If-clause, result clause
Result clause if-clause (without comma)
If I were rich, I’d buy a Ferrari.=
I’d buy a Ferrari if I were rich.
If = condition
Unless = negative condition (‘if not’)
Even if = emphasis on the condition
As long as = ‘only if’
Providing that used in 1st conditional
If /When + present simple, present simple.
• A situation that is always true.
• When you give commands
If you heat water to 100ºC, it boils.
When you see Sara, tell her my message.
If + present simple, will + infinitive (without to)
• Possible or probable future events
• in promises and warnings
If you are honest, people will respect you.
You’ll fail if you don’t study more.
If + past simple, would + infinitive (without
• Hypothetical present or future situations
If I won the lottery, I’d buy a mansion.
If I were rich, I would travel around the
If she were nicer, she’d have more friends.
If + past perfect, would + have + past participle
• Hypothetical past events (events that didn’t
If I had arrived earlier, I wouldn’t have missed the
Wish + past simple/continuous
• To express that we want a present situation to be
I wish I didn’t have to get up early.
If only you were coming to the party.
Wish + would
I wish you would be more polite with me.
Wish /If only + past perfect s. / cont.
+ could have past part
• To express that we want a past situation to have
been different or to change
I wish I hadn’t spent so much money on shopping.
If only I could have been with you.
SB p. 32 1A. Read the situation and
match 1-6 with A-F
1. Even if she asks her parents,
B her parents will say no.
2. Lisa won’t be happy
D unless she can go.
3. Her parents might agree
C as long as they think she is safe.
4. Providing that they believe her,
E Lisa’s plan will work.
5. If her parents phone Ana,
A they’ll discover the truth.
1B Rewrite the sentences.
1. I’ll feel bad if we don’t tell the truth. (unless)
unless we tell the truth.
2. You’ll understand if you listen carefully. (as long
as long as
3. We won’t do it if you don’t think that it’s
unless you think that it’s acceptable.
4. If we teach our children well, they’ll be honest.
As long as
5. If you aren’t faithful, I won’t stay with you.
Providing that you are faithful, I’ll stay with you.
6. If I leave now, I’ll be late. (even if)
2A. First and second conditional
1. How will you feel if Real Madrid wins the league?
How would you feel if Real Madrid won the league?
3. How will your teacher feel if you pass all of your
How would your teacher feel if you passed all your
3. What would you do if you became invisible?
4. Who will you call if you want to go out this
5. Where would you go if you went on a dream
6. What would people say if the King of Spain visited
2C Write the consequences to these
situations with 2nd conditional
1. If shops were open 24 hours a day, seven
days a week, …
2. If animals could talk, …
3. If money didn’t exist, …
4. If people communicated using telepathy,
3A Third conditional
1. He wouldn’t have lost the match if he had played
2. I might not have come here if I’d known it was
3. I wouldn’t have phoned if I’d known you were
4. If he’d been guilty, they would have punished
5. I might have become rebellious if my parents had
6. If he had studied harder, he might have passed.
1. Sophie went shopping because she needed some food.
If Sophie hadn’t needed some food, she wouldn’t have gone
2. She found a wallet on the ground and she phoned its owner,
If she hadn’t found a wallet, she wouldn’t have phoned its
3. She met Dan and they became friends.
If she hadn’t met Dan, they wouldn’t have become friends.
4. Sophie and Dan fell in love and became a couple.
If Sophie and Dan hadn’t fallen in love, they wouldn’t have
become a couple.
5. They stayed together because they were very happy.
If they hadn’t been very happy, they wouldn’t have stayed
1. I wish I didn’t feel guilty.
2. I wish he would answer the phone.
3. I wish Sam could visit me.
4. I wish I didn’t live in a boring town. I
wish I lived in an exciting town.
5. I wish I had listened to the teacher.
6. I wish they hadn’t spoken so quickly.
7. I wish I had answered the question.
8. I wish he had seen the film.
WB p. 13 ex.1
1. I’ll phone you unless/if I need any help.
2. Even if /As long as I tell the truth, nobody
will believe me.
3. You can’t join that club as long as/unless
you’re over 25.
4. My parents won’t mind as long as/unless
I’m home by midnight.
5. My dad will lend me the car providing that/
even if I promise to drive carefully.
2. if, unless, even if, as long as,
1. As long as/Providing that
If/Even if I give her my word,
will she tell me the secret?
2. I’ll finish this book even if it takes me
3. Nobody will find us if/as long as/providing that
we don’t make a noise.
4. She won’t go to the party if/unless/even if
she thinks you’re there.
2. If/as long as/ I see James, I’ll tell him.
3 Write sentences using first
1. She / not forgive / him / even if / he /apologise
She won’t forgive him even if he apologises.
2. If / I / get bored / I / buy / a magazine
If I get bored, I’ll buy a magazine.
3. We / make / the dinner / unless / you / want to / cook
We’ll make the dinner unless you want to cook.
4. I / help / you / providing that / you / help / me later
I’ll help you providing that you help me later.
5. Unless / you / ask /him to promise / he /not arrive /on time
Unless you ask him to promise, he won’t arrive on time.
First and second conditional 4
1. Which historical period would you visit if time travel
2. What will you do if you don’t watch (not
watch) TV this evening?
3. What will you do after you leave (leave)
4. Where would you live if you had (have) €1
5. Whose house would you visit if you had
(have) the power to become invisible? hypothetical
5. Probable or hypothetical? Write
1. It rains a lot here.
If the weather was better, I would go out more.
2. I don’t have her phone number.
If I knew her number, I would call her.
3. You’re good at this subject.
If you study hard, you’ll pass this subject.
4. She’s going shopping.
If she sees some nice shoes, she’ll buy them.
5. I know quite a lot of English.
If I didn’t know any English, I wouldn’t be able to do this
6. I might see Anna tonight.
If I see her, I’ll ask her to call you.
Third conditional 6
1.Who would you have asked if your parents had refused to
lend you the money?
2. She wouldn’t have gone to university if she hadn’t worked
3. If she had read her letter, he might have understood why
4. What would you have said if he had asked you to dance?
5. I don’t think we would have arrived earlier if we had taken
6. If you had listened to me, nothing would have gone wrong.
7 complete with 3rd conditional
1. England would have won the match if Beckham hadn’t
missed that penalty.
2. If Mozart hadn’t died so young, he would have written
more wonderful music.
3. I would have finished my homework if my computer
4. If you hadn’t wasted so much time, you would have
found a solution already.
5. She wouldn’t have met her boyfriend if she hadn’t
caught that train.
6. They wouldn’t have broken the machine if they had read
8 Explain Luke’s story.
If Catherine hadn’t lent Luke a book about evolution, he
wouldn’t have read the book. If Luke hadn’t read the book,
he wouldn’t have found it interesting. If he hadn’t found it
interesting, he wouldn’t have studied biology at
university.If he hadn’t studied biology at university, he
wouldn’t have studied hard. If Luke hadn’t studied hard,
he wouldn’t have become a brilliant student. If he hadn’t
become a brilliant student, a big pharmaceuticals company
wouldn’t have offered him a job. If a big pharmaceuticals
company hadn’t offered him a job, he wouldn’t have
started to do research there. If he hadn’t started to do
research there, he wouldn’t have created a giant rat. If he
hadn’t created a giant rat, the rat wouldn’t have killed him.
I wish + past/past perfect/would
2. I wish you’d won the league. A
3. I wish I could sing like him. B
4. I wish those people would stop shouting. C
5. I wish I had a more interesting life. B
6. I wish I knew her phone number. B
7. I wish I’d passed my maths exam. A
8. I wish he wouldn’t give me orders. C
9. I wish she’d listened to my advice. A
1. I can’t dance.
I wish I could dance.
2. I have exams.
I wish I didn’t have to do them.
3. I lied, but now I wish I had told the truth.
4. She’s always late.
I wish she would arrive on time.
5. I’m not very tall.
I wish I was/were taller.
6. The weather’s awful.
I wish it would stop raining.
7. I never knew my grandmother.
I wish I had known her.
1. You think it would be nice to have a bit more money.
I wish I had a bit more money.
2. You don’t know why you chose that subject.
I wish I had chosen a different subject.
3. You’d like to be a more positive person.
I wish I was/were a more positive person.
4. It makes you angry that people drive so fast.
I wish people didn’t / wouldn’t drive so fast.
5. He spent all your money.
I wish he hadn’t spent all my money.
6. She never tidies her room and it annoys you.
I wish she would tidy her room.
1. I wish I don’t have so much homework. didn’t
2. She won’t be happy unless she passes her exams.
3. I’ll be angry as long as you tell me the truth. won’t
4. I wish I didn’t tell my girlfrined those lies. hadn’t told
5. If you would have downloaded that file, the hackers
didn’t get in. hadn’t/wouldn’t have got
6. I wish the world was more peaceful.
7. I won’t have enough money to buy a moped even I work
all summer. if
8. How will we communicate if phones didn’t exist?