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  1. 1. Rainforests & Climate Change Sir Michael T. Somare Prime Minister, Papua New Guinea
  2. 2. Global Challenge <ul><li>Target: Limit temp. change to 2°C above pre-industrial levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Metrics: Stabilizing CO 2 below 450ppmv </li></ul><ul><ul><li>currently stand at approx. 390ppmv </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rising at 0.5% per year </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Global Challenge <ul><li>Impacts: Draconian emissions reductions if left alone to Annex 1 countries: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reducing emissions within industrialized nations 80% below 2000 levels by 2050 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: reductions required of ALL </li></ul><ul><li> – industrialized and developing alike. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Global Challenge <ul><li>LULUCF: IPCC estimates 20%-25% of annual GLOBAL carbon emissions were generated from degradation of forest resources. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Almost the same volume emitted annually by the US! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impacts: Deforestation in Brazil and Indonesia were to remain the same through 2012, would offset nearly 80% of the emission reductions gained from the Kyoto Protocol. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Papua New Guinea <ul><li>General: Population of 5.5 million; Constitutional monarchy; Parliamentary Democracy; Democracy for 30 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Forests: The island of New Guinea has the world’s third largest rainforest, after Amazonia and the Congo. </li></ul><ul><li>Languages: 832 living languages, more than any other country in the world. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Papua New Guinea <ul><li>Biodiversity: harbors over 7 percent of the planet’s biodiversity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>200 species of mammals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>750 bird species (90% of the world’s Birds of Paradise) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1,500 tree species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20,000 species of higher plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>considered florally the richest island on the planet. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Papua New Guinea <ul><li>Central Question for Government </li></ul><ul><li>How is economic development </li></ul><ul><li>best achieved? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>defeating poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>responsible stewards of a unique and irreplaceable global biodiversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contributing toward global climate stability </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Flawed Frameworks <ul><li>Kyoto Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialized: Clause 3.3 of the Kyoto Protocol specifically provides incentives for industrialized countries to reduce deforestation </li></ul><ul><li>Developing: for developing countries, the Marrakesh Accords have subsequently slammed that door shut! </li></ul><ul><li>Developing Nations must bear economic burden of conserving global rainforest assets </li></ul><ul><li>ALONE! </li></ul>
  9. 9. Flawed Frameworks <ul><li>Key Point </li></ul><ul><li>Kyoto Protocol presently excludes from its provisions, and in particular from its benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>existing rainforests and their carbon sequestration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>carbon emissions associated with deforestation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simply put: Unfair & Defies justice! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>History shows it will not work! </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Pathway Forward <ul><li>Coalition for Rainforest Nations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussions at the United Nations: Peru, Congo, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Mozambique, Tanzania and Zambia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitutes the largest expanse of rainforest globally under such an issue-specific coalition. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Pathway Forward <ul><li>Objective: Align the interests of rainforested developing nations with industrialized nations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The latter offering markets for carbon off-sets and forest products. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Equity: If rainforested nations Reduce greenhouse gas emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Compensation for these reductions (Like Industrial Nations.) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Pathway Forward <ul><li>Marrakesh: Modify the Marrakesh Accords </li></ul><ul><li>Annex B: Motivate developing nations with rainforests to give notification under UNFCCC Article 4.2(g) for ‘Kyoto Protocol Annex B’ status – subject to ‘appropriate’ forestry allowances </li></ul><ul><li>Optional Protocol: Develop an Optional Protocol on deforestation which is linked to and complements the Kyoto Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Amend: Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol </li></ul>
  13. 13. Pathway Forward <ul><li>Additionality: Establish national deforestation baseline rates </li></ul><ul><li>Leakage: Address the forestry on a National level to offset the risk of leakage between projects </li></ul><ul><li>Permanence: Develop a carbon banking mechanism that credits early action and debits compliance failures. </li></ul><ul><li>Trading: International emissions trading system for trading credits issued against avoided forest emissions. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Conclusions <ul><li>Lasting climate stability cannot be achieved with over half of the world sitting on the proverbial sidelines and over 50% of global emissions being unregulated. </li></ul><ul><li>Act Now: Given today’s rates of deforestation, we CANNOT WAIT until 2012 to resolve! </li></ul>
  15. 15. Conclusions <ul><li>Intentions are NOT to take the pressure off the fossil-fuel emission reductions necessary within industrialized nations </li></ul><ul><li>We stand prepared to be accountable for our contributions toward global climate stability </li></ul>
  16. 16. Conclusions <ul><li>‘ We must indeed all hang together, </li></ul><ul><li>or most assuredly we will all </li></ul><ul><li>hang separately.’ </li></ul><ul><li>- Ben Franklin </li></ul>