Vitamins

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description of vitamin , their requirements, sources and deficiency symptoms

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Vitamins

  1. 1. vitamins AL- KALAMOON UNIVERSITY DENTISRY COLLEGE DR. LOUAY LABBAN
  2. 2. DEFININTION <ul><li>The term vitamin is derived from the words vital and amine, because vitamins are required for life and were originally thought to be amines </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>They are organic compounds required by humans in small amounts from the diet. </li></ul>
  4. 4. IMPORTANCE OF VITAMINS VITAMINS FUNCTION B1, B2, B3, B5, B 6, B7, B9, B12, C, K COENZYME B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7 METABOLISM OF ENERGY YIELDING NUTRIENTS B 6, B 9, B12 RED BLOOD CELL SYNTHESIS B6, B9, B12 AMINO ACID METABOLISM B 7, B 5, B 3 FATTY ACID SYNTHESIS C , E ANTIOXODENT PROTECTION B1, B6, B12 NERVE TRANSMISSION A, D GENE EXPRESSION
  5. 5. CLASSIFICATION OF VITAMINS <ul><li>VITAMINS HAVE TRADITIONALLY BEEN GROUPED BASED ON THEIR SOLUBILITY IN WATER OR FAT </li></ul>
  6. 6. WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS <ul><li>B VITAMINS </li></ul><ul><li>THIAMIN B1 </li></ul><ul><li>RIBOFLAVIN B2 </li></ul><ul><li>NIACIN B3 </li></ul><ul><li>BIOTIN </li></ul><ul><li>PANTOTHENIC ACID </li></ul><ul><li>B 6 </li></ul><ul><li>FOLATE </li></ul><ul><li>B 12 </li></ul>VITAMIN A VITAMIN C VITAMIN D VITAMIN E VITAMIN K
  7. 7. FACTS ABOUT VITAMINS <ul><li>Vitamins are found in almost everything you eat </li></ul><ul><li>Processing affects vitamin content </li></ul><ul><li>Dietary supplements can boost vitamin intake </li></ul><ul><li>Not all of what you eat can be used by the body </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS </li></ul><ul><li>VITAMIN B COMPLEX GROUP </li></ul>
  9. 9. THIAMIN OR VITAMIN B 1 <ul><li>Very important vitamin to prevent Beriberi that was discovered in the West Indies </li></ul><ul><li>A Japanese surgeon in the navy found that beriberi on ships could be avoided by adding meat and whole grains to the diet. </li></ul>
  10. 10. THIAMIN IMPORTANCE
  11. 11. BERIBERI
  12. 12. SOURCES OF THIAMIN
  13. 13. <ul><li>Sources of Thiamin: it is widely distributed in foods </li></ul><ul><li>Yeast and liver are the most highly concentrated sources however, cereal grains are the most important dietary sources of thiamin in the diet as these foods are consumed readily in most diets. </li></ul>
  14. 14. RIBOFLAVIN OR VITAMIN B 2 <ul><li>Very important vitamin because it is part of two coenzymes (FMN) and (FAD) which are oxidizing agents </li></ul>
  15. 15. RIBOFALVIN IMPORTANCE
  16. 16. SYMPTOMS OF RIBOFLAVIN DEFICIENCY <ul><li>Stomatitis </li></ul><ul><li>Anemia </li></ul><ul><li>Swollen and dark tongue </li></ul><ul><li>Angular chelosis: cracks in corners of mouth and lips </li></ul>
  17. 17. Riboflavin deficiency
  18. 18. SOURCES OF RIBOFLAVIN
  19. 19. RDA for Riboflavin <ul><li>The recommended dietary intake for riboflavin is 1.3 mg / day . </li></ul>
  20. 20. NIACIN OR VITAMIN B 3 <ul><li>Niacin is the compound that prevents development of Pellagra. </li></ul><ul><li>It was isolated from nicotine acid </li></ul><ul><li>It plays an important role in coenzyme NAD which is very important in metabolism. </li></ul>
  21. 21. IMPORTANCE OF NIACIN OR VITAMIN B 3
  22. 22. SOURCES OF NIACIN
  23. 23. DEFICIENCY OF NIACIN <ul><li>Pellagra: dermatitis </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Anorexia </li></ul><ul><li>Indigestion </li></ul><ul><li>Skin eruptions </li></ul><ul><li>Diarrhea </li></ul>
  24. 24. DEFICIENCY OF NIACIN OR B3
  25. 25. Pellagra
  26. 26. Pellagra
  27. 27. Vitamin B 6 or Pyridoxine <ul><li>Very important vitamin since it plays a coenzyme role in more than 100 enzymatic reactions. </li></ul>
  28. 28. VITAMIN B 5 OR PANTOTHENIC <ul><li>Part of Coenzyme A which plays an important role in energy metabolism. </li></ul><ul><li>Is essential for the formation of ATP from the breakdown of carbohydrates, protein, fat and alcohol. </li></ul>
  29. 29. SOURCES OF PANTOTHENIC <ul><li>Meat </li></ul><ul><li>Milk </li></ul><ul><li>Mushrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Liver </li></ul><ul><li>Peanuts </li></ul><ul><li>Eggs </li></ul><ul><li>yeast </li></ul>
  30. 30. DEFICIENCY OF B 5 <ul><li>Headache </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Impaired muscle coordination </li></ul><ul><li>GI tract disorders </li></ul>
  31. 31. RDA FOR PANTOTHENIC ACID <ul><li>RDA for adults is 5 mg / day </li></ul>
  32. 32. VITAMIN B6 FUNCTIONS
  33. 33. SOURCES OF VITAMIN B 6 <ul><li>Animal tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Fish </li></ul><ul><li>Poultry </li></ul><ul><li>Whole grains </li></ul><ul><li>Some fruits and vegetables mainly bananas , carrots, potatoes, garbanzo beans, avacado </li></ul>
  34. 34. DEFICIENCY OF VITAMIN B 6 <ul><li>Weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Sleeplessness </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral neuropathy </li></ul><ul><li>Personality changes </li></ul><ul><li>Dermatitis </li></ul><ul><li>Glossitis </li></ul>
  35. 35. VITAMIN B6 SOURCES
  36. 36. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR B 6 <ul><li>RDA for vitamin B 6 is 1.3 – 2 mg / day </li></ul>
  37. 37. BIOTIN OR VITAMIN B 7 <ul><li>Biotin participate in reactions in which carbon dioxide is added to a compound. </li></ul>
  38. 38. FUNCTIONS OF B 7 <ul><li>Essential cofactor for 5 carboxylase enzyme that add CO2 to various compounds. </li></ul>
  39. 39. SOURCES OF BIOTIN <ul><li>Whole grains </li></ul><ul><li>Eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Nuts </li></ul><ul><li>legumes </li></ul>
  40. 40. DEFICIENCY OF BIOTIN <ul><li>Skin rash </li></ul><ul><li>Neurological disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Impaired growth </li></ul>
  41. 41. RDA FOR BIOTIN <ul><li>RDA for Biotin is 30 μ g /day for adults </li></ul>
  42. 42. FOLATE OR VITAMIN B 9 <ul><li>Folate is derived from Latin word means leaf because dark leafy vegetables are the best source for folate </li></ul>
  43. 43. VITAMIN B9 SOURCES <ul><li>Beans </li></ul><ul><li>Legumes </li></ul><ul><li>Citrus fruit </li></ul><ul><li>Liver </li></ul><ul><li>Fish </li></ul><ul><li>Eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Milk and milk products </li></ul>
  44. 44. FOLATE OR VITAMIN B 9
  45. 45. Folic acid functions
  46. 46. Deficiency of Folate <ul><li>Reduced ability to double DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Anemia </li></ul>
  47. 47. Folic acid function
  48. 48. RDA FOR FOLATE <ul><li>RDA for adults is 400 μ g / day </li></ul>
  49. 49. VITAMIN B 12 <ul><li>Cyanocobalamin or vitamin B 12 is very imporatnt vitamin </li></ul><ul><li>It plays an important role in many Coenzymes </li></ul>
  50. 50. SOURCES OF VITAMIN B 12 <ul><li>Meat </li></ul><ul><li>Poultry </li></ul><ul><li>Seafood </li></ul><ul><li>Eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Milk and milk products </li></ul>
  51. 51. Sources of VITAMIN B12
  52. 53. RDA OF VITAMIN B 12 <ul><li>RDA for adults is 2.4 μ g /day </li></ul><ul><li>Deficiency can cause anemia </li></ul>
  53. 54. VITAMIN C OR ASCORBIC ACID <ul><li>Is involved in many processes in human body </li></ul><ul><li>The most important function for vitamin C is the synthesis of collagen, the principal tissue protein found in tendon, arteries </li></ul>
  54. 55. FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN C <ul><li>Healthy immune system </li></ul><ul><li>Helps in wounds healing </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains the connective tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Aids in iron absorption </li></ul>
  55. 56. ASCORBIC ACID OR VITAMIN C
  56. 57. SOURCES OF VITAMIN C <ul><li>Fruits and vegetables are the major sources for vitamin C </li></ul><ul><li>Citrus fruits </li></ul><ul><li>Broccoli </li></ul><ul><li>Green pepper </li></ul>
  57. 58. SOURCES OF VITAMIN C
  58. 59. Deficiency of vitamin C <ul><li>The well-known deficiency is Scurvy </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation of the gum </li></ul><ul><li>Impaired wound healing </li></ul><ul><li>Hemorrhages </li></ul><ul><li>depression </li></ul>
  59. 61. SCURVY IN HUMAN
  60. 62. RDA FOR VITAMIN C <ul><li>RDA for vitamin c for adults is 60 mg / day </li></ul>
  61. 63. FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS <ul><li>VITAMIN A </li></ul><ul><li>VITAMIN D </li></ul><ul><li>VITAMIN E </li></ul><ul><li>VITAMIN K </li></ul>
  62. 64. Vitamin A <ul><li>Assists with formation of epithelium, skin and mucus membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains healthy eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Assists with bone remodeling </li></ul>
  63. 65. Deficiency <ul><li>Dry skin, poor immunity and slow growth </li></ul><ul><li>Night blindess, xeropthalmia (total blindes) </li></ul>
  64. 66. Retinopathy
  65. 67. Night blindness
  66. 68. VITAMIN A
  67. 69. sources
  68. 70. Vitamin D <ul><li>Considered as hormone that facilitates absorption of Ca and P </li></ul><ul><li>It assists with bone formation by aiding the absorption of calcium </li></ul>
  69. 71. Functions
  70. 72. sources
  71. 73. Vitamin D deficiency
  72. 74. Ricketts
  73. 75. Osteoporosis
  74. 76. Vitamin E <ul><li>Antioxident and promotes RBC </li></ul><ul><li>Deficiency of vitamin E is heomlytic anemia </li></ul><ul><li>RDA 15 mg / day </li></ul>
  75. 77. Functions of vitamin E
  76. 78. Functions of vitamin E
  77. 79. Sources
  78. 80. Vitamin K <ul><li>Assists in the synthesis of prothrombin required for blood clotting </li></ul><ul><li>Deficiency symptoms are prolonged bleeding and increased clotting time. </li></ul>
  79. 81. Ssources of vitamin K
  80. 82. Functions of vitamin K
  81. 83. Vitamin K deficiency

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