Human Performance


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Human Performance

  2. 2. PERSONALITY FACTORS <ul><li> Personality factors play a critical role in determining interaction among programmers and in the work style of individual programmers </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT IS PERSONALITY ? </li></ul><ul><li>TEMPERAMENT </li></ul><ul><li>CHARACTER </li></ul>
  3. 3. TEMPERAMENT VS. CHARACTER <ul><li>Temperament is the inborn form of human nature; a set of inclinations we are born with (temperament is predisposition , hardwired in from birth) </li></ul><ul><li>Character , the emergent form, which develops through the interaction of temperament and the environment; a set of habits we acquire as we grow and mature (character is disposition, developed over a lifetime) </li></ul><ul><li>Personality —your unique personal style—is a combination of the two. </li></ul>
  4. 4. A …software perspective… <ul><li>Put another way, our brain is a sort of computer which has temperament for its hardware and character for its software. </li></ul><ul><li>Our hardware is the physical base of our personality, placing on each of us an unmistakable temperament signature, some facets of which can be observed from a very early age. </li></ul><ul><li>Our software , on the other hand, is made up of our individual experience and social environment, the forces around us that, with time and occasion, give shape to our individual character . </li></ul><ul><li>Temperament is a given – cannot be changed! </li></ul><ul><li>All we can do is to ‘unlearn’ some habits – that is to work on our beliefs and by this to re-mold our character. </li></ul>
  5. 5. What’s the point? <ul><li>People differ from each other in fundamental ways, including their thoughts and feelings, their wants and beliefs, their words, their values, and their talents. </li></ul><ul><li>People are born with different personalities, and that these differences are central to nearly every aspect of their lives </li></ul>
  6. 6. TEMPERAMENT TYPES <ul><ul><li>Artisan - ( SP)s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>   Guardian ( SJ)s </li></ul><ul><li>   Rational ( NT)s </li></ul><ul><li>   Idealist - ( NF)s </li></ul><ul><li>S – Sensing </li></ul><ul><li>N – Intuitive </li></ul><ul><li>T – Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>F – Feeling </li></ul><ul><li>J – Judging </li></ul><ul><li>P – Perceptive </li></ul><ul><li>E – Extraversion </li></ul><ul><li>I - Introversion </li></ul>
  7. 7. Sensation (S) vs. Intuition (N) <ul><li>T he S-N scale on the Keirsey Temperament Sorter differentiates between two distinct worlds of human interest or focus. </li></ul><ul><li>People who score high in Sensation pay more attention to what is going on outside themselves in the world of concrete things; </li></ul><ul><li>People scoring high in Intuition pay more attention to what is going on inside themselves in the abstract world of ideas. </li></ul>
  8. 8. SENSING <ul><li>People given to Sensation (the vast majority, maybe 85%) seem more at home in the physical, material world, where they spend their time looking after the business of everyday living-food and clothing, transportation and shelter, job and family, recreation and social life. With their eye on reality, they tend to see all the particulars of what is right in front of them, focusing on what is happening in the here and now, or what has happened in the past, rather than speculating about what might be or what would happen if. These are practical, down-to-earth people who want facts, trust facts, and remember facts, and who deal with situations as they are. They believe in common sense and that experience is the best teacher. </li></ul>
  9. 9. INTUITIVES <ul><li>In contrast, people strong in Intuition seem more at home in the abstract, conceptual world of ideas-inferences, theories, daydreams, musings, speculations, symbols-all those things that can only be seen with the mind's eye. Focused as they so often are in their internal world, these persons can miss a great deal of what's going on right around them; for them, reality is not solid and present, but is more a mental image, or a stage of development toward some future ideal. The possible is always in front of these people: whatever &quot;is&quot; can be better, and they are fascinated by hypotheses and potentials. Because they listen so intently to their inner voice, even from an early age, they often seem to have &quot;their head in the clouds,&quot; absorbed in their vivid and complex imaginations. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Judgement (J) vs. Perception (P) <ul><li>T he J-P scale measures how people process information and arrange their lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who score high on Judgment tend to make up their mind quickly and commit to schedules; </li></ul><ul><li>Those scoring high on Perception prefer to keep their options open and their timetables flexible. </li></ul>
  11. 11. JUDGING <ul><li>People strong in Judgment waste no time forming opinions or drawing conclusions. They report they feel a sense of urgency until a decision is made, and can rest only after everything is settled, with all loose ends tied up. Closure or finality is important to them, as is orderly procedure. They are quick to make schedules, agendas, timetables, and so on, for themselves and others to follow. They tend to establish deadlines and to take them seriously, expecting others to do the same. They are comfortable with routines, and are willing to do all sorts of maintenance and cleaning up after a task, just because these are necessary to see the job through to its conclusion. Neatness also counts. These people are unhappy when their personal space-workplace, house, car-is a mess, and straightening things up is often near the top of their list. </li></ul>
  12. 12. PERCEPTIVE <ul><li>Tend to keep their eyes open, gathering information and looking for opportunities and alternatives that might be available to them. They feel no hurry to nail things down, or settle on a finished product, but prefer to explore the possibilities and just see what happens. These people are often playful and spontaneous in action. Schedules make them feel hurried and over-controlled, and they tend to look upon deadlines as mere reminders to get on with the job. Also, they prefer their work to be enjoyable and to the purpose. If their task is mere routine maintenance or clean up, they may balk at doing it, or leave it to someone else. Easy-going, even somewhat impulsive, these people are usually quite tolerant of mess. Their personal spaces are often cluttered with an assortment of things they have picked up, used, then dropped and forgotten about. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Thinking (T) vs. Feeling (F) <ul><li>T he T-F scale assesses how people govern themselves and make decisions. We all have both thoughts and feelings, of course, but those who score high on Thinking tend to use their head, while those scoring high on Feeling tend to follow their heart. </li></ul>
  14. 14. THINKING <ul><li>Are more comfortable with an impersonal, objective basis for action. They can be critical and exacting, both with themselves and others, and they are convinced only by hard data and sound reasons. They tend to be frank and straightforward, willing to speak their minds and stick to their guns even if it causes conflict with others. And they are tough-minded in their decisions, preferring to keep their emotions and desires as much as possible out of the process. They have powerful feelings, certainly, but a strong show of emotion usually embarrasses them. And so, rather than appear to be losing self-control, they keep their feelings in check, even at the risk of seeming hard-nosed or cold. </li></ul>
  15. 15. FEELING <ul><li>Are more comfortable with a personal, emotional basis for what they do. When considering their course, they consult their feelings first and always show concern for others. These people are sympathetic and sentimental, and can be swayed by powerful desire or a touching appeal. And they are softhearted when making decisions, basing their choices on gentle, kindly considerations, hoping never to hurt anyone's feelings. They may not have more or deeper emotions than those on the Thinking end of the scale, but they let their feelings show more easily, and this makes them seem warmer and friendlier, and so usually gives them an easier time getting along with others. </li></ul>
  16. 16. EXTRAVERTS <ul><li>Seem more comfortable socializing with groups than when alone. They report that they are energized-charged up, fired up-by contact with other people. They usually have a large circle of friends, and are happy to approach others, even strangers, and talk to them, finding this an easy and pleasant thing to do, something that makes them feel alive. Quiet and seclusion actually exhaust such persons, and they report feelings of loneliness (or power drain) when not in contact with others. </li></ul>
  17. 17. INTROVERSION <ul><li>Seem more comfortable alone than in a crowd. They draw energy from private, solitary activities, reading, listening to music, working by themselves on their latest project or favorite hobby. They tend to have a few, long-time friends, and can remain in contact with larger groups only so long before their energies are depleted. If required by their job, family, or social responsibilities to be outgoing or on stage-to make a great social effort-they are soon exhausted and need &quot;down time&quot; in quiet places to rest and recharge their batteries. </li></ul>
  18. 18. ARTISAN (SP) <ul><li>The Artisan Portrait </li></ul><ul><li>Composers (ISFP) | Crafters ((ISTP) | Performers (ESFP) | Promoters (ESTP) </li></ul><ul><li>All Artisans (SPs) share the following core characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>Artisans tend to be fun-loving, optimistic, realistic, and focused on the here and now .  </li></ul><ul><li>Artisans pride themselves on being unconventional, bold, and spontaneous.  </li></ul><ul><li>Artisans make playful mates, creative parents, and troubleshooting leaders.  </li></ul><ul><li>Above all, Artisans need to be free to do what they wish, when they wish. They resist being tied or bound or confined or obligated; they would rather not wait, or save, or store, or live for tomorrow. In the Artisan view, today must be enjoyed, for tomorrow never comes.  </li></ul>
  19. 19. Learning Style <ul><li>Artisans like their schoolwork to be fun and practical. If it's not directly applicable to their personal aims, expect to see a bored and/or frustrated student. Hands-on, active learning is preferred to sitting in a chair and listening to a teacher talk. If their lessons are not directly applicable to their aims, they become bored and frustrated. Artisans prefer focus on details rather than leaping from thought to thought or concept to concept. In high school and college, Artisans choose courses and college majors that will teach a skill they will use, whether that's business administration, diesel mechanics, or chiropractic. </li></ul>
  20. 20. GUARDIANS (SJ) <ul><li>The Guardian Portrait </li></ul><ul><li>Inspectors (ISTJ) | Protectors (ISFJ) | Providers (ESFJ) | Supervisors (ESTJ) </li></ul><ul><li>All Guardians (SJs) share the following core characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>Guardians pride themselves on being dependable, helpful, and hard-working. </li></ul><ul><li>Guardians make loyal mates, responsible parents, and stabilizing leaders.  </li></ul><ul><li>Guardians tend to be dutiful, cautious, humble, and focused on credentials and traditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Guardians are concerned citizens who trust authority, join groups, seek security, prize gratitude, and dream of meting out justice.  </li></ul><ul><li>Guardians are meticulous about schedules and have a sharp eye for proper procedures. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Learning Style <ul><li>Guardians respect their teachers' decisions about what the content of their learning should be. They need and appreciate systematic presentation of facts and ideas, and clear expectations for assignments -- what is demanded of them and what the standards are. Teachers who leap from concept to concept will frustrate their Guardian students. Like Artisans, Guardians are likely to choose practical courses of study that will lead to secure careers. </li></ul>
  22. 22. RATIONALS (NT) <ul><li>The Rational Portrait </li></ul><ul><li>Architects (INTP) | Fieldmarshals (ENTJ) | Inventors (ENTP) | Masterminds (INTJ) </li></ul><ul><li>All Rationals (NTs) share the following core characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>Rationals tend to be pragmatic, skeptical, self-contained, and focused on problem-solving and systems analysis.  </li></ul><ul><li>Rationals pride themselves on being ingenious, independent, and strong willed.  </li></ul><ul><li>Rationals make reasonable mates, individualizing parents, and strategic leaders.  </li></ul><ul><li>Rationals are even-tempered, they trust logic, yearn for achievement, seek knowledge, prize technology, and dream of understanding how the world works. </li></ul><ul><li>Rationals are the problem solving temperament, particularly if the problem has to do with the many complex systems that make up the world around us. </li></ul>
  23. 23. RATIONALS… <ul><li>Rationals have an insatiable hunger to accomplish their goals and will work tirelessly on any project they have set their mind to. They are rigorously logical and fiercely independent in their thinking--are indeed skeptical of all ideas, even their own--and they believe they can overcome any obstacle with their will power. Often they are seen as cold and distant, but this is really the absorbed concentration they give to whatever problem they're working on. Whether designing a skyscraper or an experiment, developing a theory or a prototype technology, building an aircraft, a corporation, or a strategic alliance, Rationals value intelligence, in themselves and others, and they pride themselves on the ingenuity they bring to their problem solving.  </li></ul>
  24. 24. Learning Styles <ul><li>Like Idealists, Rationals are self-directed learners. They want to be challenged and provided with the means to pursue the ideas that are important to them. They are highly autonomous, and so don't generally seek discussion. Teachers can support Rationals by sharing expertise and resources for learning and by giving them honest feedback as the students' knowledge and expertise grows. In college, Rationals often choose majors in science, mathematics, philosophy, or technology. </li></ul>
  25. 25. IDEALISTS (NF) <ul><li>The Idealist Portrait </li></ul><ul><li>Healers (INFP) | Counselors (INFJ) | Champions (ENFP)| Teachers (ENFJ) </li></ul><ul><li>All Idealists (NFs) share the following core characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>Idealists are enthusiastic, they trust their intuition, yearn for romance, seek their true self, prize meaningful relationships, and dream of attaining wisdom.  </li></ul><ul><li>Idealists  pride themselves on being loving, kindhearted, and authentic.  </li></ul><ul><li>Idealists tend to be giving, trusting, spiritual, and they are focused on personal journeys and human potentials.  </li></ul><ul><li>Idealists make intense mates, nurturing parents, and inspirational leaders. </li></ul><ul><li>Highly ethical in their actions, Idealists hold themselves to a strict standard of personal integrity. They must be true to themselves and to others, and they can be quite hard on themselves when they are dishonest, or when they are false or insincere. More often, however, Idealists are the very soul of kindness. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Learning Style <ul><li>Idealists are excited and motivated by ideas, particularly those relating to people and relationships or an understanding of &quot;Life.&quot; They seek out learning about topics, causes, and ideas they value. They prefer that teachers act as coaches or mentors who direct the Idealists' own self-directed learning. School, for Idealists, is merely the launch pad for independent thinking, a place to discuss concepts with peers, and a resource for books, information, and guidance. In college, Idealists often choose majors in the fine arts, literature, psychology, or the humanities. </li></ul>
  27. 27. PERSONALITY FACTORS <ul><li>assertive/passive -- often an assertive individual who is not afraid to ask questions, has initiative to get things done is seen as better;  </li></ul><ul><li>introverted/extroverted -- good programmers may be either, a warm cooperative style for work in teams is often preferred.  </li></ul><ul><li>internal/external locus of control -- people with strong internal locus of control can dominate situations, they feel able to influence the world and control events; people with external locus of control feel victims of events and tend to allow others to dominate them;  </li></ul><ul><li>high/low anxiety -- moderate levels improve performance, high levels lead to more errors which lead to higher anxiety, a vicious circle;  </li></ul>
  28. 28. FACTORS (cont…) <ul><li>high/low motivation -- highly motivated people can accomplish much more, managers usually try to improve morale and motivation;  </li></ul><ul><li>high/low tolerance for ambiguity -- early stages of program design need a tolerance for ambiguity, decisions must be made on limited data, risks must be taken;  </li></ul><ul><li>compulsive precision -- later stages of program composition require a precise attention to detail;  </li></ul><ul><li>humility -- a successful programmer should not be too ego-involved, a more humble approach leaves a programmer open to suggestion;  </li></ul><ul><li>tolerance of stress -- projects may fall behind schedule and pressures build up, a good programmer can work well in stressful situations. </li></ul>
  29. 29. COGNITIVE STYLE <ul><li>analytic implies sequential, linear, verbal symbolic processing, left-brain oriented;  </li></ul><ul><li>heuristic implies intuitive, global, pictorial processing, right-brain oriented. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  30. 30. Myers-Briggs <ul><li>Intuitive needs a sensing type:  </li></ul><ul><li>to bring up pertinent facts  </li></ul><ul><li>to apply experience to problems  </li></ul><ul><li>to read the fine print in a contract  </li></ul><ul><li>to notice what needs attention now  </li></ul><ul><li>to have patience  </li></ul><ul><li>to keep track of essential detail  </li></ul><ul><li>to face difficulties with realism  </li></ul><ul><li>to remind that the joys of the present are important </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Sensing needs an intuitive:  </li></ul><ul><li>to bring up new possibilities  </li></ul><ul><li>to supply ingenuity on problems  </li></ul><ul><li>to read the signs of coming change  </li></ul><ul><li>to see how to prepare for the future  </li></ul><ul><li>to have enthusiasm  </li></ul><ul><li>to watch for new essentials  </li></ul><ul><li>to tackle difficulties with zest  </li></ul><ul><li>to show that the joys of the future are worth working for </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Feeling type needs a thinker:  </li></ul><ul><li>to analyse  </li></ul><ul><li>to organize  </li></ul><ul><li>to find the flaws in advance  </li></ul><ul><li>to reform what needs reforming  </li></ul><ul><li>to hold consistently to a policy  </li></ul><ul><li>to weigh &quot;the law and the evidence&quot;  </li></ul><ul><li>to fire people when necessary  </li></ul><ul><li>to stand firm against opposition </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Thinker needs a feeling type: </li></ul><ul><li>to persuade  </li></ul><ul><li>to conciliate  </li></ul><ul><li>to forecast how others will feel  </li></ul><ul><li>to arouse enthusiasm  </li></ul><ul><li>to teach  </li></ul><ul><li>to sell  </li></ul><ul><li>to advertise  </li></ul><ul><li>to appreciate the thinker </li></ul>