Incommensurability and Semiotic Representation

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How does Correspondence facilitate Represenation for Truth and Consequences?

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Incommensurability and Semiotic Representation

  1. 1. “Out of the mouths of babes; praise is perfected” – Holy Bible Correspondence Principle and Incommensurability Heart/Soul | Mind/Spirit - Metaphysics – A Correspondence Theory of Truth Rhetoric and Communication Design – Correspondence or incommensurability Representation Theory – Truth and Justification - Justice – Coherent or Abhorrent Semiotic Communications Theory – Visualization and Representation Modality and Representation Whilst semiotics is often encountered in the form of textual analysis, it also involves philosophical theorizing on the role of signs in the construction of reality. Semiotics involves studying representations and the processes involved in representational practices and to semioticians, 'reality' always involves representation. Daniel Chandler Axioms of Activity Occurrence Theory Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of signs and symbols, both individually and grouped into sign systems. It includes the study of how meaning is constructed and understood. This discipline is frequently seen as having important anthropological dimensions. However, some semioticians focus on the logical dimensions of the science. They examine areas belonging also to the natural sciences - such as how organisms make predictions about, and adapt to, their semiotic niche in the world (see semiosis). In general, semiotic theories take signs or sign systems as their object of study: the communication of information in living organisms is covered in biosemiotics or zoosemiosis. Inference and Meaning - 'Correspondence' as Axiomatic Semantics The coherence of Objective Truth to Empirical Proof is reflective of a trustworthy observer and the relevance of this “truth” to what philosophy terms discourse. When the Infinite “transfigures” its “totality” what will transpire – this question awaits! Immanuel Kant
  2. 2. Is the truth or falsity of a statement determined only by how it relates to the world, and whether it accurately describes (i.e., corresponds with) that world? Truth cannot be quot;determinedquot; by its correspondence with reality alone - but its representation forms a basis through which truth [as Identity] can be understood. Incommensurable Values First published Mon Jul 23, 2007 --- Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Values, such as liberty and equality, are sometimes said to be incommensurable in the sense that their value cannot be reduced to a common measure. The possibility of value incommensurability is thought to raise deep questions about practical reason and rational choice as well as related questions concerning topics as diverse as akrasia, moral dilemmas, the plausibility of utilitarianism, and the foundations of liberalism. This entry outlines answers in the contemporary literature to these questions, starting with questions about the nature and possibility of value incommensurability. Quantum Computing A ‗square‘ Quantum Analogy Quantum Logic for Photon Detection Incommensurability between values must be distinguished from the kind of incommensurability associated with Paul Feyerabend (1978, 1981, 1993) and Thomas Kuhn (1977, 1983, 1996) in epistemology and the philosophy of science. Feyerabend and Kuhn were concerned with incommensurability between rival theories or paradigms — that is, the inability to express or comprehend one conceptual scheme, such as Aristotelian physics, in terms of another, such as Newtonian physics. In contrast, contemporary inquiry into value incommensurability concerns comparisons among abstract values (such as liberty or equality) or particular bearers of value (such as a certain institution or its effects on liberty or equality). The term ―bearer of value‖ is to be understood broadly. Bearers of value can be objects of potential choice (such as a career) or states of affairs that cannot be chosen (such as a beautiful sunset). Such bearers of value are valuable in virtue of the abstract value or values they instantiate or display (so, for example, an institution might be valuable in virtue of the liberty or equality that it engenders or embodies). In retrospect – History provides the example of the changes that took place when the ‗horseless carriage‘ replaced man‘s noble friend – the horse as a primary means of ‗fast‘ transportation. This same ‗incommensurability‘ exist where nanotechnology will replace conventional thermodynamics.
  3. 3. Ontology#1 -- (the metaphysical study of the nature of being and existence) From Bonjour: - Is the Coherence Theory Adequate for ―Truth‖ Truth is said to consist in the agreement of knowledge with the object. According to this mere verbal definition, then, my knowledge, in order to be true, must agree with the object. Now, I can only compare the object with my knowledge by this means, namely, by taking knowledge of it. My knowledge, then, is to be verified by itself, which is far from being sufficient for truth. For as the object is external to me, and the knowledge is in me, I can only judge whether my knowledge of the object agrees with my knowledge of the object. Such a circle in explanation was called by the ancients Diallelos. And the logicians were accused of this fallacy by the skeptics, who remarked that this account of truth was as if a man before a judicial tribunal should make a statement, and appeal in support of it to a witness whom no one knows, but who defends his own credibility by saying that the man who had called him as a witness is an honorable man.[23] Classical definition of knowledge as: (i) Belief (ii) True (iii) Justified The quot;knowerquot; has quot;apprehensionquot; of being justified. This quot;apprehensionquot; needs be quot;coherentquot; to quot;othersquot;. The purpose of quot;needfulquot; justification must seemingly be itself a conceptual apprehension in that the knower comprehends that others may not necessarily see things this way. Does this ‗represent‘ a quot;coherence theory of justificationquot;! Is such an apprehension of the ‗given‘ as necessarily non-conceptual and non-propositional – hence [Counter-intuitive]? Is this ‗coherence‘ immune from error? What if the quot;apprehensionquot; of what is ‗given‘ is not quot;coherentquot; at all? Is this the discernment of the difference between intuitive and the counter-intuitive. Do Truth and 'Correspondence' in a coherent representation – become discourse. Science – Perception - Reality - empirical truth; without sprit - are deemed abstract. What relevance does the OT requirement for testimony of quot;two or three witnessesquot; have to the ( 3) synoptic gospels? What distinguishes Christianity from all other religions is not its morality - Buddhism promotes moral behavior; not its longevity - Hinduism is older; but its claim that God became man and redeemed the world by his own sacrifice. This is Christianity's strongest attribute, since it can stand the test of history and historical empiricism. We can prove what
  4. 4. others only theorize, meditatively conjure, or feel. It is also Christianity's greatest vulnerability, because if one could disprove Jesus and his resurrection, one would disprove Christianity itself. If Buddha never lived, the moral principles of Buddhism would survive. If Krishna was not a manifestation of God, the philosophical ideas of Hinduism would still be entertained. But if Jesus did not live, die, and rise again immortal in his physical body, then the very basis of Christianity is destroyed. Judicial and Islamic expert Sir Norman Anderson remarked, Christianity is, truly, quot;the witness of historyquot; - it‘s original followers died not for a system of rituals or a list of behaviors, but for the empirically verified and historically preserved fact of the death, burial, and resurrection of Jesus Christ. As the apostle Paul said, quot;if Christ is not raised, our faith is vain and we are of all people most miserablequot; (1 Cor. 15:17). Emmanuel Levinas calls God – ‗the absolute other‘ and in Otherwise than Being he uses the term the ‗otherwise than being‘ (Totality and Infinity. Dickens University Press 2001 pp. 34-35) You shall know the truth and the truth shall set you free! Laws as rules of inference – ‗Justification‘ as Purpose in ―meaning‖ Despite its obvious interest and importance, however, it does not seem to me that the semantic conception of truth helps in any way to solve the problem of truth with which we are presently concerned, viz. the problem of how a true empirical belief or statement is related to the world of which it is true. The key point to be noted is that what appears on the right-hand side of an equivalence of form (T) such as is a consequence of a Tarski-type truth definition is a translation of the sentence whose truth it is intended to explicate; in fact, in the case of a meta-language which contains its object-language as a sub-component, what appears on the right is just the object-language sentence itself. Thus such equivalence seems to tell us only (i) that an object-language sentence is true if and only if its meta- language translation can be correctly asserted, i.e. is true, and (ii) what that translation is, where it may be just the sentence itself. Now (i) seems only to represent a necessary, though clearly not a sufficient, condition of adequacy for a translation; (ii) on the other hand conveys an important relation between the two languages. But it is hard to see that either (i) or (ii) says anything about the nature of truth. Coherence theory of truth is integral to all comprehensive systems A pervasive tenet is the idea that truth is primarily a property of whole systems of propositions and can be ascribed to individual propositions only derivatively according to their coherence with the whole Holistic Systems - Squaring the Jacobean and finding its determinant Holism (from???? holos, a Greek word meaning all, entire, total) is the idea that all the properties of a given system (biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic, etc.) cannot be determined or explained by the sum of its component parts alone. Instead, the system as a whole determines in an important way how the parts behave. The general principle of holism was concisely summarized by Aristotle in the Metaphysics: quot;The whole is more than the sum of its partsquot;. Reductionism is seen as the opposite of holism. Reductionism in science says that a
  5. 5. complex system can be explained by reduction to its fundamental parts. Essentially, chemistry is reducible to physics, biology is reducible to chemistry and physics, and psychology and sociology are reducible to biology, etc. Theories of truth  ·Consensus theory  ·Correspondence theory  ·Deflationary theory  ·Epistemic theories  ·Indefinability theory  ·Pragmatic theory  ·Redundancy theory  ·Semantic theory Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy:  Truth  Coherence theory  Correspondence theory  Deflationary theory  Identity theory  Revision theory  Tarski's definition  Axiomatic theories – Semantic [the Adage] /Wisdom The Ontogeny of Environmental biology - Adaptation and the Tree of Life Ontogeny (also ontogenesis or morphogenesis) describes the origin and the development of an organism from the fertilized egg to its mature form. Ontogeny is studied in developmental biology. Ontogeny [Phylogenic] corresponds commensally with Ontology within the framework of a much more comprehensive metaphysics (providing axiomatic semantics) - it also reconciles 'casualty' with creation through the 'tree of life' concept even where such a concept is rejected [a divine creator]. As with all (visionary concepts) this one meets with the normal 'framework' problem – [incommensurability with lesser theories [lacking dimension] or which do not experience CHANGE. http://www.geosociety.org/pubs/gsatoday/grgsat/0007-2.htm http://www.astrobio.net/articles/images/phylogenic_tree_lg.jpg http://www.nai.arc.nasa.gov/news_stories/news_detail.cfm?ID=94
  6. 6. Phylogenic Tree of Life – Two Dimensional The Tree of Life: Cold Start? A phylogenetic tree of living things based on RNA data and proposed by Carl Woese, showing the Comparing among many different organisms the separation of bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. sequence of a gene that encodes a ribosomal RNA Trees constructed with other genes are generally (rRNA), Woese drew the first comprehensive tree of similar, although they may place some early- life. One surprise in the tree was the appearance of branching groups very differently, thanks to long bacteria that thrive in high temperatures branch attraction. The exact relationships of the three (hyperthermophiles), near or at the root of the tree. The domains are still being debated, as is the position of tree, and supporting research from other fields, led to the root of the tree. It has also been suggested that the speculation that life originated in very hot due to lateral gene transfer, a tree may not be the environments, perhaps in the hydrothermal vent systems best representation of the genetic relationships of all found deep underwater around the globe. Woese's organisms. For instance some genetic evidence original tree, and the resulting speculation that life arose suggests that eukaryotes evolved from the union of in a hot environment have become widely accepted some bacteria and archaea (one becoming the among researchers, and have taken on the status of nucleus and the other the main cell). textbook explanations of the origin of life. The primordial dichotomy in the Physiology of EukaryoteProkaryote (Processing of gene Information) cells is the fundamental principle guiding ethical utilization of bioengineering technologies. Explore the Tree of Life - 2009 Was Darwin Wrong about „The Tree‟? The correspondence principle with its commensality | incommensurability paradigm can be applied to 'ontogeny' where an quot;idea of valuequot; is discerned. This quot;idea of valuequot; must represent ‗integrity‘ as well; holistically. Global Seed Banks meet this requirement. CORRESPONDENCE forms a commensal relation with science so the two may coexist peacefully in a shared mental framework – noetic [eidetic] noesis. Representation Theory utilizes the correspondence principle in this way. The Question of Ontogeny and the Ontological has some interesting ASPECTS The convergence of Philosophy and theology Semantic Ontology‘s provide ‗order‘ for Insight and understanding Correspondence and Ontogeny found commensurable in Semantic Ontology.
  7. 7. Light Propagates at an ‗astronomical‘ distance – Deep Space Objects in ‗Rapid Development‘ Visualization utilizes a powerful lens [Hubble Space Telescope] to view a Millennial Moment. 1987 2004 You can now see the prophecy of Hubble scientist George Sonneborn fulfilled. The Biblical statement in Matthew 6:22 says quot;if your eye be single your body will fill with lightquot;. Let us look at the two pictures together, in the beginning and now. Then think to yourself, why has this happened, for what purpose is this happening? There is another eye of God as you know which the Hour Glass Nebula is. That is the all Seeing Eye. This is the cosmic pineal, this is the cosmic third eye and what happens inside of a persons brain when the pineal lights is what is happening in the cosmos now. Joy to the world – the Lord has come; Hosanna in the Highest
  8. 8. Metaphysics and Epistemology Augustine's Confessions: Issues and Commentaries This text was a breakthrough by which Augustine imposed on philosophy and theology central issues: the self, election as identification, philosophy seen from the point of view of salvation (spiritual exercise), time as history and eschatology, being as creation, biblical text as interpreting the reader, etc. But all those themes have a recent renewed intensity because postmodern thought and mainly phenomenology (Heidegger, Arendt, Derrida, etc.) have pointed out that Augustine, to some extent, might not have been involved in standard metaphysics. The reading is based on the Latin text (Bibliotheque augustinienne, Paris); some knowledge of Latin may be helpful. Translations: either H. Chadwick (Oxford, 1991) or M. Boulding (New York, 1997) Jean-Luc Marion. Spring 2004. Physics imparts the property of ‗super symmetry‘ to the metaphysics; this is why without ethics ‗the metaphysics‘ are erroneous; the concept of a monopole is perfectly harmonious with conception and perception as well – through this learning and insight are accomplished The question of incommensurability to a ‗classical observer‘ is of the utmost importance; Especially when ‗interpreting‘ natural phenomenon such as SN 1987a and this is because Of the ‗metaphysical‘ principles which allow such interpretation to be ‗represented‘. The Micro – Macro debate is never more coherent than when dealing with the ‗microscope‘ of ‗Deep Space‘ – instantiation or instanton; Molecular ring currents induced by magnetic monopoles Transverse resistivity ρxy for the single crystal, thin film and calcium doped thin film (image credit: Z Fang et al. 2003 Science 302 92). These researchers; such as David Akers term it – ―Magnetic-monopole spin resonance‖ Space Systems Division, Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, Sunnyvale, California 94086 Here is the ‗counter intuitive‘ viewpoint concerning ONTOLOGY! http://www.shirky.com/writings/ontology_overrated.html
  9. 9. K-Theory and non-commutative geometry – NON STANDARD STUFF Ultrafilters – Ultraproducts; but unfortunately the ‗corruption of ultra power‘ ON THE FINE STRUCTURE OF SPACETIME ‗This‘ formalism of quantum mechanics ftp://ftp.alainconnes.org/2000.pdf Being discovered as; quot;infinitesimal variablesquot; gives a framework where continuous variables can coexist with infinitesimal ones, at the only price of having more subtle algebraic rules where commutativity no longer holds. The new infinitesimals have an quot;orderquot; (an infinitesimal of order one is a compact operator whose characteristic values mu_n are a big O of 1/n). The novel point is that they have an integral, which in physics terms is given by the coefficient of the logarithmic divergence of the trace. Thus one obtains a new stage for the quot;calculusquot; and it is at the core of noncommutative differential geometry.
  10. 10. Spread-spectrum techniques are methods by which energy generated in a particular bandwidth is deliberately spread in the frequency domain, resulting in a signal with a wider bandwidth. These techniques are used for a variety of reasons, including the establishment of secure communications, increasing resistance to natural The most celebrated invention of interference and jamming, and to prevent detection. frequency hopping was that of actress Hedy Lamarr and composer George Antheil, who in 1942 received U.S. Patent Code division multiple access 2,292,387 for their quot;Secret (CDMA) is a channel access Communications Systemquot;. method utilized by various radio communication technologies. It should not be confused with the mobile phone standards called cdmaOne and CDMA2000 (which are often referred to as simply quot;CDMAquot;), that use CDMA as their underlying channel access methods. THE METAPHYSICS OF REASON - http://diacentro.physics.auth.gr/rtalks/pdfs/nikolaidis01.doc The real problem of BRST supersymmetry - Physics requires Metaphysics Incommensurability is the real issue within this micro-macro dichotomy! The Question of Metaphysical ‗Validity‘ is not confined to scientific research: Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge? Where is the knowledge that we have lost in information?quot; T.S. Eliot, The Rock (1934) pt.1
  11. 11. Dirac quantization condition First, and above all for Dirac, the logic that led to the theory was, although deeply sophisticated, in a sense beautifully simple. Much later, when someone asked him (as many must have done before) quot;How did you find the Dirac equation?quot; he is said to have replied: quot;I found it beautiful.quot; Second, it agreed with precise measurements of the energies of light emitted from atoms, in particularly where these differed from ordinary (non-relativistic) quantum mechanics. Attempts to find monopoles A number of attempts have been made to detect magnetic monopoles. One of the simplest is to use a loop of superconducting wire that can look for even tiny magnetic sources, a so- called quot;superconducting quantum interference detectorquot;, or SQUID. Given the predicted density, loops the size of a soup can would expect to see about one monopole event per year. Although there have been tantalizing events recorded, in particular the event recorded by Blas Cabrera on the night of February 14, 1982 (thus, sometimes referred to as the quot;Valentine's Day Monopolequot;), there has never been reproducible evidence for the existence of magnetic monopoles. The lack of such events places a limit on the number of 29 monopoles of about 1 monopole per 10 nucleons. The predicted magnitude and generalized rarity of ‗magnetic monopoles‘ speaks of things Which may ‗approach‘ the Infinite and are present in things which are ‗very peculiar‘? THE HOUR GLASS NEBULA and the Cosmic Ontogeny of Astronomic Observation You can see the same pattern in the Hour Glass Nebula of the intersecting circles which we also found in Supernova 1987a. We can see a close up of the all Seeing Eye in the hourglass nebula. So here we observe the all seeing eye of God. And we now have the third eye of God on fire. The single eye that Jesus referred to in Matthew 6:22. And something spectacular is happening just as was the prophecy from NASA Hubble Scientist George Sonneborn. Let us go to the NASA announcement of developments in Supernova 1987a It is written – ―and man was made in God‘s Image‖ - AS IT IS ABOVE SO IT IS BELOW As we have shown most recently, the human brain and the cosmic brain are the same. As you can see here the web configuration in the human cerebral cortex is the same as the web configuration in the universe.
  12. 12. THE UNIVERSE HUMAN CEREBRAL CORTEX In the same way that the universal brain and the human brain are the same, the universal pineal body (single eye) and the human pineal body (single eye) are the same. quot;Scientific Realism or Irenic Instrumentalism?quot;- Metaphysics for Rational Folks! Quodlibet Online Journal Preface to Totality and Infinity © Val Petridis; Assisted by: Tom Fatsis Throughout his works Emmanuel Levinas has used various terminologies to refer to God. In every case God is described as infinite unknowable, unsayable and unsignifyable. In the ―Trace of the Face― Levinas refers to God as the Unknown and absolute other. I will show that these concepts are completely compatible with one another and are based on the same premises. Furthermore, it will be argued that term God is a phrase or ideatum that refers to that which cannot be known, signified, or contained in any expression of language. Levinas‘ God will be shown to everything that can never be known or said. This God is not the personal deity depicted in typical religiosity, Levinas‘ God is not a divinity that interacts with the human world, rather this God is that which lies beyond the limits of what humans can ever experience or know. It will be shown that the term God as found in Levinas work can be easily substituted by any other term that refers to that which is beyond everything contained within that which can be known. Thus, I will prove that Levinas use of the terms infinite, the unknown, the absolute other and the otherwise than being to refer to the same non-religious God or the something that is absolutely beyond being. The term God refers to that which a secular term like infinity could as easily be used to referred to without losing any of its intended connotations lost in the substitution of one term for the other.. In fact, I will show that the term God is more problematic than its secular counterparts as it contains religious presuppositions that are not contained in Levinas formulation of that which lies beyond being. In this sense, Levinas‘ terms for God secularize divinity and relegate God to a concept acceptable even to atheists. This is not the God of religion rather a term used as an ideatum of that which is always beyond what humans will ever know. This God who will never fulfill any of the characteristics usually attributed to God and even if God did, no one would ever know it.
  13. 13. Reading the Kristevan Semiotic and Symbolic: Nina Sadur's quot;Kol'tsaquot; and Marina Kulakova's quot;Reka po imeni Masterquot; Canadian Slavonic Papers, Sep-Dec 2003 by Sutcliffe, Benjamin M ABSTRACT: The contemporary author and playwright Nina Sadur's short story quot;Kol'tsaquot; reflects how Julia Kristeva's dichotomous concepts semiotic and symbolic work with objects and dreams influencing the lives of two teenage girls. The semiotic is chaotic and resists organization, while Kristeva links the symbolic to the rational world. quot;Kol'tsaquot; shows that ultimately coherent meaning is doomed. Marina Kulakova's prose poem quot;Reka po imeni Masterquot; depicts a teacher, initially paired with the symbolic, who is ultimately subsumed by the semiotic silence and shifting seasons of the remote village where she works. Kulakova, primarily a poet, has been published in Russia but remains unknown in the West. U istiny svobodnye odezhdy. The truth wears loose-fitting clothes. Marina Kulakova Julia Kristeva's opposed terms; semiotic and symbolic - suggest different modes of signification in two works by contemporary Russian authors: Nina Sadur's short story quot;Kol'tsaquot; and Marina Kulakova's prose poem quot;Reka po imeni Master.quot; A Kristevan analysis allows us to make several crucial distinctions concerning varying ways of perceiving the world and how these operate within works devoted to depicting ambiguity. Kristeva's Revolution in Poetic Language describes the semiotic and symbolic as two modalities of what is, for us, the same signifying process. We shall call the first the semiotic and the second the symbolic. These two modalities are inseparable within the signifying process that constitutes language, and the dialectic between them determines the type of discourse (narrative, metalanguage, theory, poetry, etc.) involved [...]. Because the subject is always both semiotic and symbolic, no signifying system he produces can be either 'exclusively' semiotic or 'exclusively' symbolic, and is necessarily marked by indebtedness to both. Definitions of Ontogeny should include:  Metamorphosis and Cytology – dynamic Ontogeny  Complex Adaptive Systems – Systems Ecology  Information Behavior and Biological Adaptation [Eugenesis]  Facilitation of Genetic Integrity - Eukaryotic | Prokaryotic  The Dynamic Ecology of Successional Communities  Potential Theory and its ―dynamic‖ functionality  Ethics of the Common Good – Protection Paradigms The primordial dichotomy in the Physiology of Eukaryote Prokaryote (Processing of gene Information) cells is the fundamental principle which must guide the ethical utilization of bioengineering technologies.
  14. 14. Phylogenic – Morphological Structures; Systemic Functions and Cellular ‗organs‘ • Action Potential • Chemical Synapse • Cochlear Structures • Endocytosis and Exocytose • Eukaryote Prokaryote (Processing of gene Information) • Gastric Secretion • Lysosome • Neuromuscular Junction • Oxygen Carbon Dioxide • Sarcomere • Signal Amplification • Thyroid Hormone Explore the Tree of Life The source of this ‗Tree of Life‘ concept is of course the Book known as the BIBLE. It is ‗referenced in the first book – GENESIS || as ‗the way of the tree of life‘ growing in The ‗Garden of Eden‘ and this ‗way‘ is guarded by ‗spirit beings‖ [Angels]. This ‗new representation‘ is based upon thermodynamic considerations and is a step towards reconciliation of Science with Faith. Representation of ―the tree of life‖ is of course about commensality but theories can be incommensurable in Correspondence with ‗historic record‘ National Institute of Biomedical Imaging Bioengineering (NIBIB) International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance Nanotechnology Biotechnology Information Technology - Cognitive Science
  15. 15. http://www.skepticfiles.org/science/931129ts.htm Until Roberts and Sharp announced their finding, at the same meeting in June 1977 held at Cold Spring Harbor, it was thought that the genetic information embedded in DNA was continuous. This understanding arose in large part from work on prokaryote systems, such as E. coli. But in eukaryotes, the genetic information is, in the vast majority, interrupted by nucleotide regions that do not code for proteins. These are called intervening sequences or introns. The domains that carry protein coding amino acids are known as exons, because their information is expressed. In these structures, the genetic information is split into pieces, hence the name quot;split genes.quot; http://www.nsf.gov/crssprgm/nano/reports/program_converging_tech_sch050127.pdf Misogyny - Issues in bioethics which relate to this dichotomy are:  cloning,  Frozen embryos – can these be used for ‗embryonic stem cell‘ Research?  debate over GMOs  xenotransplantation  privacy issues in genetic testing Research and Development – Bioengineering | Nanotechnology  Converging new technologies in industry and medicine  Brain, mind and behavior  Human-machine interface  Reshaping organizations and business  Enhancement of cell functions  Legal and ethical issues  Computer interfaces with nano-bio-cognitive  International research activities components - Government programs http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-114924599.html This article is a brief introduction to the extraordinarily complex phenomenon of life and to its molecular basis. We begin with the amazing diversity of life forms and the equally amazing unity in the molecules underlying life's processes. The challenge of accounting for both the variety and the commonalities among organisms is met by evolutionary theory; despite controversies, all scientific approaches to understanding life build on a shared core that can briefly be stated. One of the great insights of the last generation of biologists was
  16. 16. the chemical instantiation of these evolutionary theories, whose discovery has driven biology toward the study of the structure and function of biological molecules. After an introduction to some of these key molecules and to the central dogma of molecular biology, we can begin to see the outlines of how such molecules can accomplish the tasks required of simple and then more complex life forms. The introduction concludes with a brief account of some of the new instruments and model systems that are now so rapidly advancing scientific understanding of life. We deem necessary to: 1- Promote an active policy towards the protection of intellectual property rights (IP) for many of the key issues. IP agreements between Funding Agencies must contemplate the claims of other institutions (i.e.: universities or firms where research is carried out) 2- Promote international establishment of standards for products derived from NT. Many physical or chemical properties may already be measured for regular materials or components but NT contribution may increase significantly some limit values for new materials (viscosity, chemical stability, among many others) 3- Promote the remote use of instruments to break the gap between research laboratories and even to allow the access of the manufacturing sector to NT. 4- Establish local committees to study potential risks in practices. Investigate risks and hazards and write rules or exchange best practices to overcome them (as done previously with genetic constructions or dangerous chemicals). Would general regulations and standards like those of FDA or EPA be applicable? 5- Include safety and ethical issues as a separate chapter in research meetings. Once risks are clearly identified, the compliance with protocols, safety rules and ethics should be an issue for 1) project proposals at financing agencies and academic and business laboratories 2) release of products to the market 3) appropriate disposal mechanisms. Many countries have established national committees to evaluate these practices for the introduction and handling of Genetic Modified Organisms, among others. Bioengineering and Bioethics – Ontogeny and Metaphysics http://www.non-gmoreport.com/ Bioethics and Biologic Integrity – ALL ORGANIC MOVEMENT – FOOD LABELING A genetically modified organism (GMO) is an organism whose genetic material has been altered using techniques in genetics generally known as recombinant DNA technology. Recombinant DNA technology is the ability to combine DNA molecules from different sources into the one molecule in a test tube. Thus, the abilities or the phenotype of the organism, or the proteins it produces, can be altered through the modification of its genes. [Controversy - Genetically modified food and Transgenic plants [such as grown in Paraguay] Transnational Corporations and their EU [European Union] trade sanctions have created a global marketplace bureaucracy. Making GMO‘s in the case of GMF and transgenic plants very dangerous indeed due to constraints on sanctioning ‗competitive advantages‘. Also many of the TNC‘s which are accused of promoting transgenic plants and consequently GMFs; coincidentally they are also the sponsors of the World Trade Organization; Bilderberg Meetings and the ‗euphamous‘ Tri-lateral Commission (Club of Rome).
  17. 17. Ontogeny is defined traditionally in its relationship to Phylogeny; as the ―origin‖ and ―development‖ of cellular structure and function, to biological molecules, bioenergetics, to the genetics of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, and to the elements of molecular biology. Ontogeny (also ontogenesis or morphogenesis) describes the origin and the development of an organism from the fertilized egg to its mature form. Ontogeny is studied in developmental biology. The idea that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny, that is, that the development of an organism exactly mirrors the evolutionary development of the species, is discredited today. However the phenomenon of recapitulation, in which a developing organism will for a time show a similar trait or attribute to that of an ancestral species, only to have it disappear at a later stage is well documented. For example, embryos of the baleen whale still develop teeth at certain embryonic stages, only to later disappear. A more general example is the emergence of what could develop into pharyngeal gill pouches if it were in a lower vertebrate in almost all mammalian embryos at early stages of development. (April, 2001). Excerpt [amongst many others – courtesy of Wikipedia] Morphogenesis and Cytology provide the ontogeny necessary to ―appreciate‖ the living world which has well sustained ―the habitants‖. Succession works within dynamic ecosystems providing a sound basis to explain the diversity of life in its global ―Biomes‖ [Ecosystems]. Mother Nature is a ―fitting‖ and ―appropriate‖ ontology which is universally accepted. Mankind has ―just begun‖ to understand the principles which sustain ―living systems‖; Space Exploration is one indicator of this. Only a few years ago very few references to Ontogeny – it has greatly increased its ―semantics of concern‖ in recent years. The Ontogeny of Environmental biology || Adaptation and the Tree of Life Zoonosis - Reference > Zoonosis Updates Zoonosis (pronounced zoo-e-no-sis) is any infectious disease that may be transmitted from other animals, both wild and domestic, to humans or from humans to animals. The word is derived from the Greek words zoon (animal) (pronounced as zoo-on) and nosos (disease). Many serious diseases fall under this category. The plural of zoonosis is zoonoses, from which an alternative singular zoonose is derived by back-formation. The simplest definition of a zoonosis is a disease that can be transmitted from other animals to humans. A slightly more technical definition is a disease that normally exists in other animals, but also infects humans. The emerging interdisciplinary field of conservation medicine, which integrates human and veterinary medicine, and environmental sciences, is largely concerned with zoonosis. Systems and Cybernetic Convergence
  18. 18. Correspondence or incommensurability – Human/Computer  Conceptual Role Semantics and Cognitive Design Patterns  Complex Adaptive Systems || Systems Ecology Representation  Ecosystem Ecology  System Definition Model _ Dynamic Systems Initiative  Generative Metamodel - Model Integrated Computing  Solves Axiomatic Semantics Problem - of Declarative/Imperative  Atlantic Zoo - Meta-Modeling | Meta-languages  Generative Modeling Tools (GMT) project  set of prototypes - Model Driven Engineering (MDE)  Semantic Web || Information Behavior Entity Relationship Model - relevant relation [Occam‟s Principle] Relevance in correspondence with another Correspondence - in response to - in conjunction with - in spite of Conformity Congruence Agreement Accordance Copying Picturing Signification Representation Reference Satisfaction - Correspondence with a relevant portion of reality Question of Reality - quot;classical observerquot; Facts - States of affairs –Situations - Events Objects and their Aspect Orientation Sequences of objects – Dimensional Aspects Sets Properties Tropes - entropic constraints; environments; relationship hierarchy 8. The Correspondence Theory and Its Competitors Against the traditional competitors—coherent-ist, pragmatist, and verificationist and other epistemic theories of truth—correspondence theorists raise two main sorts of objections. First, such accounts tend to lead into relativism. Take, e.g., a coherent-ist account of truth; since it is possible that ‗p‘ coheres with the belief system of S while ‗not-p‘ coheres with the belief system of S*, the coherent-ist account seems to imply, absurdly, that contradictories, ‗p‘ and ‗not-p‘, could both be true. To avoid embracing contradictions, coherent-ists often
  19. 19. commit themselves (if only covertly) to the objectionable relativistic view that ‗p‘ is true-for- S and ‗not-p‘ is true-for-S*. Second, the competing accounts tend to lead into some form of idealism or anti-realism. E.g., it is possible for the belief that p to cohere with someone's belief system even though it is not a fact that p; also, it is possible for it to be a fact that p even if no one believes that p, or if the belief that p does not cohere with anyone's belief system. Cases of this form are frequently cited as counterexamples to coherent-ist accounts of truth. Coherent-ists tend to reject such counterexamples by insisting that they are not possible after all—a reaction that commits them to the anti-realist view that the facts are (largely) determined by what we believe. B. according to the identity theory of truth, true propositions do not correspond to facts, they are (identical with) facts: the true proposition that snow is white = the fact that snow is white. This non-traditional competitor of the correspondence theory threatens to collapse the correspondence relation into identity. In response, a correspondence theorist might point out: First, the identity theory is defensible only for propositions as truth bearers, and only if propositions are construed in a certain way, namely as having objects and properties as constituents rather than ideas or concepts of objects and properties. Hence, even if the identity theory of truth were accepted for propositions (so construed), there would still be ample room (and need) for correspondence accounts of truth with respect to other types of truth bearers. Second, the identity theory rests on the assumption that that-clauses always denote propositions, so that the ‗that-clause‘ in ―the fact that snow is white‖ denotes the proposition that snow is white. The assumption can be questioned. ‗That-clauses‘ can be understood as ambiguous names, sometimes denoting propositions and sometimes denoting facts. The descriptive phrases ―the proposition…‖ and ―the fact…‖ can be regarded as serving to disambiguate the succeeding ambiguous ‗that-clauses‘. Content - Didactic Pedagogy is essential to the comprehension of ‘Classical Philosophy’. This advocacy defines ‘arts’ as well as ‘letters’; a discourse of creative – if purposeful; communication. The ‘aesthetics’ of walking and talking are part of its ‘charm’. http://www.elea.org/Parmenides/ Parmenides wrote his didactic poem ‘On Nature’ and the 'speculation' began - the concept of metaphysics is often traced to this writing. Ontology is the being; Greek Scholars of the present day - 2007 | 5768 places it's etymology in the 'garden of Eden' - where Adam walked with the Lord and 'named' all of the creatures there; pleasing 'his father'. This naming hence is ontology - the being which is immovable. Parmenides did not have access to the book of Genesis so it may be surmised that On Nature is about Mother Earth as so many endemic people believe and practice. In metaphysics ontology is the study of Nature – Physos (Greek) - it is directly related to 'consciousness' as BEING; from the perspective of a ‘classical observer’ (who in fact is everyone and no one in particular). Ontologies are Ontology - this is the sense of it.
  20. 20. Noesis is a state of knowing – comprehensive understanding of an ontologic presence; being. It is not ‘knowledge’ as such; for it is written – ‘The fear of the God is the beginning of knowledge, the fear of the Lord is the beginning of Wisdom.’ The Parmenidean Paths of Inquiry - http://www.elea.org/Parmenides/Parm-comment.htm An Interpretation The following is my interpretation of the philosophy of Parmenides of Elea, the Greek father of metaphysics. His only work, On Nature, is written in rather obscure verse, and so his thesis can be viewed from a variety of perspectives, of which mine is only one (although a fairly standard one). Parmenides' most important principle, hereafter called quot;Parmenides' Principlequot;, was that anything rationally conceivable must exist. Nonbeing is not a thing and can neither be thought of nor spoken about in any meaningful or coherent way. Parmenides forbade talking as if there are possible things that nonetheless do not exist. He illustrated this principle by showing us three possible methods of inquiry, of which only one is valid. The following chart summarizes them. Parmenides' Principle from Allan F. Randall Consistent, 1. The Way of Objective Truth: Necessarily, all possibilities exist. Coherent Consistent, 2. The Unthinkable Way:: Necessarily, no possibilities exist. Incoherent Inconsistent, 3. The Way of Subjective Belief: Some possibilities exist, some do not. Incoherent Bioethics however must encompass a much greater metaphysics; and that is one which includes understanding of Systems (Complex and Adaptative); and their discrete principles – especially Living Systems and their Ontogeny. Seekers of truth; for this is the ‘LOVE’ of wisdom – indeed the continuing history of philosophy itself is one of the ‘subjects’ of discourse; the ethics of COMMON GOOD its objective; Virtue is it’s reward. It is well taken that in ‘allegory’ Parmenides has provide NATURE for this purpose. Natures Ontogeny has developed teleological systems for commensality and biodynamic pathways of procreation. The conclusion of ON NATURE provides insight into this ‘impasse’ – An Ontogeny for Ontology: 19quot;Thus, according to belief, these things were born and now are, and hereafter, having grown from this, they will come to an end. And for each of these did humans establish a distinctive name. 20One and unchanging is that for which as a whole the name is: 'to be'.quot;
  21. 21. Logic is bound by human cognition in terms of this insight (as intuition) – this subjective/objective dichotomy if you will; and can shine the light of understanding upon the counterintuitive and non-binding logic of chaos; and its ‘reprobate’ ideologies. Mankind’s responsibility for ‘things which were born and that now are’ is not diminished through the providence of science. Greek Philosophy produced ‘Ethics’ – Hebrew Theology Commandments and a Covenant with God. Nichomachean Ethics (sometimes spelled 'Nichomachean'), or Ta Ethika, is a work by Aristotle on virtue and moral character which plays a prominent role in defining Aristotelian ethics. It consists of ten books based on notes from his lectures at the Lyceum and were either edited by or dedicated to Aristotle's son, Nicomachus. Nichomachean Ethics focuses on the importance of habitually behaving virtuously and developing a virtuous character. Aristotle emphasized the importance of context to ethical behavior and the ability of the virtuous person to recognize the best course of action. Aristotle argued that eudaimonia is the goal of life, and that a person's pursuit of eudaimonia, rightly conceived, will result in virtuous conduct. Eudaimonia (Greek: εὐδαιμονία) is a classical Greek word commonly translated as 'happiness'. Etymologically, it consists of the word quot;euquot; (quot;goodquot; or quot;well beingquot;) and quot;daimōnquot; (quot;spiritquot; or quot;minor deityquot;, used by extension to mean one's lot or fortune). Although popular usage of the term happiness refers to a state of mind, related to joy or pleasure, eudaimonia rarely has such connotations, and the less subjective quot;human flourishingquot; is often preferred as a translation. The Perseus Project is a digital library project of Tufts University that assembles digital collections of humanities resources. It is hosted by the Department of Classics. It suffers, unfortunately, from very frequent computer hardware problems, and as such its resources [1] are often unavailable. The project is mirrored in Berlin and Chicago.[2] The Ethics; Treatise on the Emendation of the Intellect; Selected Letters - by Benedictus de Spinoza (Author) quot;If Socrates' execution was the key event in Plato's life that shaped his subsequent career in philosophy, Spinoza's excommunication from the Jewish community of Amsterdam...quot; (more) Key Phrases: equally great emotion, absolutely infinite entity, fictitious idea, Corollary Hence, Proof All
  22. 22. Jonathan Barnes’s Aristotle (2000) provides an excellent and brief introduction to Aristotelian philosophy. In terms of impact on the Ethics, perhaps Aristotle’s most significant concept is that of the teleology of nature. According to Aristotle, nature works toward a telos, or end goal. His biological work aims constantly at the question of what purpose different aspects of plants and animals serve. He classifies humans as “rational animals,” meaning that our telos is rational. In other words, our function in life is to realize our full potential as rational beings. If we are not fully rational, we are falling short of our true nature. This teleological view gives Aristotle’s Ethics a clear sense of direction. Our goal in life is to achieve our true nature, and this true nature consists essentially of rationality. The purpose of a moral education, then, is to teach us how we may become perfectly rational and immune to the temptations of our lower animalistic parts. Ethics is just one of a number of fields that Aristotle classifies as “practical science.” Unlike the natural sciences, which examine the world around us, these sciences deal with the practical aspects of human society and how best to arrange this society. The practical sciences are all closely connected, and Aristotle frequently expounds on the connection between the good life for the individual and the kind of state that could make this good life possible. Hence, Aristotle’s Politics is an important companion and sequel to his Ethics. While the Nicomachean Ethics is Aristotle’s most popular work on ethics, there is a second work called the Eudemian Ethics, which is far less widely read. Most scholars agree that the Eudemian Ethics was written earlier in Aristotle’s career and represents a less mature view. Books V, VI, and VII of the Nicomachean Ethics are also found in the Eudemian Ethics. Aristotle – Louvre Queen Ester – Jews for Jesus w3c Standards
  23. 23. A Solution to Plato's Problem: The Latent Semantic Analysis Theory of Acquisition, Induction and Representation of Knowledge Abstract -8 How do people know as much as they do with as little information as they get? The problem takes many forms; learning vocabulary from text is an especially dramatic and convenient case for research. A new general theory of acquired similarity and knowledge representation, Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), is presented and used to successfully simulate such learning and several other psycholinguistic phenomena. By inducing global knowledge indirectly from local co-occurrence data in a large body of representative text, LSA acquired knowledge about the full vocabulary of English at a comparable rate for school-children. LSA uses no prior linguistic or perceptual similarity knowledge; it is based solely on a general mathematical learning method that achieves powerful inductive effects by extracting the right number of dimensions (e.g., 300) to represent objects and contexts. Relations to other theories, phenomena, and problems are sketched. The Latent Semantic Analysis Model The model we have used for simulation is a purely mathematical analysis technique. However, we want to interpret the model in a broader and more psychological manner. In doing so, we hope to show that the fundamental features of the theory that we will later describe are plausible, to reduce the otherwise magical appearance of its performance, and to suggest a variety of relations to psychological phenomena other than the ones to which we have as yet applied it. We will explicate all of this in a somewhat spiral fashion. First, we will try to explain the underlying inductive mechanism of dimensionality matching upon which the model's power hinges. We will then sketch how the model's mathematical machinery operates and how it has been applied to data and prediction. Next, we will offer a psychological process interpretation of the model that shows how it maps onto but goes beyond familiar theoretical ideas, empirical principles, findings and conjectures. We will then, finally, return to a more detailed and rigorous presentation of the model and its applications. An Informal Explanation of the Inductive Value of Dimensionality Matching
  24. 24. Truth, Coherence and Correspondence in the Metaphysics of F.H. Bradley Absolute Idealism and Analytic Philosophy – The Incommensurability Paradigm Quantum Phenomenology – KTheory is a product of this transitional discourse Starting with the Descartes' cogito, quot;I think, therefore I amquot;--and taking an uncompromisingly rational, rigorously phenomenological approach--I attempt to derive the basic principles of recursion theory (the backbone of all mathematics and logic), and from that the principles of feedback control theory (the backbone of all biology), leading to the basic ideas of quantum mechanics (the backbone of all physics). What is derived is not the full quantum theory, but a basic framework--derived from a priori principles along with common everyday experience--of how the universe of everyday experience should work if it operates according to rational principles. We find, to our surprise, that the resulting system has all the most puzzling features of quantum physics that make physicists scratch their heads. Far from being quot;bizarrequot; and quot;weirdquot;, as is usually thought, the strangest paradoxes of quantum theory turn out to be just what one ought to expect of a rational universe. It is the classical, pre-quantum universe of the nineteenth century that has irrational, mystical components. The quantum-mechanics-like theory that is developed is, furthermore, most compatible with the strictest, most uncompromisingly rationalist of the standard interpretations of quantum mechanics, those which add no ad hoc elements to the theory, and which generally trace their history to the relative state formulation of Everett (also called the quot;many worldsquot; interpretation). These interpretations take the universe to be quite literally describable as a quantum wave function. As with any project this far-reaching in scope, I confess I have had to make some working assumptions along the way. I have attempted to isolate these, and clearly label them as points of possible future revision--they are marked in the text with an asterisk (*). A critique of Allan Randall’s poignant insights: Paradox gives rise to enigma – the enigma of existence itself; in that it is ‘integral’ – meaning; that entropy cannot ‘be broken’. Pedagogy purports Logic and Recursion Theory as a basis for ‘Metaphysics’ – yet Eidetic Intuition provides for a greater comprehension of what is seen and observed without contradicting either logic or recursion. So-called Mathematical Control Theory provides for rigorous computation of stochastic processes; yet the stochastic is seen as infinitely reducible [Bose – Einstein] – modern computer science utilizes recursion: and provides ‘proof’ that recursion is a ‘metaphysical’ paradigm. No matter what aspect or perspective one appreciates – this ‘fundamental harmony’ is essential to appreciating classical and modern philosophy as well; commensurable with man’s stewardship.
  25. 25. Implicit Ambiguity Resolution – inter-subjectivity; the soul of reciprocity - regime of representation that has prevailed in philosophy since Descartes; correction of semantic drift - semiotic representation affecting or effecting || self affecting reflexivity symbolism denotes intending objects through signs question of the reflexivity of awareness || counter-intuitive defining consciousness as 'auto-affection' becoming autocracy counter-intuitive root of reflexivity || essence of Cartesians Intractability and Conflict Resolution Toward Better Concepts of Peace – what is the purpose of discourse anyway? IN SOME THEORETICAL MODELS, researchers think that distinct sets of cognitive processes interpret a sentence at each posited level of representation, and they claim that distinct mental representations result from those computations. That approach predicts that the qualitatively different processing principles for syntax and semantics arise from the existence of qualitatively different neural processing (Chomsky, 1986; Clifton, Speer, & Abney, 1991; Ferreira & Clifton, 1986; Frazier, 1987; Marslen-Wilson & Tyler, 1987; Rayner, Garrod, & Perfetti, 1992). In contrast, other models have proposed that a semantic representation is assembled directly, without an intermediate syntactic representation (McClelland, St. John, & Taraban, 1989; Mitchell & Holmes, 1985). In that perspective, syntactic information is integrated with lexical or semantic and pragmatic information in a continuous process of mapping on to a meaningful representation of the whole sentence (Altman, Garnham, & Dennis, 1992; MacDonald, Pearlmutter, & Seidenberg, 1994; Spivey-Knowlton & Tanenhaus, 1994; Taraban & McClelland, 1990). Hypotheses Despite the different variables taken into consideration (Kotz, Holcomb, & Kounios, 1992), the observations allow us to hypothesize that, at least under certain experimental conditions, the N400 and the P600 are elicited as functions of the representational level of the anomaly, both semantic and syntactic (Osterhout & Holcomb, 1995). From our perspective, the identification of different wave variations should invite us to consider the existence of distinct components that intervene in sentence decoding. They are fairly diversified phenomena, nevertheless co- occurring in the process of sentence comprehension (Osterhout, McLaughlin, & Bersick, 1997). Moreover, in the present research, we analyzed a specific sentence-level context, and we cannot apply our results to other cognitive processes, such as word level. The principal paradigms of analysis point out the difference between word-level processes, which include the recognition of isolated words (words in single-word context), and sentence-level processes, which include the recognition of words in sentence context and the computation of syntactic structure (Balconi, 2001a; Osterhout & Holcomb). The
  26. 26. choice of sentence level is motivated by the need to compare more rigorously syntactic and semantic information processing and to explore the dichotomy between structural and semantic representations of words in sentence context. (Ainsworth-Darnell et al., 1998; Osterhout & Nicol, 1999; Van Petten, 1993) One of the basic concerns of classical mathematical logic has been a rigorous definition of “mathematical proofquot;. A proof may be discovered by luck, genius or accident. But once discovered it is mechanically checkable. Thus the most general type of mechanically checkable procedure provides a definition of the most general kind of proof. An investigation of “mechanical checkabilityquot; leads naturally to the notion of “computable processquot;. Recursion theory is that branch of mathematical logic which studies computability theory. From its very inception recursion theory has been so closely associated with theoretical computer science that it is sometimes difficult to tell where one begins and the other ends. Complexity is seen as ‘ultra’ to which ‘filters’ are applied for the sake of these rigorous paradigms – Living Systems however manifest a purpose which purports ‘commonality’ and their complexity is beyond recursive techniques; yet mathematical logic proposes to define it. The classical viewpoint IS commensurable with Quantum Theory and its communications theory – if and only if; what is being communicated is information propagated by a living system itself; purposefully to maintain this existence and ‘adapt’ [taxis] to an ‘ever’ changing environment – even where that environment is the living organism itself and its ecologic community of adaptation. Thereby the ontogeny of complex adaptive systems becomes commensurable with Quantum Mechanics and its rigorous mathematical recursion and feedback ‘taxis’. Eidetic Noesis - however; has serious problems with morality and the bioethics which stewardship must maintain – this excerpt from basic Engineering goals and objects: eal@eecs.berkeley.edu 1 Introduction Engineers have a major advantage over scientists. For the most part, the systems we analyze are of our own devising. It has not always been so. Not long ago, the principle objective of engineering was to coax physical materials to do our bidding by leveraging their intrinsic physical properties. The discipline was one of “applied science.” Today, a great deal of engineering is about coaxing abstractions that we have invented. The abstractions provided by microprocessors, programming languages, operating systems, and computer networks are only loosely linked to the underlying physics of electronics.
  27. 27. The rapid improvements in the capabilities of electronics during the last half of the 20-th century are, in part, the reason for this separation. The physical constraints imposed by limited memory, processing speed, and communication bandwidth appeared to evaporate with each new generation of computers. What appeared to one generation as luxuriously inefficient abstractions became the bread and butter of the next generation. The separation of “computer science” from “electrical engineering” is both a consequence and a cause, fueling the separation and reflecting it at the same time. At the same time, the systems science that was incubated in the study of electronic circuits (control systems, communications theory, and signal processing) has also become more abstract. Although these disciplines were created by true “electrical engineers” (“true” means that they were engaged with electrical systems), many of the practitioners today rarely encounter electricity directly. Their techniques are often realized in “embedded” software, ironically building on the abstractions that are only loosely connected to the electronics that their theory originally helped to create. The theories, however, have not adapted as well as one might hope to world of software. Perhaps these theories remain too wedded to their physical heritage. (quotation) Science and its twin children – magic and engineering have never exhibited restraint in the area of abstinence from temptation to experiment – even when such experiments violate all laws and the ‘norms’ of cultural decency. Medical Practice has become a major source of this malfeasance – where ‘malpractice’ is merely the retribution of ‘insurance’ claims; not the criminal culpability for deliberate and recurring acts of subversion. Into this void has stepped ‘Bioethics’ and its paradigms for the common good and proper caretaking of its communities. The Mosaic Effect and the Ecologic Patch Phenomenon ONTOLOGIES FOR CRISIS MANAGEMENT Session ID: INT-04 Motivation _ Crisis Intervention and Information Architecture What is a crisis? When does a crisis begin, and when does it end? What factors are likely to aggravate or alleviate a crisis? How is a crisis different from an emergency, or a disaster? Who are the players, stakeholders, actors and agents responsible for action during a global emergency and what are their roles? What and whose procedures are to be followed? What protocols are in place to support coordination and communication among the various agents? What infrastructures are in place? How can community “resilience” fit into the picture? Where are the bottlenecks? How can information systems be deployed and used to improve crisis management and support the optimization of resources and relief operations when the need arises? How can
  28. 28. transparency and collaboration be balanced with security and privacy measures during a crisis? How feasible is a common shared ontology for emergency management? Will such an ontology scale to international levels and who will drive this process and manage its evolution? These, and many more, are “ontological challenges” that pertain to the emergency management functions across all levels of government, non-government organisations, industry, and community groups. During a crisis incident, they all need to collaborate and cooperate and share information and resources to respond and recovery from the disaster. Under these conditions, it is critical that they share a common ontology to support their crisis functions and decision making roles. This session aims to provide an opportunity to allow researchers and practitioners to present their views, and to stimulate experts to further investigate the underlying “ontological challenges” that are at the heart of technical information cooperation during an international crisis. Ontologies are critical to the design and management of complex and sustainable information systems and are central to information flow in crisis management. The need to improve and open up knowledge and research in the area for “ontologies for crisis management” is becoming compelling and relevant to real-world requirements. Ontological challenges relating to crisis management need to be asked, and answered, in order to provide mechanism to widen adoption, interoperability, usefulness, efficiency, robustness, reliability, availability and accountability of information systems, during emergencies. The ontologies need to represent a wide cross section of dynamic emergency functions and to support dynamically adaptive real time scenarios as changes occur quickly and need to be propagated widely. Reasoning and decision making must be transparent and flexible with the support of crisis ontologies. The boundaries of this emerging research area is vast and still be determined. Ontology research has been increasing over the past years with the Semantic Web providing new technologies to solve ontological needs across disciplines and domains. Ontology management still faces many challenges when taken at the broader level – in particular at an international level - across many different stakeholder areas. How can ontologies support the many agencies and groups involved in a crisis? Emergency 2.0 LA Fire Department is clearly raised in the same spirit, as the people working there quickly absorbed the Web 2.0 tools into their activity to make it more effective and people caring. LAFD_ALERT service Flickr Photo Gallery YouTube Channel at BlogTalkRadio.com Along the blog, the LA Fire Department inserted Twitter into its online panoply of citizen services and set its designation as a reliable tool for emergency response in ordinary or crisis situations. Brian Humphrey and Ron Myers from LAFD said that the attributes the Web 2.0 tools possess — “desirable, beneficial, justifiable and sustainable” — motivated their choice.
  29. 29. Intuition: Discernment Of Conscience There are, in fact, two such vortices at work in the Pacific Ocean, the other one lying just off the coast of Japan (another major producer of plastic waste on the Pacific Rim. According to Greenpeace: An enormous island of trash twice the size of Texas is floating in the Pacific Ocean somewhere between San Francisco and Hawaii. Chris Parry with the California Coastal Commission in San Francisco said the so-called Great Pacific Garbage Patch, has been growing a brisk rate since the 1950s, The San Francisco Chronicle reported Friday. The trash stew is 80 percent plastic and weighs more than 3.5 million tons.
  30. 30. http://alipr.com/ Automatic Linguistic Indexing of Pictures - Real Time Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) using Aspect Oriented Context Sensitive Workflows. Content-based image retrieval (CBIR), also known as query by image content (QBIC) and content-based visual information retrieval (CBVIR) is the application of computer vision to the image retrieval problem, that is, the problem of searching for digital images in large databases. (see this survey[1] for a recent scientific overview of the CBIR field) quot;Content-basedquot; means that the search will analyze the actual contents of the image. The term 'content' in this context might refer to colors, shapes, textures, or any other information that can be derived from the image itself. Without the ability to examine image content, searches must rely on metadata such as captions or keywords, which may be laborious or expensive to produce. representative CBIR systems APIR QBIC VisualSEEk Photobook support content-based retrieval by color, texture, and shape Block-Based Neural Network Architecture Passive Aggressive Model for Image Retrieval PLSA-based image auto-annotation: constraining the latent space. In: ACM Multimedia cross-media relevance models Bioinformatics – Semantic Web Tools || Information Architecture and 'the human condition'; The network may not always completely mask the computing infrastructure behind it, but it hides considerable detail and mostly allows access through quot;Web-yquot; protocols, languages, and standards such as HTTP, RSS, XML, Javascript, and REST. On July 24, 2004 I responded just after that with, quot;So the user-created bottom-up categorical structure development with an emergent thesaurus would become a Folksonomy?quot; Eidetic Linguistics Indexing using Semiotic Representation - The Semiotics of Folksonomy It is not that technology provides 'opportunity' but exponentially expanded 'ACCESS' to opportunity; this drives ‘business applications’ of 'semantic web technology'. Prayer and meditation are still required for 'perfection' of decision making - especially in their discrete application to real life situations. Use of Semantic Modeling - the power of algorithms’ applied to content syndication on the Web can be conceptualized;
  31. 31.  structured topic correlation  syntactic syndication approaches  automated reasoning support  Web Ontology Language – Web Services Process Model Ontology (WSPMO)  rich semantics-based mechanism for expressing subscriptions and published content  Polyhedron representation - octoroons; fractal Geometry (topology) - Correspondence Theory  Stanford SIMPLIcity system - Automatic Linguistic Indexing of Pictures  Quaternions - minding your p's and q's - gimble locks and lie big algebras  rendering animated polygonal models with real-time lighting and shadows – SIMD  Folksonomy in the context sensitive generation of Microformats Visualization - cleaning our lenses Semantics – the meaning of words; is a ―course‖ discipline at best – and its relationship to what today is called Information theory is equally ―disputed‖. Here is a quote – ―Information is a semantic unity” - which others have argued as ―ontologies are tautological; or they are not Ontology‖. This quotation from Tim Berners-Lee; the WWW protagonist; presents a ―catharsis‖ of: A Semantic Web is not Artificial Intelligence (search for Article). Information becomes the ―paradox‖ to be resolved through an ―ontological‖ tautology. This is ―systems thinking‖ at its best – logic abhors tautology – being is ―immersed‖ in it. Ontogeny quot;Cause and effect, means and ends, seed and fruit cannot be severed; for, the effect already blooms in the cause, the end pre-exists in the means, the fruit in the seed.quot; - Ralph Waldo Emerson The Ontogeny of Environmental biology Zoonosis- Reference > Zoonosis Updates Adaptation and the Tree of Life The word is derived from the Greek words zoon (animal) (pronounced as zoo-on) and nosos (disease). Many serious diseases fall under this category. The plural of zoonosis is zoonoses, from which an alternative singular zoonose is derived by back-formation. The simplest definition of a zoonosis is a disease that can be transmitted from other animals to humans. A slightly more technical definition is a disease that normally exists in other animals, but also infects humans. The emerging interdisciplinary field of conservation medicine, which integrates human and veterinary medicine, and environmental sciences, is largely concerned with zoonoses.
  32. 32. Genome research and its malediction – Evolutionary Biology Moabite Stone Fringetail Purple Finch An Idea of Value for Semantic Ontologies Semantic Ontologies express the basis of relationships; true correspondence and mutual understanding amongst quot;sentient beingsquot;. One must differentiate Ontology as being from the comprehended ontological in order to appreciate that quot;beingquot; is what generally is termed quot;consciousnessquot; – living systems as ALIVE; ONTOGENY. The sense of naming ―creatures‖ within the ―Tree of Life‖ is fundamental to ONTOLOGY. Semantics offers a dichotomy to consider; Etiology and Ethology - causation and casualty. Etiology is ontological and is the root of quot;myth and folklorequot; - Ethology may explain why certain quot;speciesquot; [of the human genera] are fond of making up stories about the Natural world. Etymology then must consider ontogeny, etiology and a generalized Ethology of a human family which evolution denies. General theory of reflection - Gödel and Tarski  Metalogical foundations - make the logic of choice an inter-changeable parameter  Reflective logical and semantic frameworks  Nuprl's constructive type theory as a reflective Metalogical framework  The Structure of Post-Axiomatic Mathematics  Research relations between formulas and functions on sets of formulas  Meta-Formulas - Need for Theory of Formulas  The Concept of Truth in Formalized Languages  On the Concept of Logical Consequence  Independence of the Axiom of Choice and the Generalized Continuum Hypothesis relationship of relativity theory and idealistic mathematics in the light of philosophy
  33. 33. The Group Concept - Notes ``The theory of groups is, as it were, the whole of mathematics stripped of its matter and reduced to pure form''. Jules-Henri Poincaré (1854-1912) Correspondence or Incommensurability? Technologic Considerations  Representation Theory + commensality or incommensurability  Categorical Geometry :: Fractal Geometry [topologic perfection]  Partial differential equations and harmonic functions  Tesseract and hypercube  Super strings Theory :: grand set theory :: symmetry :: supersymmetry  Self-rationalization [dangerous practice]  Differentiates four levels for possible analysis  Correspondence principle :: Quantum Mechanics – Inequalities | Uncertainty Ontogeny and its ONTOLOGY – questions of a philosophical nature After reading a modern philosopher like Edward Levinas – ‘Totality and Infinity’; the matter is much clearer - ontology and noesis are co-adjunct operators in the quot;metaphysicsquot; - In the time of Golden Age of Greek Philosophy this noetic framework was the didactic [teaching] of geometry, ethics and logic. Yet – it is difficult to practice what you preach if your society is extremely immoral or even depraved. Today the quot;Golden Age of Physicsquot; has propelled a global society into quot;stellar spacequot; using another aspect of this quot;noetic frameworkquot; and that is eidetic noesis - which is quot;photographicquot; quality visualization. Yet the semantics remain unchanged - this is good! This is most certainly true of bioethics - one of the most compelling quot;interdisciplinaryquot; fields; where even the most basic conceptions of western civilization can be challenged due to the quot;misanthropyquot; of its quot;unethical experimentationsquot;. One of the most recent example of this is the quot;AIDS holocaustquot; which by now is threatening to become just as destructive to human populations as WW2.
  34. 34. The River: Origins of the Aids Pandemic Zoonosis - evolution - symbiosis; these terms may apply to HIV/AIDS pandemic quot;prognosisquot; but will survive not a quot;parsecquot; in the hysterical world of the World Health Organization and it's pharmacological based medicine. An important footnote is that ‗indeed‘ - the Salk vaccine was wholly adequate to ‗effectively prevent‘ Polio Mellitus. Knowledge representation system The true crisis in correspondence - especially with quot;realityquot; is realizing the very great deceit which has been perpetrated historically. Cosmic convergence is heralded by the vast changes in Earth's global weather patterns [thermodynamics]; this physical yet unpredicted change; transcends the havoc of waste and destruction which mankind's greed has contributed. Spiritual Consciousness; in sympathy with those suffering terrible loss; looks to a quot;Holy Godquot; whose quot;ways are far past finding outquot;. The spirit our ears and eyes receives ―patience‖ from: to understand or if not - to search for the truth....this is harmony with cosmic convergence. The millennia are converging; space and time are actually warped by the incredible power of the cosmos which is quot;investedquot; in our quot;Planet Earthquot;. The millennia have quot;jubileesquot;; celebrations of history and cultural traditions. Globally the amount of intercultural reconciliation is greater than any one could ever have predicted. Why is this? The Millennia are being quot;discoveredquot; This means our unity will be restored Meaning and Purpose are co-adjunct motivators of ontology; and society in general. Without meaning, purpose is counter-intuitive and begets as it is colloquially stated - quot;the vicious circlequot;. Millennial Moments Mood: chillin' Now Playing: En-Raptures - Topic: Historic Insights Discernment of Harmonic Convergence of the ―physical‖ requires Spiritual Consciousness - this so-termed ―higher consciousness‖ is ―ontogenous‖ – One with being. Infosystems Intelligence The holistic unity of the natural world is an ontogeny; in and of itself. Our ontological perception of it is also an ontogeny - observation by a living soul. This unity of body and soul is known as spirituality. And we are forewarned— only two spirits exist; that which is good and that which is reprobate…..these spirits act derisively [against each other] and are the source of hostility and it‘s human neurosis. Ontogeny is based upon living systems and their highly discrete purpose [survival]. The Hebrew Scriptures inscribe that Almighty God dwells in unapproachable light….his creation must be endowed with some very great qualities as well.
  35. 35. There is apparently considerable misunderstanding about quot;ethicsquot; and its moral values. When it is written that quot;all have sinned and fallen short of the glory of godquot;; sin must be atoned for.....crime therefore will be punished. Deceit; hypocrisy and it's quot;counter- intelligencequot; are all works and character traits of that quot;wicked onequot; which the Holy Spirit will rebuke. Whether it is the quot;axiomatic semantics of first order logicquot; or the ideologue of folk wisdom - quot;god fearingquot; people; what ‗ought to‘ - will be. The milieu does not seem to grasp this; secular humanism and its evolutionary theories clutch at madness - why is this? Man is evil from his youth onwards - who can know it! The global Opium trade is one long-term example of this. Ontogeny provides the quot;superstructurequot; which a living world and its living systems abide in. This quot;cosmosquot; is more than the elements; it is also the very nature of reality. Super symmetry - time reversal invariance - holistic ecology; these all quot;emanatequot; from a quot;creatorquot;. The uncanny similitude between the aloe plant and moon jelly fish transcends habitat; but requires ideal conditions for optimal growth. Such ‗morphological symmetry‘ permeates Nature. It is written that quot;the worlds are made of things which do not appearquot;! It must be immediately observed by anyone taking part in the quot;developmentsquot; which are being termed Web 2.0 - that all computer language based technologies are quot;convergingquot;; ie....becoming interoperable with each other. This was the whole point of the quot;Semantic Webquot; and its quot;Ontologiesquot;. Those who declare quot;paradigm shiftsquot; and quot;subversionquot; practices while maintaining semantic quot;ambivalencequot; to a general usurpation of ethical practices and privacy requirements counsel quot;acquiescencequot; while quot;jackingquot; up the prices of their quot;inefficientquot; products regularly. Paradigm shifts of this kind generate quot;semantic driftquot;; a dangerous practice in the highly abstract realm of cyberspace. Silicon Snake Oil salesman everyone - all probability is ultimately ONE. Perhaps another point well taken that on ‗millennium‘ – mankind‘s UNITY is becoming restored - rapidly. Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of signs and symbols, both individually and grouped into sign systems. It includes the study of how meaning is constructed and understood. This discipline is frequently seen as having important anthropological dimensions. However, some semioticians focus on the logical dimensions of the science. They examine areas belonging also to the natural sciences - such as how organisms make predictions about, and adapt to, their semiotic niche in the world (see semiosis). In general, semiotic theories take signs or sign systems as their object of study: the communication of information in living organisms is covered in biosemiotics or zoosemiosis.
  36. 36. [1] Syntactics is the branch of semiotics that deals with the formal properties of signs and symbols. Terminology The term, which was spelled semeiotics (Greek: ζημειωηικός, semeiotikos, an interpreter of signs), was first used in English by Henry Stubbes (1670, p. 75) in a very precise sense to denote the branch of medical science relating to the interpretation of signs. John Locke used the terms semeiotike and semeiotics in Book 4, Chapter 21 of An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690). Here he explains how science can be divided into three parts: All that can fall within the compass of human understanding, being either, first, the nature of things, as they are in themselves, their relations, and their manner of operation: or, secondly, that which man himself ought to do, as a rational and voluntary agent, for the attainment of any end, especially happiness: or, thirdly, the ways and means whereby the knowledge of both the one and the other of these is attained and communicated; I think science may be divided properly into these three sorts. —Locke, 1823/1963, p. 174 Locke then elaborates on the nature of this third category, naming it Σημειωτικη (Semeiotike) and explaining it as quot;the doctrine of signsquot; in the following terms: [2] Nor is there anything to be relied upon in Physics, but an exact knowledge of medicinal physiology (founded on observation, not principles), semeiotics, method of curing, and tried (not [3] excogitated, not commanding) medicines. —Locke, 1823/1963, 4.21.4, p. 175 In the nineteenth century, Charles Peirce defined what he termed quot;semioticquot; as the quot;quasi-necessary, or formal doctrine of signsquot; that abstracts quot;what must be the characters of all signs used by...an intelligence capable of learning by experiencequot; (Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce, paragraph 2.227). Charles Morris followed Peirce in using the term quot;semioticquot; and in extending the discipline beyond human communication to animal learning and use of signals. Saussure, however, viewed the most important area within semiotics as belonging to the social sciences:
  37. 37. It is... possible to conceive of a science which studies the role of signs as part of social life. It would form part of social psychology, and hence of general psychology. We shall call it semiology (from the Greek semeîon, 'sign'). It would investigate the nature of signs and the laws governing them. Since it does not yet exist, one cannot say for certain that it will exist. But it has a right to exist, a place ready for it in advance. Linguistics is only one branch of this general science. The laws which semiology will discover will be laws applicable in linguistics, and linguistics will thus be assigned to a clearly defined place in the field of human knowledge. —Cited in Chandler's quot;Semiotics For Beginners, Introduction. A Question of Totality - what Metaphysics can be! Metaphysics Defined - http://members.aol.com/Srabbitt1/index3.html According to Funk & Wagnall‘s Dictionary, Metaphysics is defined as: (1) ―The branch of philosophy that investigates principles of reality transcending those of any particular science, traditionally including cosmology and ontology. (2) ―All speculative philosophy‖. The second definition, at first glance, appears vague and almost meaningless in its generality. The term ―speculative‖ carries with it the secondary meaning of risk along with that of contemplation, although we do not understand what risk lies in philosophy other than taking it seriously! The first definition appears to be quite PC (Politically Correct) and speaks in clearly nonjudgmental tones. It too seems simple enough, provided you know how to define philosophy, transcendence, cosmology and ontology. Philosophy - (1) The general inquiry into the most comprehensive principles of reality in general, or of some sector of it, as human knowledge or human values‖ (2) The love of wisdom, and the search for it. (3) A Philosophical system; also a treatise on such a system. (4) The general laws that furnish the rational explanation of anything: the philosophy of banking. (5) Practical wisdom; fortitude Transcendence - To be independent of, or beyond Cosmology - The general philosophy of the universe considered as a totality of parts and phenomena subject to laws Ontology - The branch of metaphysics dealing with the philosophical theory of reality While Philosophy‘s multitude of meanings seem to encompass most of human intellectual activity, the other defined terms seem straight forward. Rather than restate
  38. 38. the metaphysics definition (1), we leave it to you to plug in the appropriate definitions, including the philosophical definition of choice. For the more skeptical among you, or those most pressed for timely answers for new comers that can fit into a ―Blipvert‖ of two lines in a chat room, Metaphysics definition (2) seems reasonable. So is that it? Have we learned all we need to know about Metaphysics, ―the definition‖? Certainly not! Delving ever deeper into the meaning of our room‘s name sake, I discovered an historically oriented, and perhaps more illuminating definition. With all due respect to its source ―A History Of Philosophy‖ by A.G. Fuller (Prof. at USC), we have a definition which better satisfies the savage soul..... Metaphysics - ―In its popular and general sense – denotes; the investigation of the essential and absolute nature of reality as a whole or of the nature of being as such. Cf. ontology. The search for first principles; originally meant - ―what comes after physics‖; and was used originally of the works of Aristotle that followed his Physics in the collection made by Andronicus. Used by Aquinas (St. Thomas) to designate knowledge of supernatural entities; by the Cartesians (Rene), of immaterial entities; By Kant, of constructive attempts to know the nature of things as they are in themselves, and of theories regarding objects of faith, like G-d, freedom and immortality; By Bergson and other intuitionists, of the immediate acquaintance with the real given by direct intuition of its nature, as contrasted with the falsifications of the nature of the real by the intellectual process....‖ So metaphysics wasn‘t that easy to define after all, was it? RECENT ADVANCES IN METAPHYSICS - E. J. Lowe 1. Philosophy, metaphysics and ontology There is a widespread assumption amongst non-philosophers, which is shared by a good many practicing philosophers too, that 'progress' is never really made in philosophy, and above all in metaphysics. In this respect, philosophy is often compared, for the most part unfavorably, with the empirical sciences, and especially the natural sciences, such as physics, chemistry and biology. Sometimes, philosophy is defended on the grounds that to deplore the lack of 'progress' in it is to misconceive its central aim, which is challenge and criticize received ideas and assumptions rather than to advance positive theses. But this defense itself is liable to be attacked by the practitioners of other disciplines as unwarranted special pleading on the part of
  39. 39. Philosophers, whose comparative lack of expertise in other disciplines, it will be said, ill-equips them to play the role of all-purpose intellectual critic. It is sometimes even urged that philosophy is now 'dead', the relic of a pre-scientific age whose useful functions, such as they were, have been taken over at last by genuine sciences. What were once 'philosophical' questions have now been transmuted, allegedly, into questions for more specialized modes of scientific inquiry, with their own distinctive methodological principles and theoretical foundations. This dismissive view of philosophy is at once shallow and pernicious. It is true that philosophy is not, properly speaking, an empirical science, but there are other disciplines of a non- empirical character in which progress most certainly can be and has been made, such as mathematics and logic. So there is no reason, in principle, why progress should not be made in philosophy. The four-category ontology has no difficulty in saying what 'ties together' the particular properties — that is, the modes — of an object. An object's modes are simply 'particular ways it is': they are characteristics, or features, or aspects of the object, rather than constituents of it. If properties were constituents of an object, they would need, no doubt, to be tied together somehow, either very loosely by coexisting in the same place at the same time, or more tightly by depending in some mysterious way either upon each other or upon some still more mysterious 'substratum', conceived as a further constituent of the object, distinct from any of its properties. It is precisely because a mode is a particular way this or that particular object is that modes cannot 'float free' or 'migrate' from one object to another — circumstances that pure trope theorists seem obliged to countenance as being at least metaphysically possible. Moreover, the four-category ontology allows us to say that the properties of a kind are tied to it, in the laws to which it is subject, in a manner which entirely parallels, at the level of universals, the way in which an individual object's modes are tied to that object. In both cases, the tie is simply a matter of the 'characterization' of a propertied entity by its various properties and consists in the fact that the properties are 'ways' the propertied entity is. Fig. 2 - below may help to highlight the main structural features of the four-category ontology as I have just outlined it. In this diagram I use the term 'attribute', as suggested earlier, to denote the category of property-universals and, for simplicity of presentation, I am ignoring relational universals. (needs quotation) Kinds characterized by Attributes Instantiated by exemplified by instantiated by Objects characterized by Modes Fig. 2: The four-category ontology
  40. 40. An object O may exemplify an attribute A in either of two ways. O may instantiate a kind K which is characterized by A, in which case O exemplifies A [dispensational]. Alternatively, O may be characterized by a mode M which instantiates A, in which case O exemplifies A concurrently. It may perhaps be doubted whether the four-category ontology provides an adequate metaphysical foundation for the more esoteric reaches of modern physics, such as the general theory of relativity and quantum physics. But I believe that even there it will serve well enough. THE METAPHYSICS OF REASON ABSTRACT: We will briefly review the developments in Physics and Mathematics during the last century. We find that while Science was born and grown under the auspices of Cartesian principles, the 20th century Physics and Mathematics defy the Cartesian premises. The emerging unified viewpoint on cosmos renounces the dualisms (subject-object, reason-faith, and cogitation-being) and incorporates elements of the traditions. Modern Mathematics was marked by Cantor‘s study of infinity. An infinite quantity breaks the usual axiom that «the whole is greater than (Sum of) its part». An infinite quantity is the same as a part of it. Cantor found that there is a hierarchy of infinities. The «simplest» infinity, 0 , corresponds to the infinity of integers (set N). The next level of infinity, 1, is represented by the real numbers (set R). The chain of infinity continues with no end (0 , 1 , 2 , 3 …). How two levels of infinity are connected? We move from one level of infinity to the next level by invoking the requirement of totality. For example starting from the set of integers N, the set of all subsets of N belongs to R. Every time we use the requirement of totality we move to a higher level of representation, where different laws apply (for example the rules of arithmetic with 0 , are not the same as the rules of arithmetic with 1 ). It is not an accident that most of the paradoxes in Mathematical Logic involve the mixing of different levels; recall Russell‘s paradoxes where we use the notion «the set of all sets». Mathematical systems cannot be purified of any internal contradictions, or presented as constructions of pure logic. Gödel has shown that we cannot separate mathematics from meta- mathematics. His ingenious numbering of mathematical propositions indicated that a proposition accepts a double reading: as a proposition of theory and as a statement (or a comment) about the propositions of the theory. Furthermore Gödel using the diagonal lemma of Cantor formulated the proposition G: there is a theorem, which is self-referenced as a non-theorem. From now on, we know that the dichotomy into true or false statements is not correct. We may encounter un-decidable statements, statements which cannot be classified as true or false. The true statements exceed in number the proven statements and the continent of truth cannot be explored using only the analytical method [2]. From Gödel‘s proof we understand that any organized system breaks down when we employ self-preferentiality, when the system is

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