Science Indicator


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Science Indicator

  1. 1. If At First You Don’t Succeed… Experiment Again! Lindsay Taylor
  2. 2. Indicator <ul><li>4.1.6 - Even a good design may fail. </li></ul>Source:
  3. 3. Vocabulary <ul><li>Observation - Receiving knowledge of the outside world through the senses </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis - An educated guess dealing with your observation </li></ul><ul><li>Experiment - the act of conducting a controlled test or investigation </li></ul>
  4. 4. Background Information <ul><li>400 BC - China
The discovery of the kite that could fly in the air by the Chinese started humans thinking about flying. Kites were used by the Chinese in religious ceremonies. They built many colorful kites for fun, also. More sophisticated kites were used to test weather conditions. Kites have been important to the invention of flight as they were the forerunner to balloons and gliders. </li></ul><ul><li>The ancient Greek engineer, Hero of Alexandria, worked with air pressure and steam to create sources of power. One experiment that he developed was the aeolipile which used jets of steam to create rotary motion. </li></ul><ul><li>Leonardo da Vinci made the first real studies of flight in the 1480's. He had over 100 drawings that illustrated his theories on flight.The Ornithopter flying machine was never actually created. It was a design that Leonardo da Vinci created to show how man could fly. The modern day helicopter is based on this concept. </li></ul><ul><li>The brothers, Joseph Michel and Jacques Etienne Montgolfier, were inventors of the first hot air balloon. They used the smoke from a fire to blow hot air into a silk bag. The silk bag was attached to a basket. The hot air then rose and allowed the balloon to be lighter-than-air.In 1783, the first passengers in the colorful balloon were a sheep, rooster and duck. It climbed to a height of about 6,000 feet and traveled more than 1 mile.After this first success, the brothers began to send men up in balloons. The first manned flight was on November 21, 1783, the passengers were Jean-Francois Pilatre de Rozier and Francois Laurent. </li></ul><ul><li>George Cayley worked to discover a way that man could fly. He designed many different versions of gliders that used the movements of the body to control. A young boy, whose name is not known, was the first to fly one of his gliders.Over 50 years he made improvements to the gliders. He changed the shape of the wings so that the air would flow over the wings correctly. He designed a tail for the gliders to help with the stability. He tried a biplane design to add strength to the glider. He also recognized that there would be a need for power if the flight was to be in the air for a long time. </li></ul><ul><li>Samuel Langley was an astronomer, who realized that power was needed to help man fly. He built a model of a plane, which he called an aerodrome, that included a steam-powered engine. In 1891, his model flew for 3/4s of a mile before running out of fuel.Orville Wright (1871-1948) and Wilbur Wright (1867-1912) requested a patent application for a &quot;flying machine&quot; nine months before their successful flight in December 1903, which Orville Wright recorded in his diary. </li></ul><ul><li>The brothers tested many different flying machines that they had created and many failed to launch. </li></ul><ul><li>Earlier in 1900, Wilbur Wright wrote to French aviation pioneer Octave Chanute (1832-1910) and expressed the belief that &quot;flight is possible to man...[and] I feel that it will soon cost me an increased amount of money if not my life&quot;. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Activity <ul><li>You will need: </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific Notepad </li></ul><ul><li>Pencil </li></ul><ul><li>Markers </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of paper </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple “plane building” materials </li></ul><ul><li>(all of which is provided by teacher) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Activity <ul><li>For thousands of years, people tried to create a way for humans to fly just like birds. Finally, the Wright brothers succeeded with the first airplane. </li></ul><ul><li>Think about how much airplanes have helped people since the have been invented. They are a fast way to travel, we use them to defend our country, and they are a fast way to deliver things to and from over-seas countries. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Activity <ul><li>Take some notes in your scientific notebook about something YOU could invent to help make people’s lives around the world easier. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesize how your invention would help, what it would do, and who it could help. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, use the materials given to create your invention (or a model of your invention if it’s too big for you to actually create)! </li></ul>
  8. 8. Activity <ul><li>Share your inventions with everyone. Explain what it is, what its function is, and how it will help people around the world. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Assessment <ul><li>- Draw a plan for your invention in your scientific notebook </li></ul><ul><li>- Be sure to explain how your invention works and how it will help people when you share it with your classmates. </li></ul><ul><li>- Understand that not all inventions work the first time. Sometimes it takes a thousand tries or experiments before they work! </li></ul>