Ending thoughts… <ul><li>Keep in mind, an instant change in velocity from 35 mph to 0 mph is FATAL! </li></ul><ul><li>Statistically you are the most at risk for a serious injury or fatality from a traffic crash </li></ul>
  53. 58. Suggestions for the Future <ul><li>Leave a little bit more time when you have to be someplace </li></ul><ul><li>If you are late…what is worse: being late or not being there at all? </li></ul><ul><li>Leave more space between you and the vehicle in front of you…RELAX! </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t get involved in roadway violence or racing. State Routes and County Roads are not the places to be racing! </li></ul>

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