Sierra Leone: Debunking Myths, Celebrating Culture and Civilization Farrell McKenna Revina Moore Lovely Pierre Sheveena Ro...
Real  Students,  Real  Answers <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k6XhaeX93RM  </li></ul>
False. “ Sierra Leone is in East Africa.” <ul><li>Sierra Leone is located in  West Africa and is  about half the size of I...
False. “ Sierra Leone is an American colony.” <ul><li>The Bulom people were the earliest inhabitants, followed by the Mend...
True,  but  there’s more! “ Diamonds are the main staple of Sierra Leonean economy.” <ul><li>Sierra Leone depends largely ...
Sierra Leonean Art <ul><li>Like most other countries, art is used as a means of expression </li></ul><ul><li>Most common f...
<ul><li>The carving of a variety of wooden masks are extremely common </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These masks usually contain di...
<ul><li>Other forms of artistic expression include hand woven cloth, short stories, paintings </li></ul><ul><li>Hand woven...
Food as an expression of culture <ul><li>Banana Pancakes  are a traditional Sierra Leonean pancake dessert  </li></ul><ul>...
Religion <ul><li>Mende Religion  </li></ul><ul><li>Mende religion is a blending of ancestral worship with the work of the ...
<ul><li>There are two worlds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spirit world – dreams, faith, aspirations, imagination [also where the...
<ul><li>Spirits & Masks [spirits manifested with masks in women’s ceremonial dances] </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube....
Rites of Passage:  Sande Society <ul><li>The rites of passage among Sande society are exceptionally notable for women.  Th...
Rites of Passage:  Poro Society <ul><li>Poro Society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All males are subject to this rite of passage t...
Weddings across Sierra Leonean societies <ul><li>Humoi </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally, marriages are arranged by the pare...
Conclusion:  Challenge myths from a historical perspective
Works Cited <ul><li>Advameg, Inc. (2009). Mende. Retrieved April 24, 2010, from http://www.everyculture.com/Africa-Middle-...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

ASRC 2300 Sierra Leone

1,059 views

Published on

Group Project:

Joanna S.
Nerissa W.
Sheveena R.
Farrell M.
Lovely P.
Revina M.

Published in: Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,059
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
5
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
15
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Edited by Joanna Survey of Cornell Students on Ho Plaza Question: “What do you know about Sierra Leone?”
  • Pictures (from L to R): Aerial photo of Freetown, Lone Boater in Sierra Leone, Territorial Map
  • Picture: Ethnic group distribution in Sierra Leone
  • Nerissa
  • Nerissa
  • Nerissa
  • Nerissa
  • Revina
  • Sheveena – Sande Society
  • Lovely – Poro Society
  • Lovely Pierre
  • Sheveena
  • ASRC 2300 Sierra Leone

    1. 1. Sierra Leone: Debunking Myths, Celebrating Culture and Civilization Farrell McKenna Revina Moore Lovely Pierre Sheveena Rowe Joanna Smith Nerissa Williams
    2. 2. Real Students, Real Answers <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k6XhaeX93RM </li></ul>
    3. 3. False. “ Sierra Leone is in East Africa.” <ul><li>Sierra Leone is located in West Africa and is about half the size of Illinois. </li></ul><ul><li>The geography is characterized by mangroves , trees/swamps that grow in saline coastal habitats and swamps lie along the coast, with wooded hills and a plateau interior . The Eastern region of Sierra Leone is mountainous . </li></ul>
    4. 4. False. “ Sierra Leone is an American colony.” <ul><li>The Bulom people were the earliest inhabitants, followed by the Mende and Temne. </li></ul><ul><li>The Portuguese were the first to colonize the area, and gave it the name, which means “lion mountains”  </li></ul><ul><li>Sierra Leone became a British colony in 1896. It achieved independence in 1861 and was named a British protectorate afterwards. </li></ul><ul><li>There was a coup to overthrow the civilian government in 1967, but the government became a civilian government a year later. </li></ul><ul><li>Sierra Leone declared itself a constitutional republic on April 19 th , 1971. </li></ul><ul><li>Through this arrangement, the people choose the leader, ensure accountability between the electorate and the government, and have an opportunity to impact governmental decisions. </li></ul>DISTRIBUTION OF ETHNIC GROUPS IN SIERRA LEONE
    5. 5. True, but there’s more! “ Diamonds are the main staple of Sierra Leonean economy.” <ul><li>Sierra Leone depends largely on its rich minerals, diamonds in particular as its economic base. </li></ul><ul><li>Mining slowed in the 70’s and 80’s, due to corrupt government officials and decline in mining sector. </li></ul><ul><li>During the civil war, there was very little mining due to increased corruption and severely damaged governmental infrastructure, which induced power and electricity shortages that impeded successful mining practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Two-thirds of the Sierra Leonean population practices subsistence agriculture, which now accounts for 49% of the national income. </li></ul><ul><li>There is an optimistic outlook for Sierra Leone’s ability to become the leading agricultural producer in the region. </li></ul><ul><li>(Watch until 1:12 mark  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uk3NmUQTuIM ) </li></ul>
    6. 6. Sierra Leonean Art <ul><li>Like most other countries, art is used as a means of expression </li></ul><ul><li>Most common form of this expression is dance: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H2AU1BRr34E </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each of the different communities have their own styles of dance including different costumes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secret societies have ceremonial dances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instruments, musical background (drums) </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>The carving of a variety of wooden masks are extremely common </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These masks usually contain distinct facial expressions that signify dignity and beauty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Mende people in particular are known for smooth black masks that resemble helmets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reps the Sande society which is responsible for initiating girls into womanhood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The corresponding male society, Poro, sometimes make their masks out of leather, fabric and white raffia </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>Other forms of artistic expression include hand woven cloth, short stories, paintings </li></ul><ul><li>Hand woven cloth serves multiple purposes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>such as being worn for garments, being laid as a bedspread, and being traded </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Customary colors, brown, blue, white </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Food as an expression of culture <ul><li>Banana Pancakes are a traditional Sierra Leonean pancake dessert </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Ripe Bananas, mashed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 Cup Rice Flour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Tablespoons Sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 Teaspoon Baking Powder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1/2 Teaspoon Nutmeg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1/2 Teaspoon Salt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 Teaspoon Peanut Oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 Medium Egg, beaten </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ginger Beer is a traditional West African Beverage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 large ginger roots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>juice of 2 limes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>180g sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 cinnamon stick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.2 l water </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Religion <ul><li>Mende Religion  </li></ul><ul><li>Mende religion is a blending of ancestral worship with the work of the secret societies; </li></ul><ul><li>Halemo: those initiated into the secret societies – “of the hale” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-initiates called Kpowa ; literally translated means fool, insane, deranged </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Initiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lasts 7 years starting from right around puberty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiates called mbogdoni </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Male and Female have separate initiations, but with similar rituals; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>both have secret language and passwords only understood by those in the brother or sisterhood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn responsibilities of adulthood and leadership, accept responsibility of new status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>girls learn dancing the masks: central to spirituality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Societies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poro – Male society of initiation, and political advancement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sande – Female society of initiation, childbirth, and preservation of female virtue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Influences all aspects of female life; women does not have identity or personality before Sande initiation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These women exemplify Mende ideals; promote love, justice, and harmony through positive social relationships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remove possible harms to women </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guardian spirit = Sande </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>There are two worlds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spirit world – dreams, faith, aspirations, imagination [also where the spirits live </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical world – flesh, material things </li></ul></ul><ul><li>[In the spirit world there are ancestral spirits and non-ancestral spirits, as well as a supreme being:] Ngewo </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for the creation of the spirits, the universe, and all it contains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Known in ancient times as Leve, [meaning ‘the high up one’ because he has withdrawn from the world and retired to heaven.] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Works through the spirits [he has little direct involvement in human affairs, but works through the spirits] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ancestral Spirits [there are two types] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keneli – “living dead” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ttindyamei funeral rituals [Keneli treated with much care by living; assisted in transition to death where they must cross a river; chicken must be sacrificed at the gravesite; if not performed, or carried out correctly, the deceased would end up a wandering spirit, seeking revenge on the living.  Might visit living in dreams for protection or out of displeasure; family misfortunes – ancestors have been offended, living must reverse wrong done to restore harmony] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ndebla – “remote” ancestors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-Ancestral Spirits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spirits of the natural world: Dyinginga </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ndogbusui : well known nature spirit [dwells on the mountaintop in the day and in the forest at night] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sande : Spirit of the Sande society [emerges from the water] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sowei : The judge of women [appears wearing white – the color of Sande – signifying justice and clear thinking] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ndoli Joweli : Spirit of dance [expert in dance, spirit of celebration] </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>Spirits & Masks [spirits manifested with masks in women’s ceremonial dances] </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MFxOLFy0iv4 </li></ul><ul><li>Masks portray dual existence [of physical and spiritual worlds by representing spirits of secret societies – costumed dances have great spiritual significance] </li></ul><ul><li>Bondu masking tradition [At the end of Sande initiation each girl receives a special helmet mask known as the bondu; appear at occasions such as] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiation rituals, funerals, chiefing ceremonies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only masking tradition in Africa that is exclusive to women [practiced in Sierra Leone and Western Liberia by various ethnic groups] </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Rites of Passage: Sande Society <ul><li>The rites of passage among Sande society are exceptionally notable for women. The initiation process begins when young women reach puberty. </li></ul><ul><li>Girls are taught in community functions, including a hard work ethic, and the importance of living a responsible adulthood. </li></ul><ul><li>Through its initiation process, the Sande seek to instill values of love, justice, harmony, and responsibility. Young women are taught by elders in the ways of the community. </li></ul><ul><li>Dance and masked performances are an essential part of the initiation and rite of passage process. </li></ul><ul><li>This event is known as yaya gbegbi. At this time the ndoli jowei comes into town with a group of Sande women while the initiates stay in the bush recovering from their operations. </li></ul><ul><li>The women come into town to tell men they have initiated people into Sande. </li></ul><ul><li>They go through the town waving leaves and gathering food and other supplies that they need. Ndoli jowei does not dance on this occasion because it is not yet time for celebration. </li></ul><ul><li>She is there only as a reminder of the powerful medicine which has been summoned by the Sande session. </li></ul><ul><li>The next time ndoli jowei appears is at a minor feast called Kpete gbula yombo le or Sowo mba yili gbi. At this occasion, an announcement is made to inform people of the date for the gani celebration; which is the last event of the Sande initiation that ndoli jowei appears at. </li></ul><ul><li>At this time, the new initiates are brought into town for the first time since the initiation process began; accompanied by ndoli jowei. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a happy occasion where dances are performed by both the maskers and the initiates. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Rites of Passage: Poro Society <ul><li>Poro Society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All males are subject to this rite of passage that serves the functions of creating community solidarity and preparing the boys to assume leadership in the community, so that they might attain wisdom, accept responsibility, and gain power. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The initiation period lasts for seven years, during which the young men converse with each other using secret passcodes and language known only to the Poro. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are trained by elders to perform important community functions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Once the boys are initiated into this society they are considered men </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The people conducting the rite of passage force the boys into the ground and cut their backs with a razor while they force their heads into a hole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The resulting scar symbolizes the teeth marks of the Poro spirit that consumes the boy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Having died a symbolic death, the boys then emerge from the bush with a new social status </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Weddings across Sierra Leonean societies <ul><li>Humoi </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally, marriages are arranged by the parents with the permission of the Humoi society </li></ul><ul><li>Humoi society guard kinship rules and enforce rules against incest </li></ul><ul><li>Suitor makes marriage payment called a mboya </li></ul><ul><li>Mende </li></ul><ul><li>The Mende people are polygamous. </li></ul><ul><li>The suitor pays the bride price and once that has been paid he is ready to take possession of her </li></ul><ul><li>It is custom for the girl’s mother to spit on her head. This is a form of blessing. </li></ul><ul><li>Then the bride is taken dancing to her husband’s door </li></ul><ul><li>The wife who comes from a higher status family often becomes the &quot;official wife&quot; all the others, if there are any are &quot;junior wives&quot; or so-called &quot;small wives. </li></ul><ul><li>Mboya </li></ul><ul><li>Bridge payment is often a mixture of fine cloth and money. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Conclusion: Challenge myths from a historical perspective
    17. 17. Works Cited <ul><li>Advameg, Inc. (2009). Mende. Retrieved April 24, 2010, from http://www.everyculture.com/Africa-Middle-East/Mende.html </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;African art.&quot; Encyclopædia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved May 2, 2010. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/757032/African-art </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Banana Pancakes (Sierra Leone).&quot; World Hearth Recipe Collection. Web. Retrieved May 2, 2010. http://recipes.wuzzle.org/index.php/26/80 </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Ginger Beer Recipe.&quot; Celtnet - Resources for the Celticist, Recipes, Medicine and Much More. Web. Retrieved May 2, 2010. http://www.celtnet.org.uk/recipes/miscellaneous/fetch-recipe.php?rid=misc-west-africa-ginger-beer. </li></ul><ul><li>Hampton, Francesca. Sierra Leonean Americans. (2004). Retrieved April 24, 2010. http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Pa-Sp/Sierra-Leonean-Americans.html. </li></ul><ul><li>Hinnells, John, R. (1995) A New Dictionary of Religions. Oxford: Penguin Books Ltd. </li></ul><ul><li>Mazama, Ama. &quot;Mende.&quot; Encyclopedia of African Religion. 2008. SAGE Publications. Retrieved April 24, 2010. http://www.sage-ereference.com/africanreligion/Article_n263.html. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Sierra Leone :: Plant and Animal Life -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia.&quot; Encyclopedia – Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Web. Retrieved May 2, 2010. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/543356/Sierra-Leone/55327/Plant-and-animal-life>. </li></ul><ul><li>University of Iowa, School of Art and Art History. (1998). Mende Information. Art and Life in Africa Online. Retrieved April 24, 2010, from http://www.uiowa.edu/~africart/toc/people/Mende.html </li></ul>

    ×