Greenhouse Vegetable
Production:
Sweet Bell Pepper (Capsicum annum L.) culture in Leamington
Ontario



Lecture Presented ...
Greenhouse Vegetable
 Production: Sweet Bell Peppers (Capsicum annum L.)
 culture in Leamington, Ontario




             ...
Sweet Bell Peppers
(Capsicum annum L.)
Introduction
Focus on controlled, intensive production of high
quality, fresh market produce under very
diverse conditions...
Management Goals

 Intelligently control greenhouse operational
 variables to,

 Maximum yield and profit,

 To simplify t...
Part-1
Greenhouse
Structure
Topic - 1 (Greenhouse Structure)
   Gutter-connect-design offers
   expansion (“bays”) compartment,

   Roof has many arch...
Typical Gutter type greenhouse
(Structure conted.)
Gutter Type (Side view)
GH Structure   Conted.




  Lower part of roof are gutters (the point
  where adjacent arches begin or end).

  Single ba...
GH Structure   Conted



     Advantages of Gutter Types:
     Accommodate taller indeterminate
     cultivars (e.g. peppe...
GH Structure       Conted.
Material
  Glass Panels           (24 %)*


  PLASTIC (76 %)*
  Polycarbonate Panels
  Polyethy...
GH Structure   conted.
Material


    Double Polyethylene Skin has 2 layers,
    pressurized air filled in between
    pro...
Average Growers & GH Size in Ontario 2006-07

  Cucumber         42 %
  Sweet Peppers    25 %
  Tomatoes         33 %
  __...
Part - 2
Greenhouse
Operation
Greenhouse (GH) Operation conted.

    Heating Options as in 2006-07:
    Boiler        42 %
    Steam         27 %
    Ho...
GH Operation conted.

GH Heating Fuel

    Natural gas            55 %
    # 6 Bunker             20 %
    # 2 Light oil  ...
GH Operation Boiler: compressed Air
Hot Water Distribution Header
(compartment of header zone)
GH Operation   conted.
(Primary Heating)
   Boiler delivers heat by (5 cm or 2//
   pipe) run on the floor between
   rows...
Heating Rails GH Heating system
Rail Track /Cart
GH Operation conted.
Importance of Plant Canopy Air Heating



    Target temp. 18-21 0C,

    Temp. below 15 0C is sub op...
GH operation   conted.
(Secondary Heating)

   2 // pipe run under the top gutter to
   heat the roof for snow melt down i...
GH Operation   conted.
(Ventilation & Air Cooling

Ventilation helps:

air circulation, uniform climate by heat
distributi...
GH Operation conted.
(Relative Humidity)
   Measure of water vapour contents in air,
   Maintained below threshold point t...
Hot Water Supply pipes
Air Inflation Pipes
GH operation   conted.
(Cooling System)



    During high light intensity, ventilation is
    insufficient

    Increased...
Fan & Pad Evaporating Cooling conted.
GH Operation Conted.   Floors & Potting
  Concrete floors expensive but ideal for nursery,
  Seedlings rooted in rock wool...
Growing Media   ( as in 2006-07)


   Rock Wool Slabs          57 %
   Coconut                  39 %
   Peat moss         ...
Floor & Rooting
GH Operation conted.
CO2 Supplementation

   Co2 diffused pipes are placed below the gutters

   Co2 Source: Natural gas c...
GH Operation conted. (CO2 Supplementation)


    Optimum GH CO2 conc. Ranges 700-900
    ppm.

    Rubp Enz. Fix either --...
GH Operation conted. (CO2 Supplementation)

On high ventilation, cost efficient conc. of
CO2 is 350 ppm, just above the am...
Liquid CO2 Tank & Vaporizers
Liquid CO2 at 20 0C, passes through Vaporizers & converted to gas
before fed on plants)
GH Operation conted: (Irrigation / Fertigation)



  Water & Fertilizer has control on delivery to
  plants,
  Both are pr...
Nutrient Control System
GH Operation Conted.
Nutrient Control System
Electrical Conductivity (EC) gives indirect
measure of nutrients / ions conc....
Automated Nutrition Delivery system
Water & Nutrient supply source
Spaghetti Tubes
.
GH Operation Conted (Environmental Control)


Computer Integrated manipulation provides
optimal plant growth,

Internal ...
Environmental Sensor Box for Temp./ RH
GH Operation
Environmental Control System
Part- 3
Sweet Peppers Production
a. Planting
b. Harvest & Packing
Topic 3-a Production   Conted.
Bell Peppers Planting

  Greenhouse peppers are Indeterminate
  cultivars therefore, plants...
Seedling Planting
Seedling Progressing
Bell Peppers Production conted.
Pruning / Training of Bell peppers
Production conted.
Vertical Growth of Indeterminate Bell Peppers
Bell peppers Production conted.
                                                           Biological Growth


           ...
Bell Peppers Production Conted.
Effect of light intensity on Growth & Development

  Corrective environmental actions: ( l...
Bell Peppers Production Conted.
Effect of light intensity on Growth & Development

   Leaf Area Index (LAI) ratio of leaf ...
Bell Peppers Production conted.
Effect of light intensity on Growth & Development


   In North American winter (Nov-Feb) ...
Bell Peppers Production Conted.
Effect of Temperature Regime on Growth & Development
    *24 hrs mean temp. manipulation f...
Bell Peppers Production Conted.

 Seedling/ Transplantation

  Seed to seedling ready 7-10 DAP*
  Receives 1st transfer to...
Bell Production Conted.
Seedling/ Transplantation

  *Pre-filled rock-wool slab ( 100x20x7.5 cm)
  has EC 2.5-2.8 m S/cm 2...
Bell Peppers Production Conted.
Green House Plant Production

  1 *WATp maintain **D/N 21/16-17 0C. As
  such plant is dir...
Bell Peppers Production Conted.
Green House (Flower & Fruit Set Control)

   Opt. Temp. flower/fruit = 17 0C
   ----------...
Bell Peppers Production Conted.
Green House (Flower & Fruit Set Control)

    Fruit set reduced > 270C and low RH,

    In...
Bell peppers Production conted.
Heat / Temp Stress
Bell Peppers Production Conted.
Insect Pest & Biological Control
  Aphid sps. Myzus persicae is the most common
  and is c...
Aphidoletes midge larvae   Lady beetle feeding on aphids
feeding on aphids.
Thrips Biological Control ( predatory mite:Amblyseius
cucumeris is used to control thrips)
Humidity related disease
Powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica)
Part - 3-b
Bell Peppers Harvest &
Packing
Bell Peppers Harvest
Season: Jan-Dec or Dec-Nov.

Mature fruit size= 3.3 , 2.5-2.9, 2.2-2.4 Inches
diameter,

Ripens in fl...
Bell Peppers in Greenhouse
(Grading & Packing)
Bell Peppers Grading in Header House
Bell Peppers processing conted.
Q/A,Grading, Packing and shipment
Post-Harvest Processes for storage
  Rapid forced air cooling after harvest
  increase shelf life,

  Optimum storage 0T=1...
Post Harvest/ Packaging conted.
(Shipment ready in header house)
Part-4
Economics:
Cost Benefit of the GH Grown Bell
Peppers Production System
Cost Benefit Summary ( as on 2007)
Category                          Total Dollars   $/Sq M
A. Gross Revenue = 372324.00  ...
Thank You


       Authors contact: ozair.chaudhry@tel.tdsb.on.ca
               msaeed@kapitalproduce.com
Courtesy of Kap...
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Greenhouse Vegetable Production Background[1]

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  • Dear Dr Saeed
    I am your fan and admirer and just want to appreciate you being a UAF fellow, simply becasue what you’ve done is marvelous and expamplary in GH industry.
    in this slide show, what you’ve mentioned and shown, Re: production technology of Capsicumm in GH culture, is from your hard earned experience and working dedicatively and inovatively in the industry.
    Keep it up Doc.
    All the best,
    Nasir
       Reply 
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Greenhouse Vegetable Production Background[1]

  1. 1. Greenhouse Vegetable Production: Sweet Bell Pepper (Capsicum annum L.) culture in Leamington Ontario Lecture Presented by: Dr. Ozair Chaudhry, Ph.D.,C P Ag. (USA)., OCT ( Canada) Albert Campbell Collegiate Institute (NS) Con.Ed. Toronto, Ontario and Dr. Muhammed Saeed, Ph.D.,(UK) CPH (USA) Kapital Produce Ltd. Leamington, Ontario September, 2008 Copyrighted. Users advised to quote author’s reference.
  2. 2. Greenhouse Vegetable Production: Sweet Bell Peppers (Capsicum annum L.) culture in Leamington, Ontario Bell Peppers Production in Gutter Type Greenhouse Phases of Study Introduction Structure Operation Production Economics Planting Harvesting & Packing
  3. 3. Sweet Bell Peppers (Capsicum annum L.)
  4. 4. Introduction Focus on controlled, intensive production of high quality, fresh market produce under very diverse conditions Optimum use of controlled variables; Air & root zone temperature, Vap.pressure deficit, Fertilizer, CO2 enrichment, Suitable growing media, and plant maintenance.
  5. 5. Management Goals Intelligently control greenhouse operational variables to, Maximum yield and profit, To simplify the decision-making on dynamics of the crop-environment interaction.
  6. 6. Part-1 Greenhouse Structure
  7. 7. Topic - 1 (Greenhouse Structure) Gutter-connect-design offers expansion (“bays”) compartment, Roof has many arches, each cover one bay, Arches connected with Gutters where 1 bay meets the next.
  8. 8. Typical Gutter type greenhouse (Structure conted.)
  9. 9. Gutter Type (Side view)
  10. 10. GH Structure Conted. Lower part of roof are gutters (the point where adjacent arches begin or end). Single bay greenhouse 240 m2 (2500 Ft 2) can be expanded by addition of bays to cover 1Ha (2.5 Ac)or more
  11. 11. GH Structure Conted Advantages of Gutter Types: Accommodate taller indeterminate cultivars (e.g. pepper attains 3.5m 12 Ft. provide larger air mass easily optimize Env than smaller air mass per unit area of greenhouse
  12. 12. GH Structure Conted. Material Glass Panels (24 %)* PLASTIC (76 %)* Polycarbonate Panels Polyethylene Skins *As in 2006-07
  13. 13. GH Structure conted. Material Double Polyethylene Skin has 2 layers, pressurized air filled in between provides rigidity(4 yr.) Allow light, conserves energy, reduce heat loss in winter Newer material selectively exclude wavelength, reduce insect / disease
  14. 14. Average Growers & GH Size in Ontario 2006-07 Cucumber 42 % Sweet Peppers 25 % Tomatoes 33 % ______________________ 0-2 Acres = 32 % 2-5 ---- = 28 % 5-15 ---- = 29 % 15-50 ---- = 10 % 50 + ---- = 0.8 %
  15. 15. Part - 2 Greenhouse Operation
  16. 16. Greenhouse (GH) Operation conted. Heating Options as in 2006-07: Boiler 42 % Steam 27 % Hot water 19 % Natural Gas 5 % Forced Air 4 % Air applied heat influence canopy Floor applied influence root zone
  17. 17. GH Operation conted. GH Heating Fuel Natural gas 55 % # 6 Bunker 20 % # 2 Light oil 19 % Wood 3% Others* 4% ________________________________ *(Biomass heavy oil, Furnace oil, propane, saw dust etc.)
  18. 18. GH Operation Boiler: compressed Air
  19. 19. Hot Water Distribution Header (compartment of header zone)
  20. 20. GH Operation conted. (Primary Heating) Boiler delivers heat by (5 cm or 2// pipe) run on the floor between rows Return pipe run parallel to one another forming “rail” used by the cart run up and down, help pruning and harvesting.
  21. 21. Heating Rails GH Heating system
  22. 22. Rail Track /Cart
  23. 23. GH Operation conted. Importance of Plant Canopy Air Heating Target temp. 18-21 0C, Temp. below 15 0C is sub optimal for root zone, Irrig. Temp. above 23 0C injurious to roots, Summer temp. can be 25 0C if grown in saw dust or rock wool slab.
  24. 24. GH operation conted. (Secondary Heating) 2 // pipe run under the top gutter to heat the roof for snow melt down in winter provide precise temp to optimize pollination, promotes early fruits & leaf
  25. 25. GH Operation conted. (Ventilation & Air Cooling Ventilation helps: air circulation, uniform climate by heat distribution from system, dehumidifying, In winter warm humid is exhausted and cool dry air brought in. Summer ventilation aid cooling the crop
  26. 26. GH Operation conted. (Relative Humidity) Measure of water vapour contents in air, Maintained below threshold point to avoid diseases Humidity RH α transpiration rate+temp + light intensity High humidity increase VP in GH air mass *VPD measured by sensors used to control transpiration rate for sustained yield. __________________________________ * Measurement units vary: milibar or Kpa, g/m3
  27. 27. Hot Water Supply pipes Air Inflation Pipes
  28. 28. GH operation conted. (Cooling System) During high light intensity, ventilation is insufficient Increased GH temp. also lowered with pad & fan evaporative cooling system
  29. 29. Fan & Pad Evaporating Cooling conted.
  30. 30. GH Operation Conted. Floors & Potting Concrete floors expensive but ideal for nursery, Seedlings rooted in rock wool slabs or bags with growing media, Small water *channels run between rows, These channels allow drainage from irrigation from one end to holding tanks for re-circulation. _______________________________________ *( channel sized 6x6 inch width x depth)
  31. 31. Growing Media ( as in 2006-07) Rock Wool Slabs 57 % Coconut 39 % Peat moss 1% Soil 0.6 % NFT 0.5 % Others (Foam) 2.2 %
  32. 32. Floor & Rooting
  33. 33. GH Operation conted. CO2 Supplementation Co2 diffused pipes are placed below the gutters Co2 Source: Natural gas combustion contains impurities In summer temp hike so, hard to maintain ambient level of Co2, it requires extra cooling Liquid Co2 clean but costly
  34. 34. GH Operation conted. (CO2 Supplementation) Optimum GH CO2 conc. Ranges 700-900 ppm. Rubp Enz. Fix either ------> CO2 : O2 Higher conc. CO2 will favour CO2 fixation CO2 limit photosynthesis rate
  35. 35. GH Operation conted. (CO2 Supplementation) On high ventilation, cost efficient conc. of CO2 is 350 ppm, just above the ambient. There won’t be net exchange of CO2 via vents, At higher temp.25 OC, Photosyn. declines, CO2 suppl. beyond this point is cost inefficient, Younger nursery plants have expon. Gth. than older. CO2 enrichment benefits.
  36. 36. Liquid CO2 Tank & Vaporizers Liquid CO2 at 20 0C, passes through Vaporizers & converted to gas before fed on plants)
  37. 37. GH Operation conted: (Irrigation / Fertigation) Water & Fertilizer has control on delivery to plants, Both are precisely programmed, delivered as frequently required, Both pumped from supply tanks in header house via hoses to aisles, Small spaghetti tubes supply equal rationing from hose to each plant.
  38. 38. Nutrient Control System
  39. 39. GH Operation Conted. Nutrient Control System Electrical Conductivity (EC) gives indirect measure of nutrients / ions conc. to be delivered to plants Greater the ions dissolved in H2O, greater the current flow and hence, high EC value EC unit mili mohs/cm or mili Siemens/cm, or micro Siemens/cm
  40. 40. Automated Nutrition Delivery system
  41. 41. Water & Nutrient supply source
  42. 42. Spaghetti Tubes
  43. 43. . GH Operation Conted (Environmental Control) Computer Integrated manipulation provides optimal plant growth, Internal Env. contact with Sensors installed in aisles records Temp, RH, Light & CO2 level, Sensor quality, maintenance and proper placement in vegetation records accurate and reliable reading.
  44. 44. Environmental Sensor Box for Temp./ RH
  45. 45. GH Operation Environmental Control System
  46. 46. Part- 3 Sweet Peppers Production a. Planting b. Harvest & Packing
  47. 47. Topic 3-a Production Conted. Bell Peppers Planting Greenhouse peppers are Indeterminate cultivars therefore, plants continually develop and grow from new meristems that produce new stems, leaves, flowers and fruit. These cultivars require constant pruning to manage their growth, optimize yield, a balance between vegetative & generative growth.
  48. 48. Seedling Planting
  49. 49. Seedling Progressing
  50. 50. Bell Peppers Production conted. Pruning / Training of Bell peppers
  51. 51. Production conted. Vertical Growth of Indeterminate Bell Peppers
  52. 52. Bell peppers Production conted. Biological Growth GROWTH Increase in Biomass Vegetative Growth Generative Growth Associated with gth of leaves and branches Generate Carbohydrates Associated with flowers & fruits Assimilates Carbohydrates
  53. 53. Bell Peppers Production Conted. Effect of light intensity on Growth & Development Corrective environmental actions: ( light, Temp, RH, nutrients) trigger balance between Veg. & generative growth. Light promote and limit photosynthesis Light intercept = latitude,canopy geometry, row orientation At 340 L, N-S orientation gets high intercept At 500 L, E-W maximize light interception.
  54. 54. Bell Peppers Production Conted. Effect of light intensity on Growth & Development Leaf Area Index (LAI) ratio of leaf area over the land that leaf covers, Crop productivity increases with the increase of LAI. (LAI 8 is the max value for GH crops). Highest LAI for Bell Peppers= 6.3, Cucumbers= 3.4 and Tomatoes= 2.3 White plastic floors reflects light to canopy ( add 9 % intensity).
  55. 55. Bell Peppers Production conted. Effect of light intensity on Growth & Development In North American winter (Nov-Feb) light is limiting, 16-20 Hrs photoperiod is supplemented. 120-180 W/m2 intensity applied from 400 W sodium light
  56. 56. Bell Peppers Production Conted. Effect of Temperature Regime on Growth & Development *24 hrs mean temp. manipulation for consecutive days direct either veg. or generative gth. Day temp 21-23 0C is optimum for photo-synthesis of GH pepper, (1-1.5 variation Lower-->Veg & higher --->generative gth) For pepper fruit set, night temp 16-18 0C is optimum. _______________________________________ * Vary within crops and cultivars
  57. 57. Bell Peppers Production Conted. Seedling/ Transplantation Seed to seedling ready 7-10 DAP* Receives 1st transfer to bigger rock wool blocks 10x10 cm when difoliate, 2 WAE** Receives 2nd transfer to production GH at 6 WAE, 10 inch tall __________________________________ *[DAP=Day After Planting, **WEP=Week After Emergence]
  58. 58. Bell Production Conted. Seedling/ Transplantation *Pre-filled rock-wool slab ( 100x20x7.5 cm) has EC 2.5-2.8 m S/cm 21 0C has 6 planting slots on the top, After rooting in to slabs, cut 2 slit on the bottom for drainage. _____________________________________ *D/N 20/21 0C, RH 70-80, VPD 3-5 gm/cm3, CO2 800-1000ppm. Post-establ. E C= 4-4.5
  59. 59. Bell Peppers Production Conted. Green House Plant Production 1 *WATp maintain **D/N 21/16-17 0C. As such plant is directed to set flowers, maintain opt. Veg. Growth and opt. fruit & yield. Each plant pruned and thinned to 2 strong stems, twine hung from overhead support wire Ensure least damage on main stem. _____________________________________ [* WATp= Weeks After Transplant, ** D/N= Day/Night]
  60. 60. Bell Peppers Production Conted. Green House (Flower & Fruit Set Control) Opt. Temp. flower/fruit = 17 0C -----------------------yield = 21 0C [poor pollination cause fruit flattened / button if <14 0C N temp.pointed fruit due to hormonal imbalance. In early winter, precise head heating pipes are lowered on canopy for optimized temp.
  61. 61. Bell Peppers Production Conted. Green House (Flower & Fruit Set Control) Fruit set reduced > 270C and low RH, Increased light intensity reduce fruit size [Can be overcome by 10 % shading of GH ]. Lowering Rt. Zone Temp (15 0C) directs plants remain Vegetative,conversely, floral/ fruit abortion.[low light intensity also abort flowers]
  62. 62. Bell peppers Production conted. Heat / Temp Stress
  63. 63. Bell Peppers Production Conted. Insect Pest & Biological Control Aphid sps. Myzus persicae is the most common and is controlled by wasp parasites: Aphidus colemani & A. ervi. Aphids become silvery brown with small whole in back when parasite emerges. [Lady beetle is alternate predator used in some cases] OR The larvae of midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza feeds on most aphids. Thrips sps.controlled by predatory mites Amblyseius cucumeris.
  64. 64. Aphidoletes midge larvae Lady beetle feeding on aphids feeding on aphids.
  65. 65. Thrips Biological Control ( predatory mite:Amblyseius cucumeris is used to control thrips)
  66. 66. Humidity related disease Powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica)
  67. 67. Part - 3-b Bell Peppers Harvest & Packing
  68. 68. Bell Peppers Harvest Season: Jan-Dec or Dec-Nov. Mature fruit size= 3.3 , 2.5-2.9, 2.2-2.4 Inches diameter, Ripens in flushes or waves 2-3 picks/warmer week, Avg. 3 fruits picked/plt./each harvest, Avg seasonal yield: 22-28 Kg/M2 (acre = 4047 M2)
  69. 69. Bell Peppers in Greenhouse (Grading & Packing)
  70. 70. Bell Peppers Grading in Header House
  71. 71. Bell Peppers processing conted. Q/A,Grading, Packing and shipment
  72. 72. Post-Harvest Processes for storage Rapid forced air cooling after harvest increase shelf life, Optimum storage 0T=10-12 0C, RH= 90-95 %, [Below 70C cause chilling spots on fruits, also avoid above 130C it increases ripening]. Avg packing 11 pounds (5 Kg/ corrugated carton), Storage life 2-3 weeks,
  73. 73. Post Harvest/ Packaging conted. (Shipment ready in header house)
  74. 74. Part-4 Economics: Cost Benefit of the GH Grown Bell Peppers Production System
  75. 75. Cost Benefit Summary ( as on 2007) Category Total Dollars $/Sq M A. Gross Revenue = 372324.00 92.00 B. Operating Cost = 299964.00 74.12 C. Invest. Cost = 25698.00 6.35 D. Building/Equip = 38649.00 9.55 depreciation E. Production cost = 364311.00 90.02 [B + C+ D] Revenue over Op. cost [A-B] = 72360.00 17.88 Return to Management = 8013.00 1.98
  76. 76. Thank You Authors contact: ozair.chaudhry@tel.tdsb.on.ca msaeed@kapitalproduce.com Courtesy of Kapital Produce Ltd. Leamington, Ontario is appreciated

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