Air Valve Basic Training<br />OWEA Collection System Specialty Conference<br />Dan Barr, PE<br />Burgess & Niple, Inc.<br />
Overview<br />Why Air Valves?<br />Types of Valves<br />Valve Locations<br />Sizing Valves<br />Valve Specifications<br />...
Overview<br />Information based on:<br /> AWWA Manual of Water Supply Practices M51 Air-Release, Air/Vacuum & Combination ...
Why Air Valves?<br />
Why Air Valves?<br />Effects of Air and Vacuum Pockets in Pipelines<br />Higher Headloss and Binding<br />Pipe Breaks<br /...
Why Air Valves?<br />Sources of Air Entry in Pipelines<br />Dissolved Air or Gas (2% at 1 atm)<br />Air Valves<br />Pumps<...
Why Air Valves?<br />Sources of Vacuums in Pipelines<br />Draining Pipelines<br />Water Hammer<br />
Types of Air Valves<br />
Air and Vacuum Valve <br />Super High Capacity Compound Lever Air Release Valve<br />Dual Body Wastewater Combination Air ...
Types of Air Valves<br />Three Basic Types<br />Air Release Valves<br />Air / Vacuum Valves<br />Combination Air Valves<br />
Air Release Valves<br />Automatically releases small pockets of accumulated air while the pipeline operates under pressure...
Air Release Valve Operation<br />Pipeline Flowing<br />Air Trapped<br />Air Released<br />Repeat Cycle<br />
Air / Vacuum Valves<br />Designed to automatically:<br />Exhaust large quantities of air during pipeline filling.<br />Adm...
Air / Vacuum Valve Operation<br /><ul><li>Pipe Fills
Valve Closes
Pipe Empty
Valve Open</li></li></ul><li>Air / Vacuum Valve Operation<br /><ul><li>Pipe Drains
Air Intake</li></li></ul><li>Air / Vacuum Valve Cycle<br /><ul><li>Pipe Fills
Valve Closes
Pipe Drains
Air Intake
Pipe Empty
Valve Open</li></li></ul><li>Combination Air Valves<br />Perform both as air release and air/vacuum valves.<br />
Combination<br />
Combination Air Valve Operation<br />
Locating Air Valves Along a Pipeline<br />(Or Thinking like an Air Bubble)<br />
Locating Air Valves <br />Install valves where air will be trapped or vacuum pockets will form!<br />
Locating Air Valves Along a Force Main<br />Lift Station<br />Manhole<br />Pumps Operating and Line is Full<br />
Locating Air Valves Along a Force Main<br />Lift Station<br />Manhole<br />Pumps Operating and Line is Full<br />
Locating Air Valves Along a Force Main<br />Air Release<br />Lift Station<br />Air Release<br />Manhole<br />Pumps Operati...
High Points<br />Potential Vacuum<br />Lift Station<br />Manhole<br />Pumps Stopped and Line is Draining<br />
High Points<br />Lift Station<br />Manhole<br />Pumps Start and Vacuum Pockets Close with Pressure Spikes<br />
High Points<br />Combination Air Valve<br />Combination Air Valve<br />Lift Station<br />Manhole<br />Pumps Stopped, Line ...
High Points<br />Manhole<br />Lift Station<br />Any Air Valves?<br />
High Points<br />Manhole<br />Lift Station<br />No Vacuum Points!<br />
High Points<br />Air Trapped<br />Manhole<br />Lift Station<br />
High Points<br />Manual Air Release<br />Automatic Air Release<br />Manhole<br />Lift Station<br />
Pumps<br />Carefully review deep pump installations when over 20 feet deep.<br />May need Air/Vac valve<br />Examples incl...
Pumps<br />Line Full<br />Pump On<br />
Pumps<br />Pump Off<br />Vacuum Develops<br />
Pump Turns On<br />Pumps Against Vacuum<br />Slams Check Valve<br />Pumps<br />
Pumps<br />Add Air/Vac Valve<br />Air Enters System to Eliminate Vacuum<br />
Pumps<br />Add Air/Vac Valve<br />Air Enters System to Eliminate Vacuum<br />Air Released at Controlled Rate<br />
Sizing Valves<br />
Air Release<br />Convert pipeline flow rate to Cubic Feet per Minute (CFM).<br />Multiply CFM by 0.02 to estimate dissolve...
Air Release<br />
Air/Vac Valves<br />Determine required valve size for both filling and draining independently<br />Use the larger diameter...
Pipeline Filling<br />Calculate the venting flow rate in CFM.<br />Venting Flow Rate = Fill Rate (CFM) * [(Pressure Differ...
Pipeline Filling<br />
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Air Valve Basic Training

17,595 views

Published on

Presentation explains all the basics about air valves including what are they for, what types are there, where do you use them, how big should they be, and many others.

Published in: Technology
6 Comments
12 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
17,595
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
38
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
645
Comments
6
Likes
12
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Air Valve Basic Training

  1. 1. Air Valve Basic Training<br />OWEA Collection System Specialty Conference<br />Dan Barr, PE<br />Burgess & Niple, Inc.<br />
  2. 2. Overview<br />Why Air Valves?<br />Types of Valves<br />Valve Locations<br />Sizing Valves<br />Valve Specifications<br />Installations<br />Questions<br />
  3. 3. Overview<br />Information based on:<br /> AWWA Manual of Water Supply Practices M51 Air-Release, Air/Vacuum & Combination Air Valves<br />Manufacturers' published information<br />Our experience in design and the field<br />
  4. 4. Why Air Valves?<br />
  5. 5. Why Air Valves?<br />Effects of Air and Vacuum Pockets in Pipelines<br />Higher Headloss and Binding<br />Pipe Breaks<br />Erratic operation of pumps, meters, and control valves<br />Collapsed pipes<br />
  6. 6. Why Air Valves?<br />Sources of Air Entry in Pipelines<br />Dissolved Air or Gas (2% at 1 atm)<br />Air Valves<br />Pumps<br />Filling Empty Pipelines<br />
  7. 7. Why Air Valves?<br />Sources of Vacuums in Pipelines<br />Draining Pipelines<br />Water Hammer<br />
  8. 8. Types of Air Valves<br />
  9. 9. Air and Vacuum Valve <br />Super High Capacity Compound Lever Air Release Valve<br />Dual Body Wastewater Combination Air Valve w/ High Capacity Air Release<br />Stainless Steel Air & Vacuum Valve<br />Wastewater Combination Air Valve <br />Pressure Sewer Air Release Valve<br />Universal Air Release Valve <br />Wastewater Air/Vacuum Valve<br />Sewage Air Valves<br />“Minimatic” Air Release Valve<br />Slow Closing Air/Vacuum Valves<br />KINETIC Air & Vacuum Valve to 4“<br />KINETIC Slow-Closing Air & Vacuum Valve<br />Foot Valve <br />Simple Lever Air Release Valve<br />Combination Vacuum Breaking and Air Release Valve<br />Low Vol. Pressure Air Release Valve <br />Short Body Wastewater Air & Vacuum Valve<br />Hydraulically Controlled Air/Vacuum Valves<br />Midget Valve <br />Pressure Air Release Valve <br />Air and Vacuum Sewer Valve <br />Negative Pressure Valve <br />High Capacity Simple Lever Air Release Valve<br />Single Body Wastewater Combination Air Valve<br />Air Valves for Vertical Turbine Pumps<br />High Capacity Wastewater Air Release Valve<br />Well Service Air Valve <br />Universal Sewer Air Release Valve<br />Air Release Valve (Simple Lever Type)<br />Vacuum Relief Air Inlet Valves<br />Stainless Steel Single Body Wastewater Combination Air Valve<br />All Stainless Steel Air Release Valve<br />KINETIC Custom Slow Closing Combination Air Valve<br />High Capacity Compound Lever Air Release Valve<br />Wastewater Air & Vacuum Valve<br />Combination Air Valve (Single Housing Type)<br />Air Release Valve (Compound Lever Type)<br />Stainless Steel Wastewater Combination Air Valve<br />Compact KINETIC Combination Air Valve<br />Air Release Valves (Sewage) <br />Deep Well Valve <br />Vacuum Relief Valve <br />Short Body Wastewater Air Release Valve<br />Vacuum Breaking Valve<br />Dual Body Wastewater Combination Air Valve<br />Sewage Air Release Valve <br />Combination Air Valve <br />KINETIC Custom Combination Air Valve<br />Short Body Wastewater Combination Air Valve<br />Combination Sewer Valve <br />Compound Lever Air Release Valve<br />Vacuum Relief Air Valve <br />KINETIC Slow Closing Combination Air Valve<br />KINETIC Deep Well Pump Air & Vacuum Valve<br />Dual Air Valve <br />Wastewater Air Release Valve<br />Air/Vacuum Valve w/ Optional Surge Suppression Valve <br />KINETIC Combination Air Valve<br />Combination Vacuum Breaking and Air Release Valve for Wastewater<br />Simple, right?<br />
  10. 10. Types of Air Valves<br />Three Basic Types<br />Air Release Valves<br />Air / Vacuum Valves<br />Combination Air Valves<br />
  11. 11. Air Release Valves<br />Automatically releases small pockets of accumulated air while the pipeline operates under pressure.<br />
  12. 12. Air Release Valve Operation<br />Pipeline Flowing<br />Air Trapped<br />Air Released<br />Repeat Cycle<br />
  13. 13. Air / Vacuum Valves<br />Designed to automatically:<br />Exhaust large quantities of air during pipeline filling.<br />Admit large amounts of air when the internal pressure drops below atmospheric.<br />
  14. 14. Air / Vacuum Valve Operation<br /><ul><li>Pipe Fills
  15. 15. Valve Closes
  16. 16. Pipe Empty
  17. 17. Valve Open</li></li></ul><li>Air / Vacuum Valve Operation<br /><ul><li>Pipe Drains
  18. 18. Air Intake</li></li></ul><li>Air / Vacuum Valve Cycle<br /><ul><li>Pipe Fills
  19. 19. Valve Closes
  20. 20. Pipe Drains
  21. 21. Air Intake
  22. 22. Pipe Empty
  23. 23. Valve Open</li></li></ul><li>Combination Air Valves<br />Perform both as air release and air/vacuum valves.<br />
  24. 24. Combination<br />
  25. 25. Combination Air Valve Operation<br />
  26. 26. Locating Air Valves Along a Pipeline<br />(Or Thinking like an Air Bubble)<br />
  27. 27. Locating Air Valves <br />Install valves where air will be trapped or vacuum pockets will form!<br />
  28. 28. Locating Air Valves Along a Force Main<br />Lift Station<br />Manhole<br />Pumps Operating and Line is Full<br />
  29. 29. Locating Air Valves Along a Force Main<br />Lift Station<br />Manhole<br />Pumps Operating and Line is Full<br />
  30. 30. Locating Air Valves Along a Force Main<br />Air Release<br />Lift Station<br />Air Release<br />Manhole<br />Pumps Operating and Line is Full<br />
  31. 31. High Points<br />Potential Vacuum<br />Lift Station<br />Manhole<br />Pumps Stopped and Line is Draining<br />
  32. 32. High Points<br />Lift Station<br />Manhole<br />Pumps Start and Vacuum Pockets Close with Pressure Spikes<br />
  33. 33. High Points<br />Combination Air Valve<br />Combination Air Valve<br />Lift Station<br />Manhole<br />Pumps Stopped, Line is Drained, and High Points are Full of Air <br />
  34. 34. High Points<br />Manhole<br />Lift Station<br />Any Air Valves?<br />
  35. 35. High Points<br />Manhole<br />Lift Station<br />No Vacuum Points!<br />
  36. 36. High Points<br />Air Trapped<br />Manhole<br />Lift Station<br />
  37. 37. High Points<br />Manual Air Release<br />Automatic Air Release<br />Manhole<br />Lift Station<br />
  38. 38. Pumps<br />Carefully review deep pump installations when over 20 feet deep.<br />May need Air/Vac valve<br />Examples include: vertical turbines and deep submersibles.<br />
  39. 39. Pumps<br />Line Full<br />Pump On<br />
  40. 40. Pumps<br />Pump Off<br />Vacuum Develops<br />
  41. 41. Pump Turns On<br />Pumps Against Vacuum<br />Slams Check Valve<br />Pumps<br />
  42. 42. Pumps<br />Add Air/Vac Valve<br />Air Enters System to Eliminate Vacuum<br />
  43. 43. Pumps<br />Add Air/Vac Valve<br />Air Enters System to Eliminate Vacuum<br />Air Released at Controlled Rate<br />
  44. 44. Sizing Valves<br />
  45. 45. Air Release<br />Convert pipeline flow rate to Cubic Feet per Minute (CFM).<br />Multiply CFM by 0.02 to estimate dissolved air in water.<br />Determine the working pressure at the valve.<br />Refer to Orifice Air Capacity Table in AWWA manual or manufacturer tables.<br />
  46. 46. Air Release<br />
  47. 47. Air/Vac Valves<br />Determine required valve size for both filling and draining independently<br />Use the larger diameter for air/vac valve sizing<br />
  48. 48. Pipeline Filling<br />Calculate the venting flow rate in CFM.<br />Venting Flow Rate = Fill Rate (CFM) * [(Pressure Differential across valve + 14.7 psi)/14.7 psi]<br />Refer to sizing tables to select Air/Vac valve diameter.<br />Use a 2 psi differential generally.<br />
  49. 49. Pipeline Filling<br />
  50. 50. Pipeline Draining or Vacuum Prevention<br />Determine the allowable negative pressure for the pipeline with a safety factor. Assume 5.0 psi for a max.<br />Calculate the slope of the pipeline in ft/ft.<br />Use following figure to determine the required CFM.<br />Refer to table to select the required air/vac valve diameter.<br />
  51. 51. Pipeline Draining or Vacuum Prevention<br />Table for Determining Air Flow when Draining Pipelines<br />
  52. 52. Pipeline Draining or Vacuum Prevention<br />Table for Sizing Air/Vac Valves when Draining Pipelines<br />
  53. 53. Valve Specifications<br />
  54. 54. Air Release Valves<br />Orifice Size (1/16” to 1”)<br />NPT Inlet size (1/2” to 3”)<br />Maximum Working Pressure (75 psi and up)<br />Minimum Sealing Pressure (softer seats needed when under 25 psi)<br />Valve Materials (Ductile or Cast Iron, St. Stl)<br />Accessories (check valve, back flush, flow regulators, etc.)<br />Service (Wastewater or Clean Water)<br />
  55. 55. Air/Vac Valves<br />Similar to Air Release Valves<br />Inlet/Outlet sizes (1” to 20”)<br />Type of Connections (NPT and Flanged)<br />Maximum Working Pressure (150 to 300 psi)<br />
  56. 56. Combination Air Valves<br />All of the above<br />Body Configuration (Single versus Dual)<br /> Dual Body Single Body<br />
  57. 57. Installation and O&M<br />
  58. 58. Installation<br />Connections<br />Inlet piping and isolation valve should be same size as valve inlet<br />Short Inlet Piping and Vent Lines<br />
  59. 59. Installation<br />Location<br />Need protection from freezing, contamination, flooding, and vandalism<br />Needs access<br />Watch valve clearances<br />
  60. 60. Operation and Maintenance<br />Inspections and Flushing<br />At least annually<br />More often for valves that operate continuously<br />Watch for external leakage<br />
  61. 61. QUESTIONS<br />Dan Barr, PE – dbarr@burnip.com<br />(614) 459-2050<br />

×