Mechanisms Of Injuries2010show1


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Mechanisms Of Injuries2010show1

  1. 1. Mechanisms of Injuries<br />2/16/2010<br />1<br />
  2. 2. No matter how much time is spent on injury prevention sooner or later an injury occurs<br />Either acute or chronic in nature<br />Acute injuries<br />Result of trauma<br />Chronic<br />Caused by repetitive, overuse activities<br />2/16/2010<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Injury mechanism<br />Mechanics of injuries <br />Forces applied to the body <br />different angles, <br />over different periods of time.<br /> <br />Different tissue types<br />respond differently to applied forces.<br /> <br />NOT an all or none Phenomenon.<br />injuries range in severity or grades.<br />2/16/2010<br />3<br />
  4. 4. The Body Responds to Laws of Physics<br />Movement through Space<br />Accomplished by inefficient levers <br />The long levers must overcome considerable resistance.<br />inertia <br />muscle viscosity <br />More than 1/2 of the body's weight is in the upper body – <br />supported by rather thin bones. <br />center of gravity is relatively high in the human -<br /> requires energy to maintain posture.<br />Body can compensate<br />body may be lowered by widening stance to decrease gravity.<br />2/16/2010<br />4<br />
  5. 5. Sports Science<br />2/16/2010<br />5<br />
  6. 6. Force and Its Effect<br />Force<br />Pushing or a pulling acting on a body.<br />Numerous forces act on our bodies.<br />Gravity<br />Terrain<br />Weather<br />Other bodies<br />Equipment<br />Balls<br />Bats<br />Clubs, etc<br />Bodies adjust when internal forces are produced by muscles.<br />body absorbs forces<br />body responds and adjusts<br />Two potential effects <br />acceleration, or change in velocity <br />deformation, or change in shape<br />YOU TUBE VIDEO<br /><br />2/16/2010<br />6<br />
  7. 7. ProtectiveDevices<br />Musculature serves as a shock <br />Muscle - affect movement of an organ or body part.<br />Cartilage pads - absorb shock.<br />Ligaments - Maintains continuity of joints - bone to bone<br />Muscle tone - Strength - again - the more flexible the muscle the lesschance of disruption<br />Tendon - Muscle to bone<br />2/16/2010<br />7<br />
  8. 8. Protective Devices<br />2/16/2010<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Five Primary Tissue Stressors<br />Tension=<br />Force that Pulls or Stretches Tissue<br />Stretching=<br />Beyond Yield Point<br />Rupturing of soft tissue<br />Compression=<br />Crushes Tissue<br />Shearing<br />Force that moves across the parallel organization of tissue<br />Abrasions, Blisters<br />ACL / PCL Tears<br />Tibia shears<br />Bending=<br />Known as three point bending<br />2/16/2010<br />9<br />
  10. 10. Tension<br />2/16/2010<br />10<br />
  11. 11. RupturedTissue<br />2/16/2010<br />11<br />
  12. 12. Compression<br />2/16/2010<br />12<br />
  13. 13. What is this????????<br />2/16/2010<br />13<br />
  14. 14. Shearing<br />2/16/2010<br />14<br />
  15. 15. More Shearing<br />2/16/2010<br />15<br />
  16. 16. 2/16/2010<br />16<br />FRACTURES<br />Interruptions in the continuity of a bone. <br />Classified as:<br />Simple<br />break in a bone <br />Compound<br />extended through the outer skin layers,<br />Fractures are one of the most serious hazards<br />Causing factors: <br />Direct blow<br />Torsion action<br />Muscle / tendon stress causing avulsion fractures.<br />
  17. 17. Bending <br />2/16/2010<br />17<br />
  18. 18. OUCH !!!!!!!! Uhh- Yeah It’s Broken“ I don’t think that I’ll be going out tonight”<br />2/16/2010<br />18<br />
  19. 19. Healing of a Fracture<br />Generally require immobilization for some period<br />Approx. 6 weeks for bones of arms and legs<br />3 weeks for bones of hands and feet<br />Fracture healing requires osteoblast activity to lay down bone and form callus<br />Following cast removal, normal stresses and strains will aid in healing and remodeling process<br />Osteoclasts will be called on to assist in re-shaping of bone in response to normal stress<br />2/16/2010<br />19<br />
  20. 20. Stress Fractures <br />No specific cause but with a number of possible causes<br />Overload due to muscle contraction, altered stress distribution due to muscle fatigue, changes in surface, rhythmic repetitive stress vibrations<br />· Switching to a harder running surface. · Rapid increase of speed or distance. · Returning to intense activity after a layoff. · Inadequate rest and excessive stress. · A change in footwear without proper adjustment period. · Improper shoe selection to accommodate foot type.<br />Begins with a dull ache and progressively becomes worse over time<br />Initially pain during activity and then progresses to pain following activity<br />Early detection is difficult, bone scan is useful, x-ray is effective after several weeks <br />Due to osteoblastic activity<br />If suspected – stop activity for 14 days<br />Generally does not require casting<br />2/16/2010<br />20<br />
  21. 21. 2/16/2010<br />21<br />
  22. 22. Predisposing Factors<br />Congenital (heredity) or Acquired <br />Kinesiological (way body moves through space).<br />Pre-season physical examinations are very important.<br />Detect abnormalities<br />Injuries not treated or Mistreated<br />Nature of the Beast<br />2/16/2010<br />22<br />
  23. 23. Types of Injuries and How they occur<br />Contusions, Bruises, Hematoma<br />By impact - <br />Characterized by:<br />local tenderness<br />Swelling<br />Discoloration <br />Disabling <br />I.E. vastusmedialis will limit walking ability "dead leg"<br />2/16/2010<br />23<br />
  24. 24. STRAINS<br />Involves Muscles or adjacent tendon.<br />referred to as a "PULL“<br />abnormal muscular contraction<br />imbalance between agonist and antagonist muscles - Hams vs Quads<br />Fatigue<br />Characterized by degrees of disruption of the muscle/tendon fibers<br />A strain can range <br />Graded as 1st, 2nd, 3rd or<br />Mild, Moderate, Severe<br />Similar to contusion bleeding is present and there may be some discoloration<br />If severe - defect can be seen - Achilles "Roll Up"<br />2/16/2010<br />24<br />
  25. 25. Explanation of Degrees<br />2/16/2010<br />25<br />
  26. 26. SPRAINS<br />Over-extension of a joint. <br />Most common<br />Disabling injuries.<br />Forced beyond its normal anatomical limits.<br />Microscopic and gross pathologies occur. <br />Injury to:<br />Ligaments<br />articular capsule<br />synovial membrane<br />Effusion (spreading) of blood and synovial fluid into the joint cavity<br />inflammation (joint swelling)<br />point tenderness<br />Laxity of joint<br />2/16/2010<br />26<br />
  27. 27. 2/16/2010<br />27<br />
  28. 28. Dislocations<br />Disruption between the two articular surfaces.(Fingers and shoulders mostly)<br />Divided into two classes<br />Subluxations- partial dislocation wherein an imcompletet separation between 2 articulating bones occurs.<br />Luxations- complete dislocations; total disunion of the bones.<br />Characterized by<br />Loss of limb function; <br />Obvious Deformity <br />Swelling and point tenderness are immediately present<br />2/16/2010<br />28<br />
  29. 29. 2/16/2010<br />29<br />