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Language Learning Strategies

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Language Learning Strategies

  1. 1. Language Learning Strategies Presented by Winnie Chen TESOL Methodology
  2. 2. Abstract <ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing strategy use </li></ul><ul><li>Good language learner </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy instruction research </li></ul><ul><li>Influences on strategy choice </li></ul><ul><li>Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Current & future </li></ul>
  3. 3. Features of LLS <ul><li>Goal-directed </li></ul><ul><li>A strategy chain (consisting of subgoals ) </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy (Controlling learning process) </li></ul><ul><li>Self-efficacy </li></ul>
  4. 4. Types of LLS <ul><li>Cognitive strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Mnemonic strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Metacognitive strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Compensatory strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Affective strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Social strategies </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cognitive strategies <ul><li>Schema New input </li></ul><ul><li>Tapestry approach </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction (more capable other) </li></ul><ul><li>Higher thinking skills </li></ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Sth. Known( key words) New item </li></ul><ul><li>An aid for remembering </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison with Cognitive strategies: </li></ul><ul><li>1.Relating things in a simplistic manner. </li></ul><ul><li>2.Learning vocabs & grammar. </li></ul>Mnemonic strategies
  7. 7. Metacognitive strategies <ul><li>Self-directed language learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Planning Monitoring Evaluating </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing strategies based on learning styles . </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging students to be an active participant . </li></ul>
  8. 8. Compensatory strategies <ul><li>Making up for missing knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Controversy: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Cohen: </li></ul><ul><li>“ It’s for language use!” </li></ul><ul><li>2. Little & Oxford: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Incidental learning is helpful.” </li></ul>
  9. 9. Affective strategies <ul><li>Identifying learners’ feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>Methods: diary, emotional checklist…. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: reducing anxiety, praising </li></ul><ul><li>one’s performance…. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Social strategies <ul><li>Facilitating learning with others. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicative language learning. </li></ul><ul><li>O’Malley & Chamot: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cognitive S & Metacognitive S </li></ul><ul><li>downplay the social strategy.” </li></ul>
  11. 11. Research <ul><li>Assessing strategy use </li></ul><ul><li>The good language learner </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy instruction research </li></ul><ul><li>Influences on strategy choice </li></ul>
  12. 12. Assessing strategy use <ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal report </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy diary </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy questionnaires (Oxford: SILL ) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Good language learner <ul><li>Guesser </li></ul><ul><li>Strong drive </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities of practice </li></ul><ul><li>Willing to make mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring speech </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns & analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning-oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Good use of strategies </li></ul>Communicating
  14. 14. Strategy use V.S. Language proficiency <ul><li>Greater strategy use = higher proficiency ? </li></ul><ul><li>Oxford & Dreyer’s Predictive studies : </li></ul><ul><li>“ Strategy use can’t predict proficiency!” </li></ul>
  15. 15. Strategy use instruction (SBI) <ul><li>Advantages: Greater LLS use, self-efficacy, </li></ul><ul><li>anxiety ,motivation , attitude + . </li></ul><ul><li>Related to: Culture,belief,content,presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Fully informed strategy-plus-control instruction: </li></ul><ul><li>Authentic, relevant, affective, integrated into </li></ul><ul><li>regular language classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>One-time- only workshop Improvement </li></ul>
  16. 16. Factors affect strategy choice <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Learning style & personalities </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Culture & nation </li></ul><ul><li>Career orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Language task </li></ul>
  17. 17. Practice & Conclusion <ul><li>Assessing strategy use </li></ul><ul><li>Attuning instruction to learners’ needs </li></ul><ul><li>Formats for instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of instruction </li></ul>Strategy use instruction
  18. 18. Discussion <ul><li>What language learning strategies you use when learning English? Please explain. </li></ul><ul><li>Did your teacher coach strategy use in learning English? How? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you as a teacher weave strategy instruction into English lessons? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s your opinion about strategy instruction in the EFL environment in Taiwan? Feasible or not? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the differences of teaching strategy bet. younger and older learners? </li></ul>

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