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• TW/h – Trillion Watt Hours
• The purpose of a generator is to convert motion into electricity. This wouldn&apos;t be possible if it wasn&apos;t for one fact: That a wire passing through a magnetic field causes electrons in that wire to move together in one direction. A loop of wire spinning through a magnetic field will create an alternating current. Note: current will flow only if the circuit connected to the generator is complete.A generator consists of some magnets and a wire (usually a very long one that&apos;s wrapped to form several coils and known as an armature). A steam engine or some other outside source of motion moves the wire or armature through the magnetic field created by the magnets. In the example to the left, a loop of wire is spinning within a magnetic field. Because it is always moving through the field, a current is sustained. But, because the loop is spinning, it&apos;s moving across the field first in one direction and then in the other, which means that the flow of electrons keeps changing. Because the electrons flow first in one direction and in the other, the generator produces an alternating current . One advantage that AC has over DC is that it can easily be &amp;quot;stepped up&amp;quot; or &amp;quot;stepped down&amp;quot; with a transformer. In other words, a transformer can take a low-voltage current and make it a high-voltage current, and vice versa. This comes in handy in transmitting electricity over long distances. Since AC travels more efficiently at high voltages, transformers are used to step up the voltage before the electricity is sent out, and then other transformers are used to step down the voltage for use in homes and businesses.
• It is named after William John Macquorn Rankine , a Scottish polymath There are four processes in the Rankine cycle, each changing the state of the working fluid. These states are identified by number in the diagram to the right. Process 1-2 : The working fluid is pumped from low to high pressure, as the fluid is a liquid at this stage the pump requires little input energy. Process 2-3 : The high pressure liquid enters a boiler where it is heated at constant pressure by an external heat source to become a dry saturated vapor. Process 3-4 : The dry saturated vapor expands through a turbine , generating power. This decreases the temperature and pressure of the vapor, and some condensation may occur. Process 4-1 : The wet vapor then enters a condenser where it is cooled at a constant pressure and temperature to become a saturated liquid . The pressure and temperature of the condenser is fixed by the temperature of the cooling coils as the fluid is undergoing a phase-change . In an ideal Rankine cycle the pump and turbine would be isentropic , i.e., the pump and turbine would generate no entropy and hence maximize the net work output. Processes 1-2 and 3-4 would be represented by vertical lines on the Ts diagram and more closely resemble that of the Carnot cycle. The Rankine cycle shown here prevents the vapor ending up in the superheat region after the expansion in the turbine [1] , which reduces the energy removed by the condensers.
• Processes: Pressure, temperature, flow rate, level, and humidity. Because these processes change, they are known as process variables. These processes and process variables are controlled automatically by instrumentation and control equipment Most control instruments that measure process variables are called transmitters. Transmitters are devices that are connected to the process pipeline or equipment in a control loop. Transmitters are mounted on skids or “racks” known as Local Instrument Racks (LIR). Approx 62 racks for this 1000 MW coal fired plant. Each rack contains 10-20 separate transmitters, many of them used as back-ups.
• Type of Converter Description I/P Current to Pneumatic P/E Pneumatic to Voltage E/P Voltage to Pneumatic I/E Current to Voltage E/I Voltage to Current Sensing Elements Power plants normally use 4 common types of sensing elements Pressure Sensors (pressure gauges, pressure switches, pressure transmitters, and locally mounted controllers and recorders) Temperature Sensors (Thermocouple, RTD, thermostat, IR pyrometer Flow sensors (Differential pressure meters/transmitters, Rota meters, magnetic meters, turbine meters, positive displacement meters,) vortex meters, target meters Level Sensors (locally mounted indicated gauges; level transmitter: differential pressure, displacement, hydrostatic head, nuclear, ultrasonic, radio frequency, locally mounted controllers, level switches, tank gauges
• Audience I&amp;C Department Mechanical piping Group Panel, Rack, LIR Fabricators
• Typical approved transmitter for use at a power plant is Rosemont Model 3051 Smart Transmitter with Foundation Fieldbus digital protocol.  For the Shaw supplied pressure transmitters I need a 2-valve manifold rated for 8350 psig @ 380 °F, and for the dp transmitters I need a 3-valve manifold rated for 3890 psig @ 1065 °F.     The root valves that are tapped into the process in closed loop systems are generally required to be welded in accordance with ANSI B31.1 Power Piping Codes The ASME Boiler Code may also apply if the root valves are directly attached to the boiler.
• 90% of the time the Root Valves, the main steam line piping, and the pressure transmitter are supplied by the Boiler Vendor
• Water Treatment for boiler feed water systems is formulated primarily to remove the impurities that cause: Corrosion – A chemical attack of metal surfaces that leads to a loss of the metal Scale – the Accumulation of impurities on metal surfaces Carryover – Process in which impurities in the boiler water are picked up in the steam and deposited in other locations in the steam distribution system. AVT- All Volatile Treatment – Purpose is to inhibit iron dissolution and thereby minimize corrosion by using deoxygenated high purity water with elevated ph. Oxygen concentration is usually kept below 5 PPM. Operators further decrease oxygen concentration by adding N2H (Hydrazine) Ammonia serves as an analyzing agent PH is between 8.8 and 9.5, depending on feed water metallurgy OT (Oxygenated Treatment) – Most all Super Critical plants use OT. OT uses oxygenated very high purity water. Oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, and air have been used to keep dissolved oxygen levels at 50-150 PPB.
• Audience Involved: Plant Chemist – Responsible for complete system. Understand the importance of NO leakage and accurate readings Plant Operators – Monitors the instruments and makes required adjustments or changes
• OEM’s Forbes Marshall – Pune, India Waters Equipment Co. – Lansdale, PA Yokogawa – Bangalore, India Lowe Engineering- West Yorkshire, UK Isa Mannai Technical Services Est – Saudi Arabia Sentry Equipment Co. - Oconomowoc, WI Jonas, Inc. – Wilmington, DE Eroom Technology – Korea Steam Equipments - Maharashtra , India Aquatech International Corporation -Canonsburg, PA Anderson Water Systems – Ontario, Canada Christ Americas – New Britain, CT Ecodyne – Burlington, Ontario, Canada GE Water – Trevose, PA Graver Water Systems – Cranford, NJ Swan Analytical Instruments-Switzerland
• Inject Ammonia at 250 PSI to over come system pressure
• Lube oil services 2 main areas: Main turbine shaft seals Large hydraulically actuated valves. These valves include main stop valves, governor or control valves, and the re-heat stop and interface valves. Lube oil Reservoir Holding basin for oil. A single reservoir may service the 2 main lubrication areas Lube Oil Pumps Supply lubricant at the correct pressure, temperature, and flow to the turbine lube oil system. Normally 5 pumps, located in and around the main oil reservoir. During normal operation, a main oil pump and booster pump are in operation. The other pumps are provided for start-up, shutdown, and backup purposes only Main Oil Pump Located on the turbine shaft on the HP side of the turbine, oposite the generator side of the turbine
• Booster Pumps Supplies oil to the turbine bearings. The number and locations of the bearings depends on the type of turbine/generator. In this system, there are 6 primary bearing locations along the shaft. Other Pumps The remaining pumps include: AC auxiliary pump DC Emergency pump AC turning gear pump
• Turbine Control Oil System This system regulates the use of oil required for specific turbine rotation speed and generator megawatt output as determined by steam flow. The system uses hydraulic oil to position main stop valves, governor valves, reheat stop valves, and interceptor valves. 2 Methods for turbine speed control (EHC) Electrohydraulic Control (MHC) Mechanical Hydraulic Control Both methods use oil to operate hydraulic actuators. They differ in 2 ways: The EHC method normally has an independent supply of oil for lubrication and uses an electronic governor for detecting turbine shaft revolutions per minute. The MHC method is tied into the bearing lubrication reservoir for its oil supply and uses a flyweight governor to detect shaft RPM. Otherwise, both systems operate according to the same principals
• Audience: Turbine Manufacturers (GE, Westinghouse, ABB, Solar, etc.) 2) Power Plant Owners I&amp;C Dept. TSI – Turbine Supervisory Dept. Mechanical Maintenance Dept/Millwrights/Mechanics – Lube oil systems Engineering Dept – Specifiers for construction jobs Senior Production Engineers – Handle all projects on site. Results Engineer – Dedicated to making plant more efficient Lube Oil Pumping &amp; Cooling Module Mfg’s Lube Oil Purification Module Mfg Governors, Speed Mfg’s
• Water Treatment for boiler feed water systems is formulated primarily to remove the impurities that cause: Corrosion – A chemical attack of metal surfaces that leads to a loss of the metal Scale – the Accumulation of impurities on metal surfaces Carryover – Process in which impurities in the boiler water are picked up in the steam and deposited in other locations in the steam distribution system. AVT- All Volatile Treatment – Purpose is to inhibit iron dissolution and thereby minimize corrosion by using deoxygenated high purity water with elevated ph. Oxygen concentration is usually kept below 5 PPM. Operators further decrease oxygen concentration by adding N2H (Hydrazine) Ammonia serves as an analyzing agent PH is between 8.8 and 9.5, depending on feed water metallurgy OT (Oxygenated Treatment) – Most all Super Critical plants use OT. OT uses oxygenated very high purity water. Oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, and air have been used to keep dissolved oxygen levels at 50-150 PPB.
• Boiler Feedwater Pumps – Use oil for 2 primary support functions: Lubrication oil to the bearings of the turbine shaft at low pressure High pressure hydraulic oil that positions the boiler feedwater turbine governor and stop valves via hydraulic actuators The shaft for the pumps also have bearings that need lubrication. Flow is in a closed loop system and is normally 15 GPM. These pumps have TSI – Turbine Supervisory Instrumentation – Use plug valve or other isolation valves for these sensors Audience Involved: Turbine Mfg’s I&amp;C Dept TSI Dept Mechanical Maint – Lube Oil Systems Engineering Dept Senior Production Engineers Results Engineers Lube Oil OEM’s
• Compressed Air System Non-Essential Air Essential Air Instrument Air – Cleanest and Most Expensive A. A dewpoint at least 10C below the lowest ambient temperature in which the air supply pumps run B. No dust particles greater than 3 microns C. No more than 1 PPM of oil at 68F at 100 PSI Main air line normally 6-8” Manifold main lines generally 2” Branch lines normally ½” and under Audience: I&amp;C Dept Piping Dept Contractors
• Hydrogen system – Normally 2” and Under 300 PSI or less Purity of the hydrogen is critical so the gas is sampled continuously. Located next to main generator
• The speed of the turbine rotor shaft affects the speed of the rotor/magnet. As the speed increases, heat builds up. This heat must be dissipated from the system. The heat generated is cooled by the use of hydrogen gas during operation. Advantages of hydrogen as a cooling medium: High heat transfer coefficient – 40% higher than coefficient of air High thermal conductivity (transmits heat rapidly) Very low density (requires little power to force hydrogen thru the fans. 14 times lighter than air) Reduces dirt and moisture contamination in the unit as a closed gas system and also dampens noise of operation Concerns: Hydrogen is explosive. A mixture of hydrogen and oxygen can be explosive Carbon dioxide is used as an inert buffer gas when hydrogen gas may contact air. IT IS CRITCAL THAT TUBING, FITTINGS, VALVES BE LEAK FREE
• Generator Gland Seal Oil System Responsible for sealing the generator shaft where it exists from the generator enclosure. The purpose of these seals is to keep hydrogen in the gas tight enclosure for cooling purposes and at the same time, to secure the hydrogen system from in-board leakage of outside air. 2 separate seal oil pumps. The pressure of the air side and the hydrogen side seal oil systems is kept greater than the hydrogen gas pressure in the generator enclosure. Audience Involved: I&amp;C Dept Hydrogen OEM MFG’s Gas Suppliers Maintenance Gland Seal Pump Skid OEM
• Oil Circuit Breakers – Use oil as the quenching media; at the same time, the oil acts as an insulating media. When the contacts are disconnected, the resulting arc generates intense heat breaking down the oil in its path. Because the gases are highly flammable, the oil must be kept pure and free from oxygen. Air Blast – This method is similar to blowing out a candle to extinguish a flame. Air is used to extinguish an electrical current. SF6- The sulfur hexafluoride as a quenching and insulating media has gained widespread acceptance over the past several years. This inert gas is contained inside a tank under rather high pressure. The tank then encapsulates the electrical switchgear contacts. As the contacts disengage, the SF6 is blown in a cross flow blast to extinguish the arc. SF6 is typically used in a voltage range from 33kV to 400kV. The method of blasting the electrical arc as the contacts retracts is called the “Puffer Principle.” Substations are a prime area where gas-insulated switch gear may be used
• Basic Cycle: A gas turbine operates by: Continuously drawing in fresh air Compressing this air to a higher pressure Adding and burning fuel in the compressed air to increase its energy level Directing the high pressure high temperature air to an expansion turbine that converts the gas energy to the mechanical energy of a rotating shaft.
• Accessory systems or skids: Starting system Fuel system 3. Lubrication system 4. Hydraulic system 5. Cooling water system 6. Atomizing air systems 7. Water Injection system for Dri-lownox
• A simple cycle gas turbine produces continuous power, while the power from an individual engine is intermittent. A Brayton-type engine consists of three components: A gas compressor A mixing chamber An expander Combustion Section The combustion system consists of several liners into which fuel is added and burnt with a portion of the compressed air. The excess compressed air is used to cool the products of combustion to a temperature level usable by the turbine. Fuel is injected into each liner by fuel nozzles that atomize the fuel for good burning. The fuel is ignited initially by electric igniters. Once the fire is started the combustion process is self-sustaining as long as fuel and air are available. Turbine Section The turbine consists of several stages. Each stage is comprised of a stationary row of nozzles where the high energy gases are increased in velocity and directed towards a rotating row of buckets attached to the turbine shaft. The high velocity gases push against the buckets converting the gases kinetic energy into shaft power
• A simple cycle gas turbine produces continuous power, while the power from an individual engine is intermittent. A Brayton-type engine consists of three components: A gas compressor A mixing chamber An expander Combustion Section The combustion system consists of several liners into which fuel is added and burnt with a portion of the compressed air. The excess compressed air is used to cool the products of combustion to a temperature level usable by the turbine. Fuel is injected into each liner by fuel nozzles that atomize the fuel for good burning. The fuel is ignited initially by electric igniters. Once the fire is started the combustion process is self-sustaining as long as fuel and air are available. Turbine Section The turbine consists of several stages. Each stage is comprised of a stationary row of nozzles where the high energy gases are increased in velocity and directed towards a rotating row of buckets attached to the turbine shaft. The high velocity gases push against the buckets converting the gases kinetic energy into shaft power
• The gas fuel system is designed to deliver gas fuel to the turbine combustion chambers at the proper pressure and flow rates to meet all of the starting, acceleration, and loading requirements of gas turbine operation. Major Components of gas fuel system: Gas Fuel Strainer Pressure gauges (3) Gas stop ratio valve and control valve Gas fuel trip valve Fuel gas low pressure alarm switch Gaseous fuel vent valve Stop ratio valve-control servovalve Pressure transducers(3) Gas control valve-control servovalve Gas control valve LVDT’s Stop ratio valve LVDT’s Gas fuel servo-hydraulic supply filter Gas fuel supply pressure – 450 PSI
• A common forced feed lubrication system consists of: Lube reservoir at the base Main lube pump Auxiliary cool down lube pump Pump header pressure control valve Lube fluid heat exchangers Lube filters Bearing header pressure regulator Mist eliminator Pressure 25 PSI
• Fluid Power, required for operating the control components of the gas turbine fuel system, is provided by the hydraulic supply system. This fluid furnishes the means for opening or resetting of the fuel sop valves., in addition to the variable turbine inlet guide vanes and the hydraulic control and trip devices of the gas turbine. Major system components Main hydraulic supply pump Auxiliary supply pump System filters Accumulator assembly Hydraulic supply manifold assemblies
• Main Air Line coming in to CEMS Shelter ¾” OD SS CEMS Shelter – The number of shelters differ between plants and the locations differ. Usually have 1 shelter located at the inlet and 1 shelter located at the outlet.. Usually 12 ft x 20 or12 ft x 24 ft Some sites have mercury monitoring shelter by itself Calibration gases located right outside of the shelter The concrete stack is called the shell. Normally about 300-330 ft high. The CEMS platform at this location was at 235 ft. This is where the dilution gas probe and the analyzer boxes are located on the side of the liner. The liner has a capacity of 800 MW, so the size of the plant decides how many liners. This location has 3 liners and they are 30 ft in diameter each. The liner is carbon filled fiberglass. The smoke or emissions is 115 F and is considered cold, wet, and saturated
• Air is filtered and dried. This air filter panel was designed by this guy at Duke Energy and was built by Shaw Group.
• Close up view of pressure regulators
• Umbilical Cord entering into cabinet PFA tubing – ¼” and 3/8” OD sizes
• Umbilical cord coming from CEMS platform down thru ceiling of CEMS shelter into CEMS cabinets. These Umbilical cords have Approx. 17 PFA tubes inside them. Some are electrically heated. These are continuous runs with NO unions. CEMS platform is 235 ft high, so roughly at least 250 ft run lengths
• Note Parker Temptrace
• Note the Umbilical Temperature 266 F Mercury Monitoring System built by Shaw in Knoxville, TN Knoxville, TN 37923-4799 phone 865-690-3211 865-690-3626 Fax Measure Elemental Mercury, water soluble mercury, and then total mercury Mercury sticks to everything. One reason for using PFA tubing
• Note Umbilical Cord coming in to gas flow monitoring cabinet SS 40 series SS Swagelok fittings
• Mercury probe on side of liner located 235 ft high Note umbilical cord entering the bottom, which feeds 235 ft below to the CEMS shelter. Temperature in one of the small boxes is 800 C. Use SS Swagelok fittings coated with Restec http://www.restekcoatings.com/restek/templates/restek34a4/Products.asp?param=5004245&amp;ig_id=5254&amp;title=Fittings%2C+Swagelok+%28Treated%29
• SO2, NOX, and CO2 box on side of liner at 235 ft high This box manufactured by : Universal Analyzers 1701 South Sutro Terrace Carson City, NV 89706 (800) 993-9309 (775) 883-2500 (775) 883-2500 (Carson City/Reno area http://www.universalanalyzers.com/index.htm Note the Umbilical cord entering the bottom and feeds 235 ft below into CEMS shelter Not much application inside this box
• Audience for Emissions: OEM’s – Often responsible for the entire CEM project. Most of the time, the shelter is built off-site and then the whole system is delivered I&amp;C Dept. Analyzer MFG OEM’s – Performance Specification Test (PST) – They are contracted by EPA to perform independent test and compare to actual readings to see if the CEMS system is functioning properly. www.activeset.org Environmental Departments – Usually at Utility Owner Company Head Quarters Codes and Standards: Driven by Environmental Authorities. In the US, Code of Federal Regulations 40CFR75
• ### C:\fakepath\fossil power basics

1. 1. Fossil Power Basics
2. 2. Topics to Discuss <ul><li>Fossil Power Plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal & Oil Fired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas Turbine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simple Cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combined Cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Current Drivers of the Fossil Power Industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emission Issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency Issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scheduled Power Outages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Energy Demands </li></ul></ul>
3. 3. Fossil Fuel Plant Types <ul><ul><li>Traditional Coal & Oil Fired Plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas Turbine Simple Cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas Turbine Combined Cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) </li></ul></ul>
4. 4. Electricity Production – Fossil Fuels -
5. 5. Power – How?
6. 6. Turns Motion into Electricity
7. 7. Coal Fired Power Plant
8. 9. Coal Fired Power Plant
9. 10. Coal Fired Power Plant
10. 11. Coal Fired Power Plant
11. 12. Coal Fired Power Plant
12. 13. Creating water pressure Creates Dry Saturated Vapor - Steam Dry Saturated Vapor Expands Through the Turbine Due to loss of Temperature Condensation occurs and then accumulated in the Condenser
13. 14. Coal Fired Power Plant
14. 15. Coal Fired Power Plant
15. 16. Coal Fired Power Plant
16. 17. Coal Fired Power Plant <ul><li>Systems that utilize Swagelok Products & Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instrumentation & Controls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steam / Water Sampling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical Feed Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lube Oil Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydraulic Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boiler Feed Water Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compressed Air Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen Service – Generator Cooling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seal Oil System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air Quality Monitoring Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Station Single Line System, Circuit Breakers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel Injection System – Wind Box </li></ul></ul>
17. 18. Coal Fired Power Plants
18. 19. Coal Fired Power Plant <ul><li>Who Do We Call On? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instrumentation & Controls Mgr Engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boiler House Plant Engineering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FGD / CEMS I & E Engineering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I & E Engineers Mechanical Engineering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instrument Technicians Reliability or Results Engineer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Quality Production Engineer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical Engineer Project Engineer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plant Chemist Maintenance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical Technicians Maintenance Supervisor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CEMS Group Maintenance Manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CEM Supervisor Planners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CEM Engineer Purchasing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CEM Operators Buyers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant Manager Store Room Supervisor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant Safety Director </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production Supervisor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air Quality Control System Team </li></ul></ul>
19. 20. Instrumentation & Controls - Measures: Pressures Temperatures Flow Rate Levels Humidity
20. 21. Instrumentation & Controls -
21. 22. Instrumentation & Controls
22. 23. Instrumentation & Controls
23. 24. Instrumentation & Controls
24. 25. Instrumentation & Controls
25. 26. Instrumentation & Controls Instrument Enclosure
26. 27. Instrumentation & Controls Instrument Enclosure
27. 28. Instrument Installation Detail Pressure Transmitter with 2 Valve Manifold - B31.1 Valves
28. 29. Instrument Installation Detail Pressure Transmitter with 3 Valve Manifold B 31.1 Valves ?
29. 30. Steam & Water Sampling -
30. 31. Different Systems in Water Purification <ul><ul><li>Clarifier (sedimentation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Softeners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reverse Osmosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demineralizers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electro dialysis reversal (EDR) </li></ul></ul>
31. 32. Impurities in Water   Sum of dissolved and suspended solids   Total Solids Cation exchange with hydrogen zeolite. Chlorination. Deaeration. Corrosion of copper and zinc NH3 Ammonia Deaeration, sodium sulfite, corrosion inhibitors Corrosion of waterlines, boilers, exchangers O2 Oxygen Subsidence. Filtration. Measurement of matter that is unbroken. Deposits in boilers and heat exchangers   Suspended Solids Lime softening and cation exchange. Demineralization. Total dissolved mater. High concentrations cause problems   Dissolved Solids Aeration. Chlorination. Highly basic ion exchange Corrosion H2S Hydrogen Sulfide Same as Iron Same as Iron Mn Manganese Hot and warm process by magnesium salts, ion exchange, demineralization, RO, or EDR Scale in boiler and cooling water systems SiO2 Silica Demineralization, Reverse Osmosis, electro dialysis Adds to solids content. Use to control boiler metal embitterment. NO3 Nitrate Lime and lime soda softening. Acid treatment. Hydrogen zeolite softening. Demineralization by ion exchange. Foaming and carryover. Corrosion of condensate lines. Embrittlement of boiler steel. Bicarbonate, Carbonate and Hydroxide expressed as CaCO3 Alkalinity Neutralization with alkalis Corrosion Expressed as CaCO3 Free Mineral Acid Coagulation and filtration. Chlorination. Foaming in boilers hinders precipitation methods for iron removal   Colour Demineralization, R.O., electrodialysis Adds to solids and adds to corrosive character of water CI Chloride Can be increased by alkalis or decreased by acids Varies as acids or alkalis in water. Natural water is 6-8.   pH Aeration, DA, Neutralization w/ alkalis Corrosion in water, steam, and condensate lines CO2 Carbon Dioxide Softening, Demineralization Scale in exchangers and boilers Calcium & Magnesium Hardness Coagulation, setting and filtration Cloudy NTU Turbidity Treatment by Difficulties Caused Chemical Formula Component
32. 33. Scale - Scale is most active when the impurities are placed in an environment with high temperatures and pressures
33. 34. Steam & Water Sampling
34. 35. Steam & Water Sampling Water Sampling
35. 36. Waters Equipment Co. – Lansdale, PA Back View Front View
36. 37. Steam & Water Sampling <ul><li>Burkert Switching valves used in Sampling Analysis </li></ul>
37. 38. Water Sampling Analysis System
38. 39. Water Sampling System in Lab
39. 40. Water Sampling System
40. 41. Steam & Water Sampling
41. 42. Steam & Water Sampling Sampling System
42. 43. Steam & Water Sampling
43. 44. Steam & Water Sampling
44. 45. Steam & Water Sampling Sampling System
45. 46. Steam & Water Sampling
46. 47. Steam & Water Sampling
47. 49. Condensate Booster Pumps Condensate Booster Pumps before (all pipe) and after (all Swagelok, no elbows 100% bent tubing).
48. 50. Water System OEM’s <ul><li>Forbes Marshall – Pune, India </li></ul><ul><li>Waters Equipment Co. – Lansdale, PA </li></ul><ul><li>Yokogawa – Bangalore, India </li></ul><ul><li>Lowe Engineering- West Yorkshire, UK </li></ul><ul><li>Isa Mannai Technical Services Est – Saudi Arabia </li></ul><ul><li>Sentry Equipment Co. - Oconomowoc, WI </li></ul><ul><li>Jonas, Inc. – Wilmington, DE </li></ul><ul><li>Eroom Technology – Korea </li></ul><ul><li>Steam Equipments - Maharashtra, India </li></ul><ul><li>Aquatech International Corporation -Canonsburg, PA </li></ul><ul><li>Anderson Water Systems – Ontario, Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Christ Americas – New Britain, CT </li></ul><ul><li>Ecodyne – Burlington, Ontario, Canada </li></ul><ul><li>GE Water – Trevose, PA </li></ul><ul><li>Graver Water Systems – Cranford, NJ </li></ul><ul><li>Swan Analytical Instruments-Switzerland </li></ul>
49. 51. Chemical Feed System
50. 52. Chemical Feed System <ul><li>Chemicals Used for Boiler Water Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ammonia and sodium hydroxide for PH control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrazine for reduction of dissolved oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium and phosphates for solids removal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where are they used or Injected in the system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ammonia PH system is normally introduced in the boiler feedwater line at the boiler feed pump discharge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium/phosphate is injected into the boiler drum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water samples are taken at multiple locations in the plant and transported back to the lab normally by ¼” and 3/8” SS tubing. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal sample locations: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1)Condensate Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Feed Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3) Boiler Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4) Steam </li></ul></ul>
51. 53. Lubrication System - Lubrication System
52. 54. Lubrication System - Lubrication System
53. 55. Turbine Lube Oil / Small Bore Existing pipe, flanges, etc. Swagelok system, using Bio-Pharm sight glasses with tube extensions.
54. 56. Electrohydraulic Control System (EHC)
55. 57. Electrohydraulic Control System <ul><li>System Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>The function of the EHC system is to supply clean, cool, high pressure hydraulic fluid necessary for turbine valve operation. It is also used for control, trip and overspeed functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphate ester fluid ( 1600 PSI ) </li></ul><ul><li>EPRI Document –EHC Tubing/Fittings and Air Piping Application & Maintenance Guide #1000935 </li></ul>
56. 58. Disadvantages to Conical Seals on EHC <ul><li>Need near perfect tubing alignment </li></ul><ul><li>Are NOT designed for routine disassembly </li></ul>
57. 59. Swagelok Customized Fittings (EHC) <ul><li>Nuclear Industry may require some type of action to prevent loosening of the nut due to vibration </li></ul><ul><li>Some facilities may weld “Lock Tabs”, but this may distort fitting and causes leakage </li></ul><ul><li>Swagelok can deliver “drill” holes and lock wires </li></ul>
58. 60. Electrohydraulic Control System (EHC)
59. 61. Electrohydraulic Control System (EHC)
60. 62. Boiler Feedwater System -
61. 63. Boiler Feedwater System
62. 64. Compressed Air System -
63. 65. Hydrogen Generator Cooling System
64. 66. Hydrogen Generator Cooling System -
65. 67. Hydrogen Generator Cooling System
66. 68. Continuous Tri-Gas Analyzer for Hydrogen Purity
67. 69. Continuous Tri-Gas Analyzer for Hydrogen Purity
68. 70. Praxair Hydrogen System -
69. 71. Why Hydrogen? <ul><li>Advantages of hydrogen as a cooling medium: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High heat transfer coefficient – 40% higher than coefficient of air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High thermal conductivity (transmits heat rapidly) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very low density (requires little power to force hydrogen thru the fans. 14 times lighter than air) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces dirt and moisture contamination in the unit as a closed gas system and also dampens noise of operation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concerns: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen is explosive. A mixture of hydrogen and oxygen can be explosive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide is used as an inert buffer gas when hydrogen gas may contact air. IT IS CRITCAL THAT TUBING, FITTINGS, VALVES BE LEAK FREE </li></ul></ul>
70. 72. Seal Oil System -
71. 73. Seal Oil System
72. 74. Circuit Breakers - <ul><li>Circuit breakers use many different types of media to extinguish the electrical arc: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air Blast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SF6 – Sulfur hexafluoride </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vacuum </li></ul></ul>
73. 75. SF6 Gas Servicing Cart for Switchgear & Distribution Systems
74. 76. SF6 Gas Servicing Cart for Switchgear & Distribution Systems
75. 77. Windbox Application <ul><li>840 MW Coal Fired Power Plant </li></ul><ul><li>8 Windboxes to all 8 corners </li></ul><ul><li>Matching the Ratio between air and coal flow </li></ul><ul><li>Overfire Air or Fuel Injection System </li></ul><ul><li>Tubing, Tube Fittings, Valves, Tube Support System, SWS and Training </li></ul>
76. 78. Windbox Application - Inside the Wind Box
77. 79. Windbox Application - Outside of Wind Box
78. 80. Tubing running from the Windbox to each of the boiler floors
79. 81. Tubing running from the Windbox to each of the boiler floors
80. 82. Windbox Application Over 22,000 feet of Welded tubing
81. 83. Windbox Application
82. 84. Swagelok Flex Hose
83. 85. More Flex Hose
84. 86. Swagelok Manifold
85. 87. Windbox Application <ul><li>Who to Call on? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I and C Leads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contractors </li></ul></ul>
86. 88. Combustion Turbines - <ul><li>Simple Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Combined Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) </li></ul>
87. 89. GAS TURBINE
88. 90. <ul><li>Simple Cycle Gas Turbines </li></ul>
89. 91. Simple Cycle Gas Turbine Systems <ul><li>Instrumentation Panels “Racks” </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel Manifold “Ring Header” </li></ul><ul><li>Lubrication Oil Skid </li></ul><ul><li>Hydraulic system </li></ul><ul><li>LOW NOX Steam Injection System </li></ul><ul><li>Gas starting system </li></ul><ul><li>Atomizing Air system </li></ul><ul><li>Compressor Water Wash system </li></ul><ul><li>Cooling and Sealing Air system </li></ul><ul><li>Cooling Water System </li></ul><ul><li>Fire Protection system </li></ul><ul><li>Trip Oil systems </li></ul>
90. 92. Simple Cycle Gas Turbine
91. 93. Simple Cycle Gas Turbine GE 7FA Gas Turbine
92. 94. Simple Cycle Gas Turbine GE 7 EA Gas Turbines
93. 95. Liquid Fuel System Fuel Skid
94. 96. Liquid Fuel System - Liquid Fuel Distribution Valve
95. 97. Liquid Fuel System Fuel Lines from Skid to Gas Turbine
96. 98. Liquid Fuel Systems
97. 99. Lubrication System - Lubrication Skid
98. 100. Lubrication System
99. 102. Hydraulic System - Hydraulic Skid
100. 103. Hydraulic System Hydraulic Skid Note Pressure
101. 104. Plant Utilities Compressed Air
102. 105. Turbine Combustion System Combustion Can
103. 106. Turbine Combustion System
104. 107. Turbine Combustion System
105. 108. <ul><li>Combined Cycle Gas Turbine </li></ul>
106. 109. Combined Cycle Gas Turbine 185 MW 110 MW 295 MW
107. 110. Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Systems <ul><li>Those of a Simple Cycle Gas Turbine </li></ul><ul><li>Many of a Coal Fired Plant </li></ul>
108. 111. Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Steam Turbine Heat Recovery Steam Generator Gas Turbine
109. 112. Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Heat Recovery Steam Generator
110. 113. Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Steam Turbine & Generator
111. 114. Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Steam Blow Down Valves
112. 115. Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Instrument Enclosure
113. 116. Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Sampling System
114. 117. Combined Cycle Gas Turbine
115. 118. Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Water Sampling System
116. 119. Combined Cycle Gas Turbine
117. 120. Combined Cycle Gas Turbine
118. 121. Combined Cycle Gas Turbine
119. 122. Chemical Feed System Water Chemical Feed System
120. 123. Combined Cycle Gas Turbine
121. 124. IGCC – Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle
122. 125. CO2 Sequestration
123. 126. Drivers in the Power Industry <ul><li>Emissions Controls and Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Higher Efficiencies </li></ul><ul><li>Outages </li></ul><ul><li>New Energy Demands </li></ul>
124. 127. Emissions Drivers in US <ul><li>EPA driven mandatory compliance: </li></ul><ul><li>Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. will reduce and regulate mercury from coal fired plants for the first time ever – other countries to follow? </li></ul><ul><li>Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) </li></ul><ul><li>Large reductions in SO2 and NOx across 28 eastern states </li></ul><ul><li>Will drive SCR and scrubber projects </li></ul>
125. 128. Global Warming and Power <ul><li>“ Coal generated power is the single most largest </li></ul><ul><li>contributor to greenhouse gas emissions” </li></ul><ul><li>The culprits: </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur Dioxide (acid rain) </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen Oxide </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Monoxide and Dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>Mercury </li></ul>
126. 129. Emissions – Global Warming
127. 130. Emission Rules/Policies/Standards <ul><li>European Commission http:// ec.europa.eu/environment/index_en.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) </li></ul><ul><li>California Rule 4306 </li></ul><ul><li>California Rule 411 </li></ul><ul><li>Louisiana Title 33 Part III. Chapter 22 </li></ul><ul><li>MACT for Industrial Boilers & Process Heaters </li></ul><ul><li>North Carolina Air Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Texas Chapter 117 </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia Air Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Clean Air Task Force (CATF) </li></ul><ul><li>Environment Canada www.ec.gc.ca </li></ul><ul><li>The Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Kyoto Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) </li></ul><ul><li>Australian Gov’t - CARBON POLLUTION REDUCTION SCHEME </li></ul>
128. 131. Emissions Issues – Greenhouse Gases What are the Answers? <ul><li>SCR - Selective Catalytic Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>SNCR - Selective Non Catalytic </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Scrubbers – FGD – Flue Gas Desulphurization </li></ul>
129. 132. Selective catalytic reduction ( SCR ) <ul><ul><li>is a means of removing nitrogen oxides, often the most abundant and polluting component in exhaust gases, through a chemical reaction between the exhaust gases, a (reductant) additive, and a catalyst. </li></ul></ul>
130. 133. SCR Applications: <ul><li>Process Instrumentation </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical Instrumentation </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Small Bore – Supply Feed Lines </li></ul><ul><li>Lubrication Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Hydraulic Systems </li></ul>
132. 135. SCR
133. 136. SCR
134. 137. SCR
135. 138. SCR Nox Monitoring
136. 139. SCR Probes
137. 140. SCR
138. 141. SCR
139. 142. SCR
140. 143. SCR Ammonia Distribution
141. 144. SCR SCR Ammonia Control System
142. 145. SCR Hydraulic Controls for Dampers Swagelok
143. 146. Selective Non Catalytic Reduction <ul><li>This process involves injecting a nitrogen-containing chemical (ammonia or urea) into the combustion gas stream (in the upper furnace or in the convective section of the boiler) with the chemicals dispersed through nozzles into the flue gases containing NOx, </li></ul>
144. 147. SNCR Applications: <ul><li>Urea Injection System </li></ul><ul><li>Moisture Injection System </li></ul><ul><li>Control Cabinets </li></ul><ul><li>Sample Systems </li></ul>
145. 148. SCNR Control Panels ¾” Tubing Actuated Ball Valves Control Panels for Urea and Water
146. 149. SCNR Injection Systems Spray Nozzles Quick Connects
147. 150. Scrubber – Flue Gas Desulphurization <ul><li>anti-pollution device that uses a liquid or slurry spray to remove acid gases and particulates from municipal waste combustion facility flue gases ; </li></ul><ul><li>FGD - Flue Gas Desulphurization </li></ul>
148. 151. Scrubber – Flue Gas Desulphurization Applications: <ul><li>Process Instrumentation </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical Instrumentation </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Small Bore – Supply Lines </li></ul><ul><li>Lubrication Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Hydraulic Systems </li></ul>
149. 152. Scrubber – Flue Gas Desulphurization
150. 153. Scrubber – Flue Gas Desulphurization
151. 154. Scrubber – Flue Gas Desulphurization SCR Scrubber Limestone Preparation & Recovery
152. 155. Scrubber – Flue Gas Desulphurization Instrument Air Lines-Limestone Preparations
153. 156. Scrubber – Flue Gas Desulphurization Lubrication for Limestone Ball Mill Crushing System ¾”SS Swagelok System
154. 157. Scrubber – Flue Gas Desulphurization Lubrication for High Volume Booster Fans
155. 158. Scrubber – Flue Gas Desulphurization Internal Lubrication Systems
156. 159. Scrubber – Flue Gas Desulphurization Lubrication Systems
157. 160. Scrubber – Flue Gas Desulphurization Limestone Vacuum Control System
158. 161. Scrubber – Flue Gas Desulphurization
159. 162. Scrubber – Flue Gas Desulphurization
160. 163. Scrubber – Flue Gas Desulphurization Hydraulic Piping for Dampers
161. 164. Scrubber – Flue Gas Desulphurization Hydraulic Tubing for Dampers
162. 165. Scrubber – Flue Gas Desulphurization Hydraulic Piping for Recirculation Valves
163. 166. Scrubber – Flue Gas Desulphurization Hydraulic Tubing for Recirculation valves
164. 167. CEMS Main Air Header ¾” SS Inside CEMS Shelter
165. 168. CEMS Air Filtered & Dried 110 PSI
166. 169. CEMS
167. 170. CEMS Umbilical cord entering cabinet PFA Tubing-1/4” & 3/8”
168. 171. CEMS Umbilical Cords entering in CEMS shelter from CEMS platform
169. 172. CEMS
170. 173. CEMS Note Umbilical Temp 266 F
171. 174. CEMS Umbilical entering gas flow monitoring cabinet
172. 175. CEMS Mercury Probe Box Restek Coated Swagelok fittings 800 C Temp www.restekcoatings.com
173. 176. CEMS SO2, NOX, CO2 Box Limited application Compared to Mercury Box
174. 177. Emissions Projects Summary What’s it Worth \$ <ul><li>SNCR Project \$ 90,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Scrubber Project \$147,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Scrubber Project \$235,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Scrubber + SCR \$354,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Scrubber Project \$200,000 </li></ul>
175. 178. Drivers in the Power Industry <ul><li>Efficiency Demands </li></ul><ul><li>Why so Important to improve efficiencies: </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-critical Power Plant 36-38% </li></ul><ul><li>Supercritical Power Plant 40-45% </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra critical Power Plant 45-48% </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear Plant 34-37% </li></ul><ul><li>Simple Cycle Gas Turbine Plant 43-45% </li></ul><ul><li>Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Plant 50-55% </li></ul>
176. 179. Efficiency Demands <ul><li>How can we support? </li></ul><ul><li>Demand for Products – High pressure & Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable Products – Less Down Time </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Audits – Eliminate Waste </li></ul>
177. 180. What does this mean to Swagelok? <ul><li>More critical and demanding applications – Swagelok strength </li></ul><ul><li>Applications and processes are redefined offering new opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Increased processing and monitoring of greenhouse gases and pollutants increases Swagelok playing field </li></ul><ul><li>Helps to re-establish Swagelok value proposition in an industry that had been viewed as having been commoditized </li></ul>
178. 181. Drivers in the Power Industry <ul><li>Outages </li></ul>
179. 182. Outages – What is our Role? <ul><li>Support with VMI </li></ul><ul><li>Support with Technical Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Proactive selling – identify other maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency deliveries - after hours availability </li></ul>
180. 184. Drivers in the Power Industry <ul><li>Increase In Energy Demand </li></ul>
181. 185. Increase In Energy Demand
182. 186. Increase In Energy Demand
183. 187. Potential Swagelok Power Spend \$11.2 Billion 6,085 \$2.2 Trillion Total \$ 4,213,317,990.00 3,807 \$ 842,663,598,000.00 North America \$ 468,058.00 194 \$ 93,611,700.00 South America \$ 356,260,000.00 87 \$ 71,252,000,000.00 Middle East \$ 968,675,931.00 416 \$ 229,697,944,607.00 Europe \$ 38,595.00 42 \$ 7,719,000.00 Middle America \$ 4,916,839,750.00 1,318 \$ 983,367,950,000.00 Asia \$ 131,787,750.00 95 \$ 26,357,550,000.00 Oceania \$ 626,265,000.00 126 \$ 125,253,000,000.00 Africa Swagelok Spend @ .005 # Projects Power Investment
184. 188. Central Asia Construction Spend Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan \$374,855,000,000   445   0 0 Tidal \$360,000,000 2 Solar \$92,982,000,000 155 Hydro \$1,307,000,000 11 Wind \$750,000,000 3 Biomass \$10,253,000,000 21 Natural Gas \$904,000,000 4 Oil \$214,139,000,000 200 Coal \$14,670,000,000 23 Combined Cycle \$33,225,000,000 14 Nuclear TIV # of Projects Project Type
185. 189. East Asia Construction Spend China, Hong Kong, Japan, Macau, Mongolia, North Korea, Paracel Islands, South Korea, Spratly Islands \$509,286,550,000   548   \$1,950,000,000 3 Tidal \$415,000,000 7 Solar \$82,328,000,000 76 Hydro \$29,523,329,373 111 Wind \$2,284,000,000 42 Biomass \$8,095,000,000 11 Natural Gas \$400,000,000 1 Oil \$226,506,000,000 229 Coal \$6,330,000,000 8 Combined Cycle \$159,790,000,000 54 Nuclear TIV # of Projects Project Type
186. 190. Southeast Asia Construction Spend Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam \$122,630,800,000   220   \$1,380,000,000 9 Geothermal 0 0 Solar \$31,709,800,000 90 Hydro \$573,000,000 7 Wind \$480,000,000 1 Biomass \$4,166,000,000 11 Natural Gas 0 0 Oil \$60,617,000,000 76 Coal \$5,690,000,000 13 Combined Cycle \$15,050,000,000 5 Nuclear TIV # of Projects Project Type
187. 191. Central Asia Nuclear (India) KOTA RAJASTHAN 220MW NUCLEAR POWER STATION UNIT #5 ADDITION KOTA RAJASTHAN 220MW NUCLEAR POWER STATION UNIT #6 ADDITION KUNDIAN CHASHMA G-R 300MW NUCLEAR (PWR) UNIT II ADDITION KARWAR KAIGA G-R 220MW NUCLEAR (PHWR) UNIT #4 ADDITION KALPAKKAM 500MW (PFBR) NUCLEAR STATION UNIT #3 ADDITION PABNA ROOPPUR G-R 600MW NUCLEAR POWER STATION BUSHEHR 1000MW NUCLEAR UNIT #1 G-R POWER STATION KUNDIAN CHASHMA III & IV 600MW NUCLEAR POWER STATION ADDITION PUNJAB CHANDIGRAH 1000MW G-R NUCLEAR POWER PLANT KAKRAPAR 1400MW NUCLEAR (PHWR) UNITS 3 & 4 ADDITION TIRUNELVELI KUDANKULAM G-R 2000MW NUCLEAR (PWR) POWER STATION TIRUNEVELI NUCLEAR 2,000MW KUDANKULAM PHASE II NUCLEAR STATION HARYANNA NUCLEAR 2,800MW FATEHABAD G-R POWER STATION RAJAPUR NUCLEAR 3300MW GRASSROOT JAITAPUR NUCLEAR STATION
188. 192. East Asia Nuclear BAILONG I G-R 2000MW NUCLEAR POWER STATION YANGJIANG G-R PHASE I 2000MW NUCLEAR STATION LIANYUNGANG XUYU I G-R 2000MW NUCLEAR POWER STATION XIANNING 2,000MW HUBEI NUCLEAR PHASE I G-R POWER STATION TAISHAN I GRASSROOT 3500MW NUCLEAR POWER STATION SANMEN PHASE I UNIT #2 1100MW NUCLEAR POWER STATION ADD XIANNING DAFAN I G-R 2000MW NUCLEAR (PWR) POWER STATION HANGZHOU QINSHAN NUCLEAR PLANT 2,000MW IV #6/#7 ADDITION LONGYOU NUCLEAR 2,000MW ZHEXI G-R PHASE I POWER STATION ANHUI 2000MW WUHU NUCLEAR PHASE I G-R POWER STATION FUJIAN 2,000MW SANMING NUCLEAR G-R POWER STATION JIUJIANG NUCLEAR 2,500MW PENGZE PHASE I G-R NUCLEAR STATION LIANYUNGANG NUCLEAR TIANWAN 2,000MW PHASE III ADDITION YIYANG CITY G-R 4000 NUCLEAR POWER PLANT CHIZHOU JIYANG G-R 4000MW NUCLEAR (PWR) POWER STATION KAGOSHIMA NUCLEAR SENDAI PLANT 1,950MW PHASE II EXPANSION YIYANG NUCLEAR 2,000MW TAOHUAJIANG PHASE I G-R STATION KUNGLIAO G-R 2700MW LUNGMEN (ABWR) NUCLEAR STATION HONGYANHE PHASE I GRASSROOT 2000MW NUCLEAR POWER PLANT WUHU BAMAOSHAN PHASE I G-R 2000MW NUCLEAR POWER STATION
189. 193. East Asia Nuclear cont’d. TAISHAN YAOGU II 2000MW NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ADDITION SHENZHEN LING'AO G-R PHASE II 2000MW NUCLEAR POWER STATION NINGDE II 2000MW NUCLEAR (PWR) POWER STATION ADDITION ULSAN SHIN-KORI G-R 2000MW NUCLEAR POWER STATION HUI'AN II GRASSROOT 2000MW NUCLEAR POWER STATION EXPANSION YANGJIANG G-R PHASE III 2000MW NUCLEAR STATION HAIYONG SHANDONG PHASE 2 2000MW NUCLEAR (LWR) ADDITION LUFENG I G-R 2000MW NUCLEAR (PWR) POWER PLANT YUEYANG XIAOMOSHAN PHASE I 2000MW NUCLEAR POWER STATION HAIYANG SHANDONG G-R 2000MW LWR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT HONGYANHE PHASE II 2000MW NUCLEAR POWER STATION ADDITION HENAN NUCLEAR 2,000MW NANYANG G-R POWER STATION DATANG HUAYIN HUNAN I G-R 2000MW NUCLEAR POWER STATION HUI'AN G-R 2000MW NUCLEAR POWER STATION FUJIAN NUCLEAR G-R 2000MW FUQING POWER STATION QINSHAN II 1300MW NUCLEAR POWER STATION EXPANSION NINGDE I G-R 2000MW NUCLEAR (PWR) POWER STATION SANMEN G-R PHASE I 1000MW NUCLEAR POWER STATION TIANWAN II 2000MW NUCLEAR UNITS 3 & 4 ADDITION YANGJIANG G-R PHASE II 2000MW NUCLEAR POWER STATION
190. 194. East Asia Nuclear cont’d. WEIHAI G-R 195MW SHIDAO BAY NUCLEAR POWER STATION XIACUN RUSHAN UNIT #2 600MW (PWR) NUCLEAR ADDITION XIACUN RUSHAN G-R 600MW NUCLEAR (PWR) POWER STATION CHONGQING G-R PHASE I 900MW (PWR) NUCLEAR POWER STATION QINSHAN V FANGJIASHAN 700MW (PHWR) UNIT 8 ADDITION SHAOGUAN G-R 1000MW NUCLEAR POWER STATION MUTSU HIGASHIDORI G-R UNIT #1 1380MW ABWR NUCLEAR POWER STATION TSURUGA G-R 1538MW (APWR) UNIT #4 NUCLEAR STATION ADDITION AOMORI G-R NUCLEAR 1,383MW OHMA NUCLEAR POWER STATION TOMARI PHASE III 912MW (LWR) NUCLEAR ADDITION FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI 1380MW (BWR) NUCLEAR UNIT #7 ADDITION TSURUGA G-R 1538MW UNIT #3 (APWR) NUCLEAR STATION ADDITION KYONGJU WOLSONG 950MW UNIT #5 NUCLEAR STATION ADDITION KASHIMA SHIMANE 1373MW NUCLEAR UNIT III ADDITION
191. 195. Southeast Asia Nuclear LEMAHABANG JAVA-1 MURIA G-R 1000MW NUCLEAR (PWR) POWER STATION NINH THUAN G-R 2000MW NUCLEAR POWER STATION PHAN RANG-NINH PHUOC G-R 2000MW NUCLEAR (VVER-PWR) STATION MOUNT MURIA I G-R 2000MW NUCLEAR POWER STATION PRAN BURI G-R 4000MW THAILAND NUCLEAR POWER STATION
192. 196. Construction Picture Thru 2017 <ul><li>Construction Sales / MW </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional Coal & Oil Fired Plants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> \$500 / MW @ 1000MW = \$500,000 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combined Cycle Plants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>\$1,000 / MW @ 400 MW = \$400,000 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simple Cycle Plants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>\$100 / MW @ 85 MW = \$8,500 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear Plants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>\$1,500 / MW @ 1,600 MW = \$2,400,000 </li></ul></ul></ul>
193. 197. <ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>