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SUT2008 in Singapore
     SUT2008 in Singapore

Transit-Oriented New-Town Development
- A Comparative Analysis on the Coor...
Overview

  I.   Introduction

  II. Asian Status and New Town TODs

  III. New Town Projects in Seoul and Tokyo

  IV. Di...
I. Introduction

        1. Background and Purpose
        2. Research Scope
I. Introduction
  1. Background and Purpose

             • “TOD” is one of Sustainable Development and Transport methods
...
I. Introduction

  2. Research Scope
   Case
                  - Similar development purposes
  Studies
                  ...
II. Asian Status and New Town TODs

          1. TOD Definition and Types
          2. Asian Status and Urban Development
...
ll. Asian Status and New Town TODs

1. TOD Definition and Type

                 Coordination b/w Transport & Land Use at ...
ai nr of i l aC           ) yl im af- e lg n i s( no t nom dE /o t n or o T
                         no tg ni h s a W     ...
ll. Asian Status and New Town TODs

1. TOD Definition and Type
   TOD Types
   • Public Transit Modes
   • Public Transit ...
ll. Asian Status and New Town TODs

                                                    2. Asian Status and Urban Developm...
ll. Asian Status and New Town TODs

2. Asian Status and Urban Development
   Density
                                     ...
ll. Asian Status and New Town TODs

3. New Town TODs in Asian mega-cities
   New Town Development(A)
        • Accommodate...
III. New Town Projects in Tokyo and Seoul

        1. Introduction of NTPs in Tokyo and Seoul
        2. Planning Elements...
luoeS dna oykoT ni stcejorP nwoT weN fo sisylanA evitarapmoC .III




1. Introduction of NPT Projects
    Purpose
       S...
luoeS dna oykoT ni stcejorP nwoT weN fo sisylanA evitarapmoC .III




1. Introduction of NPT Projects
    Developing Metho...
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           nw o tw e n g n ad n uB         nw o tw e n n a s I
                                   ...
luoeS dna oykoT ni stcejorP nwoT weN fo sisylanA evitarapmoC .III




2. Planning Elements of New Town TODs
           Den...
luoeS dna oykoT ni stcejorP nwoT weN fo sisylanA evitarapmoC .III




2. Planning Elements of New Town TODs
    Land Use P...
luoeS dna oykoT ni stcejorP nwoT weN fo sisylanA evitarapmoC .III




2. Planning Elements of New Town TODs
    Land Use P...
IV. Different Impacts of NTs on Transport

                 1. Trip Volume and Distribution
                 2. Different ...
IV Different Impacts of NTs on Transport

1. Trip Volume and Distribution
     Trip Volume and Distribution

      Commuti...
-22-
                           %05.04 ,l uo e S                                                                          ...
IV Different Impacts of NTs on Transport

1. Trip Volume and Distribution
                        Commuting Trip Distribut...
-24-
                                  %09.11 , sy awli aR
                                                               ...
IV Different Impacts of NTs on Transport



3. Causes of Different Impacts on Transport
    Land Use Plans in Tokyo NTs
  ...
IV Different Impacts of NTs on Transport



3. Causes of Different Impacts on Transport
    Land Use Plans in Seoul NTs
  ...
IV Different Impacts of NTs on Transport



3. Causes of Different Impacts on Transport
  Road and Rail Transit in Tama Ne...
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                                                                                          amuniiiigaS
           ...
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                                           eniL ganduB yawbuS
                                         ...
. ni m 8 2 e mit l e v a r T
                                                        elciheV
                             ...
V. Conclusion and Policy Implications

                 1. Conclusions
                 2. Policy Implications
V. Conclusion and Policy Implications


1. Conclusions
   Asian Status and New Town Development
    • Centralization to an...
V. Conclusion and Policy Implications



2. Policy Implications for NT Projects
    High Density and Mix of Land Use
    •...
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  1. 1. SUT2008 in Singapore SUT2008 in Singapore Transit-Oriented New-Town Development - A Comparative Analysis on the Coordination of New-Town Development with Public Transit Investment in Tokyo and Seoul - April 2008 Hyun-Gun SUNG (Dr., Associate Research Fellow) Hyeong-Jun IM (MA., Assistant Researcher)
  2. 2. Overview I. Introduction II. Asian Status and New Town TODs III. New Town Projects in Seoul and Tokyo IV. Different Impacts of NTs on Transport V. Conclusion and Policy Implications -2-
  3. 3. I. Introduction 1. Background and Purpose 2. Research Scope
  4. 4. I. Introduction 1. Background and Purpose • “TOD” is one of Sustainable Development and Transport methods • “TOD” is one of Sustainable Development and Transport methods Background • Differences b/w western and Asian developing countries • Differences b/w western and Asian developing countries -- Degree of Density, Diversity and Urbanization Process Degree of Density, Diversity and Urbanization Process • New-Town TOD is necessary in Asian developing mega-cities • New-Town TOD is necessary in Asian developing mega-cities Asian TOD strategy is different from western TOD one Asian TOD strategy is different from western TOD one No experiences for TOD in Asian developing countries No experiences for TOD in Asian developing countries New-Town TOD projects in Asian developed countries New-Town TOD projects in Asian developed countries Purpose -- Seoul and Tokyo mega-cities Seoul and Tokyo mega-cities Comparative analysis of New-Town TODs on the two countries Comparative analysis of New-Town TODs on the two countries -- Coordination b/w land development & public transport Coordination b/w land development & public transport Lessons from the New-Town TODs in the two countries Lessons from the New-Town TODs in the two countries -- Different impacts on transport and their causes Different impacts on transport and their causes
  5. 5. I. Introduction 2. Research Scope Case - Similar development purposes Studies - Coordination b/w development & public transit - Similar location: 20~30 km from the city center Ilsan New Town Ilsan New Town Tokyo Tokyo Tama New Town Tama New Town Seoul City Seoul City Tama Garden City Tama Garden City Bundang New Town Bundang New Town Seoul: Ilsan New Town Tokyo: Tama New Town Seoul: Ilsan New Town Tokyo: Tama New Town Bundang New Town Tama Garden City Bundang New Town Tama Garden City
  6. 6. II. Asian Status and New Town TODs 1. TOD Definition and Types 2. Asian Status and Urban Development 3. New Town TODs in Asian Mega-cities
  7. 7. ll. Asian Status and New Town TODs 1. TOD Definition and Type Coordination b/w Transport & Land Use at the Definition neighborhood and regional levels Planning Transport Elements Impacts Easy Access A Center Non-Automobile Choice Use ↓ High Density Density Distance VKT ↓ Land-use Mix Diversity Trip Chaining ↑ Frequency Pedestrian-friendly Design Transport Network
  8. 8. ai nr of i l aC ) yl im af- e lg n i s( no t nom dE /o t n or o T no tg ni h s a W ) s t n em tr ap a( no t nom dE /o t n or o T Source: Cervero, et al.(2002) ) t e e f( e c n a t s iD 0004 0573 0053 0523 0003 0572 0052 0522 0002 0571 0051 0521 0001 057 005 052 %0 %01 %02Us s s s n n ni n %03 g t t t t r %04 a n n n n s s s si %05 t t t t %06 %07 Source: Cervero(1996) D : Mid/High-rise, Mixed-Use C : Mid/High-rise, Single-Use B : Low-density, Mixed-Use A : Low-density, Single-Use D C B A D C B A D C B A 0 0 0 01 5 02 5 01 03 51 04 01 ( ( 02 ( % % % 05 ) ) ) 52 06 51 03 07 53 08 02 09 04 001 52 54 차용승 통교중대 통교색녹 Green Modes Public Transit Automobile Green Modes Public Transit Automobile Expected Impacts of Modal Split 1. TOD Definition and Type ll. Asian Status and New Town TODs
  9. 9. ll. Asian Status and New Town TODs 1. TOD Definition and Type TOD Types • Public Transit Modes • Public Transit Modes -- Rail Transit-Oriented Development (RTOD) Rail Transit-Oriented Development (RTOD) -- Bus Transit-Oriented Development (BTOD) Bus Transit-Oriented Development (BTOD) • Functions and Locations • Functions and Locations -- Redevelopment TOD Redevelopment TOD -- Urban Infill TOD Urban Infill TOD -- New Town TOD New Town TOD New Town TOD in Asian developing mega-cites • Accommodate rapid increasing population • Accommodate rapid increasing population • Contain rapid urban sprawl in designated places • Contain rapid urban sprawl in designated places
  10. 10. ll. Asian Status and New Town TODs 2. Asian Status and Urban Development Urbanization 90% 80% P r o je c te d % o f U r b a n z ia tio n Pattern 70% Korea 60% China 50% India -- Rapid centralization of pop. to some cities Rapid centralization of pop. to some cities Japan 40% Philphine 30% Vietenam 20% Bangkok MR Seoul MA 25 10 10% n n n n n n n oliiii o 0% o o oliiii 20 8 Tota illll lliillii Total 1970 1980 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 m,,,, m m,,,, m m 15 6 l Year Core- Seoul-area Core City n n n n n Core- Core- o oi o o oiiii o o o t 10 4 t t t t a al a a a aa a area ullll u u u u u u u p Subur p 5 2 o o o o o o o o Subur p P b Decentralization 0 0 b 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 (Sprawl) Pattern Metro Manila Jabotabek 20 25 n n n n n n o oliiii o o 20 ol o ol Total i 15 Total lliillii li l li i i m,,,, m m m m m m 15 M.Cor -- Rapid decentralization w/i mega-cities Rapid decentralization w/i mega-cities , Manila Subur n 10 n n n n o oiiii o o oi e ti i i t t t 10 t t t b alll a a a alll l u u u u 5 Core u p suburb 5 p p p p o o o o o p p p 0 0 1980 1990 2000 1980 1990 2000 Source: STREAM Study (2007) *Study Area of MMUTIS
  11. 11. ll. Asian Status and New Town TODs 2. Asian Status and Urban Development Density 20,000 18 Core city 18,000 16 Suburban e n m) Ratio of Density 16,000 o u tio e sity(P rso s/K 2 A 14 D n R tiob C re&M 14,000 12 e sity a /w o 12,000 10 10,000 P p la nD n 8 8,000 6 6,000 4 4,000 2 2,000 0 0 Saga Sol M Mn T kyo Ja rta HM T ip i N wY rk C ica o B n ko L s A g le Lno o ne s odn o ae hnhi eu ag k CC eo hg . a ila ka Source: STREAM Study (2007) for Asian and Richardson, et. al(2000) for US cities Diversity • Density ↑→ Diversity ↑ → Quality of Life ↑ (Jane Jocobs, 1962; Breheny, 2000) • High mixed use of land in Asian mega-cities (Richardson, et. al, 2000)
  12. 12. ll. Asian Status and New Town TODs 3. New Town TODs in Asian mega-cities New Town Development(A) • Accommodate rapid growth of population centralizing to some cities • Prevent urban sprawl of only-population Transit-Oriented Development(B) • Decrease the use of private cars depending on income increase • Increase the use of non-automobile modes • Improve social equity between low and high-income travelers New Town TOD(A+B) • Designate urban development in desirable areas outside the city center • Preserve agricultural and green areas for future generation • Increase the use public transit and non-motorized modes New Town TODs = Sustainable Urban Transport and Development
  13. 13. III. New Town Projects in Tokyo and Seoul 1. Introduction of NTPs in Tokyo and Seoul 2. Planning Elements of New Town TODs
  14. 14. luoeS dna oykoT ni stcejorP nwoT weN fo sisylanA evitarapmoC .III 1. Introduction of NPT Projects Purpose Soaring housing price Shortage of housing supply Plan Period of Settlement Background established Construction began Tama Garden 1953 1967 ~ 1984 1961 city Tama Newtown 1965 1971 ~ 2005 1971 Soaring housing price Housing supply shortage Bundang 1989 1989~1996 1996 Newtown Ilsan Newtown 1990 1990~1995 1995 Planning period Rapid income increase Population increase in the capital region -14-
  15. 15. luoeS dna oykoT ni stcejorP nwoT weN fo sisylanA evitarapmoC .III 1. Introduction of NPT Projects Developing Methods Public: Bundang and Ilsan, Tama new town Private: Tama Garden City Population Developing method Planned Population (2003) Tama Garden city Land adjustment 347,000 363,000 New Housing Town Tama Newtown Development, 300,000 200,000 Land adjustment Bundang Newtown 390,000 427,000 Residential Site Development Ilsan Newtown 276,000 484,000 Planned Population and Density Population: 276,000~390,000 people -15-
  16. 16. nw o tw e n g n ad n uB nw o tw e n g n ad n uB nw o tw e n n a s I nw o tw e n n a s nw o tw en am aT nw o tw en am aT y t c n edr ag am aT y t c n edr ag am aT nw o tw e n g n ad n uB nw o tw e n n a slllII nw o tw en am aT y tiiic n edr ag am aT -16- r a e y d e sp al E r a e y d e sp al E 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 51 41 31 21 11 01 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 9 7 5 3 1 5 3 1 9 7 5 3 1 9 7 5 3 1 0 0 05 02 P 001P o o o o o o o 04 o p p p . . . . . . . . d d d d d d 051 d d e 06 e n n n n n n n n s s s 002 s si t t t tii y y y y y y y 08 y( ( ( ( ( p p p p 052 p e e e e e e e e r r r r r h h 001 h h h h h h a 003 a ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) 021 053 004 041 Continuing development in surrounding areas Ilsan New Town: No more development after settlement Bundang New Town: Phasing development, High-quality residential area Tama Garden City: Aging period Pop. Decrease Whole development, Affordable Housing Tama New Town: Pop. Increase after settlement 1. Introduction of NPT Projects luoeS dna oykoT ni stcejorP nwoT weN fo sisylanA evitarapmoC .III
  17. 17. luoeS dna oykoT ni stcejorP nwoT weN fo sisylanA evitarapmoC .III 2. Planning Elements of New Town TODs Density Tokyo Seoul New Town Tama New Town Tama Garden City Bundang New Town Ilsan New Town Persons/ha 100 109 198.7 175 Diversity Land Use Commercial/ Park & Green Residential etc Total LUM Index Space Business 785.6ha 77.6ha 432.9ha 929.5ha Tama New 2,225.6ha 0.8423 Town (35.3%) (3.5%) (19.4%) (41.8%) 635.0ha 163.9ha 379.8ha 785.2ha Budang New 1,963.9ha 0.9070 Town (32.4%) (8.4%) (19.3%) (39.9%) 526.1ha 123.3ha 363.0ha 561.1ha Ilsan New Town 1,573.5ha 0.9172 (33.4%) (7.8%) (23.1%) (35.7%) Note : No data for the Tama Garden City 0<LUM<1, 0= equal mix of land use -17-
  18. 18. luoeS dna oykoT ni stcejorP nwoT weN fo sisylanA evitarapmoC .III 2. Planning Elements of New Town TODs Land Use Plan of NTs in Tokyo Tama Garden City Residential area (Low density) Residential area (mid. density) Residential area (High density) Commercial/Business area Station Interchange Railways Roads Tama New Town Residential area Parks, greenery, etc. Central districts Undeveloped districts Land readjustment districts River Roads Railways -18-
  19. 19. luoeS dna oykoT ni stcejorP nwoT weN fo sisylanA evitarapmoC .III 2. Planning Elements of New Town TODs Land Use Plan of NTs in Seoul Budang New Town Ilsan New Town Park, greenery Residential area (Low density) Residential area (mid. density) Residential area (High density) Commercial/Business area -19-
  20. 20. IV. Different Impacts of NTs on Transport 1. Trip Volume and Distribution 2. Different Modal Splits in NTs 3. Causes of Different Impacts
  21. 21. IV Different Impacts of NTs on Transport 1. Trip Volume and Distribution Trip Volume and Distribution Commuting Trips by Destination(2000 Census) Inner Seoul/ Metropolitan etc Total New Town Tokyo area Tama Garden *140,675 **- ***129,531 194,620 464,826 City Tama New Town 75,264 34,142 18,671 13,295 141,372 Bundang 275,995 142,977 49,972 8,425 477,369 New Town Ilsan New Town 185,719 146,856 27,154 2,536 362,265 * : No data ** : Volume of commuting trips to Kanagawa(Tama gareden city excluded) *** : Population commuting to out of Kanagawa(Tokyo included) -21-
  22. 22. -22- %05.04 ,l uo e S %03.03 ,l uo e S %05.01 , a e r a n atilopo rt e M %05.7 , a e r a n atilopo rt e M %08.1 , ct e %07.0 , ct e %08.75 %03.15 , nwotw e n- r e n nI , nwotw e n- r e n nI Ilsan Newtown Bundang Newtown %02.31 , a e r a n atilopo rt e M %02.42 ,o yko T %09.14 , ct e %09.72 %04.9 , ct e , a e r a n atilopo rt e M %02.35 %03.03 , n wotw e n- r e n nI , n wotw e n- r e n nI Tama Newtown Tama Garden City Commuting Trip Distribution by Destination 1. Trip Volume and Distribution IV Different Impacts of NTs on Transport
  23. 23. IV Different Impacts of NTs on Transport 1. Trip Volume and Distribution Commuting Trip Distribution by Time 600000 Trip Volume Patterns 500000 -- Increasing Patterns of Commuting Trips Increasing Patterns of Commuting Trips 400000 1990 Trip Volume 1995 300000 2000 2005 70.0% 200000 60.0% g ni 100000 t u m50.0% m 0 o C 1990 Tama Garden Tama New Bundang New Ilsan New Town r 40.0% e 1995 n City Town Town nI 2000 f New Towns 30.0% o 2005 e g at 20.0% n e Inner Commuting Ratio cr e P10.0% -- Depending degrees of NTs on the central cities Depending degrees of NTs on the central cities 0.0% Tama Garden Tama New Bundang New Ilsan New Town -- Increasing: Tama, Ilsan Increasing: Tama, Ilsan City Town Town New Towns -- Not increasing: Bundang, Tama Garden Not increasing: Bundang, Tama Garden -23-
  24. 24. -24- %09.11 , sy awli aR %04.8 , sy awli aR %06.13 , suB %02.1%el5.yc,ict e , 0c1 B %07.52 , s uB %03.0 ,07cyccB % el .0 , i te %07.11 ,n ai rt s ed e P %07.41 ,n ai rt sed e P %03.0 ,ix aT %05.0 ,ix aT %09.64 , elibomot uA %05.44 , elibomot uA Ilsan Newtown Budang Newtown %02.81 , elibomot uA ,n ai rt s ed e P %05.0 ,ix aT %06.12 , elibomot uA %07.6 ,n ai rt sed e P %09.8 , el cy ciB %09.8 ,elcy ciB %07.32 , s uB %00.0 ,ix aT %08.6 , ct e %07.6 ,cte %01.5 , suB %09.13 , sy awli aR %05.26 , sy awli aR Tama Newtown Tama Garden City Modal Split of Commuting Trips 2. Different Modal Splits in NTs IV Different Impacts of NTs on Transport
  25. 25. IV Different Impacts of NTs on Transport 3. Causes of Different Impacts on Transport Land Use Plans in Tokyo NTs Tama Garden City Residential area (Low density) Residential area (mid. density) Residential area (High density) Commercial/Business area m005 m005 m005 m005 Station m0001 m0001 m0001 m0001 Interchange Railways Roads Tama New Town Residential area Parks, greenery, etc. Central districts Undeveloped districts Land readjustment districts River Roads Railways m005 m0001 -25-
  26. 26. IV Different Impacts of NTs on Transport 3. Causes of Different Impacts on Transport Land Use Plans in Seoul NTs Budang New Town Ilsan New Town m0001 m005 m0001 m005 Park, greenery Residential area (Low density) Residential area (mid. density) Residential area (High density) Commercial/Business area -26-
  27. 27. IV Different Impacts of NTs on Transport 3. Causes of Different Impacts on Transport Road and Rail Transit in Tama New Town Vehicle: 47min. uku n hS ukujjjjniiiihS uku n hS uku n hS yawhg H artneC yawhg H artneC yawhgiiiiH llllartneC yawhg H artneC nes oieK amaT amaT amaT amaT nes arah magaS o eK nes arah magaS o eK nes arahiiiimagaS oiiiieK nes arah magaS o eK retneC retneC retneC retneC Rail: 40min. Cost $3.31 Tama Center | Keio Sagamihara sen 13min. | Chyofu | Keio sen 27 min. | Shinjuku -27-
  28. 28. amun gaS amuniiiigaS amun gaS amun gaS 4. 2 $ t s o C . ni m 7 1 e mit l e v a r T nes shisotoneneT T ne i hs n nene nes shisotot eneT T nes shisotot eneT T nes shisotoneneT T ne i hs t nene ne i hs t nene ne i hs n nene . ni m 1 3 e mit l e v a r T elciheV yawhgih yawhgih yawhgih yawhgih natiloporteM 3 natiloporteM 3 natiloporteM 3 natiloporteM dr3 ayub hS ayub hS ayubiiiihS ayub hS Road and Rail Transit in Tama Garden City 3. Causes of Different Impacts on Transport IV Different Impacts of NTs on Transport
  29. 29. eniL ganduB yawbuS eniL ganduB yawbuS eniL ganduB yawbuS eniL ganduB yawbuS yawhgiH ubgnoeyG yawhgiH ubgnoeyG yawhgiH ubgnoeyG yawhgiH ubgnoeyG daoR gniR luoeS daoR gniR luoeS daoR gniR luoeS daoR gniR luoeS noeyhoeS eniL ganduB-weN yawbuS . ni m 5 1 e mit l e v a r T elciheV elciheV elciheV elciheV 1 1. 1 $ t s o C nuelloeS . ni m 0 3 e mit l e v a r T eniL gnadnuB yawbuS eniL gnadnuB yawbuS eniL gnadnuB yawbuS eniL gnadnuB yawbuS IV Different Impacts of NTs on Transport
  30. 30. . ni m 8 2 e mit l e v a r T elciheV elciheV elciheV elciheV ag3- ongnoJ or-uyaJ or-uyaJ or-uyaJ or-uyaJ noes-iugnoeyG noes-iugnoeyG noes-iugnoeyG noes-iugnoeyG daoR gniR luoeS daoR gniR luoeS daoR gniR luoeS daoR gniR luoeS 3.oN eniL yawbuS 3.oN eniL yawbuS 3.oN eniL yawbuS 3.oN eniL yawbuS 4. 1 $ t s o C poeyuJ poeyuJ poeyuJ . ni m 8 4 e mit l e v a r T 3.oN eniL yawbuS 3.oN eniL yawbuS 3.oN eniL yawbuS 3.oN eniL yawbuS
  31. 31. V. Conclusion and Policy Implications 1. Conclusions 2. Policy Implications
  32. 32. V. Conclusion and Policy Implications 1. Conclusions Asian Status and New Town Development • Centralization to and Decentralization in Asian Mega-cities • Centralization to and Decentralization in Asian Mega-cities • Rapid process of urbanization and centralization of pop. • Rapid process of urbanization and centralization of pop. • Rapid suburbanization of pop. • Rapid suburbanization of pop. • Needs of Transit-Oriented NT projects in Asian Developing Mega-cities • Needs of Transit-Oriented NT projects in Asian Developing Mega-cities -- To induce desirable patterns of centralization and decentralization To induce desirable patterns of centralization and decentralization -- To improve sustainable urban transport system To improve sustainable urban transport system Lessons from NT projects in Korea and Japan Similar Purposes Different Impacts on Transport - Low dependence on automobiles Tokyo - High dependence on rail transit - Housing Prices - Housing Shortages - High self-sufficiency - Self Sufficiency Seoul - High dependence on automobiles - Low dependence on rail transit -32-
  33. 33. V. Conclusion and Policy Implications 2. Policy Implications for NT Projects High Density and Mix of Land Use • Increasing inner-travel within the NTs • Increasing inner-travel within the NTs • High Density and Mix of Land Use → Inner Travel Pattern ↑ • High Density and Mix of Land Use → Inner Travel Pattern ↑ Rail-Oriented Land Use Planning • Land use patterns surrounding rail stations → Accessibility increased • Land use patterns surrounding rail stations → Accessibility increased • Increasing non-motorized trips • Increasing non-motorized trips • Increasing the use of public transit modes • Increasing the use of public transit modes Rail-Oriented Mobility • Improve the competition of public transit for trips with a long travel distance • Improve the competition of public transit for trips with a long travel distance Tama New Tama Bundang Ilsan New Town Garden City New Town Town Car (A) 47 min 31 min 15 min 28 min Rail Transit (B) 40 min 17 min 30 min 48 min Competition 1.18 1.76 0.50 0.58 (A/B)

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