Wisdom Of Crowds


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  • Wisdom Of Crowds

    1. 1. Collective knowledge on the internet Wisdom of crowds or the loss of authority SP04 LC week 4
    2. 2. Today <ul><li>Making sense of information on the web </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge develops on top of work of others (authority) </li></ul><ul><li>‘We stood on the shoulders of giants’ </li></ul>
    3. 3. Internet: network of interrelated networks <ul><li>Internet is a distributed medium, where the world wide web (www) functions as a virtual network </li></ul><ul><li>Appears to user as a homogeneous, giant information network </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone with a computer can function as a node in this network, using it as a server </li></ul>
    4. 5. Open structure <ul><li>Internet is based on an Open Network Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>this evolved in ‘the internet’: </li></ul><ul><li>multiple independent </li></ul><ul><li>networks of rather </li></ul><ul><li>arbitrary design </li></ul>
    5. 6. <ul><li>Web 2.0 panel </li></ul>
    6. 7. Web 2.0 <ul><li>Weblogs </li></ul><ul><li>Collective knowledge: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>social bookmarking (del.icio.us) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tagging (flickr), folksonomy/wisdom of crowds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>User Generated Content (Youtube, wikipedia) </li></ul><ul><li>Peer2Peer Networks (pirate bay) </li></ul><ul><li>Online collaboration (Second Life) </li></ul><ul><li>User Innovation (LastFM) </li></ul>
    7. 8. Making sense out of all info on the web <ul><li>Online directories: Yahoo!, startpagina.nl </li></ul><ul><li>Altavista: search inverted database of the content of the whole Web </li></ul><ul><li>Google: Pagerank algorithm </li></ul><ul><li>Weblogs: Slashdot </li></ul><ul><li>Folksonomy: social tagging, bookmarking </li></ul><ul><li>Metablogs: served to aggregate blogs: Digg </li></ul><ul><li>Meta-aggregator sites: popurls.com </li></ul>
    8. 9. Directories
    9. 10. Google <ul><li>Spiders trace url’s and index web pages automatically </li></ul><ul><li>It downloads pages and then gather information about these pages and store this information in enormous databases. </li></ul><ul><li>Index offers references to sources of information (webpages) </li></ul><ul><li>Google uses ‘pageranking’ to ‘classify’ bundle of links and determine authority of source </li></ul>
    10. 11. Weblogs <ul><li>Weblogs -> refer to interesting sites/sources, insert a content item easily </li></ul><ul><li>most recent post; search on author, subject or date of publication </li></ul>
    11. 13. XML <ul><li>Defines the content type of an item </li></ul><ul><li><movie>: ‘this content item is a movie’ of type “Shockwave-flash” </li></ul><ul><li><RSS> ‘this newsfeed text <is of type> RSS Feed </li></ul><ul><li>These data can be easily exported, free from formatting contraints </li></ul>
    12. 15. Slashdot <ul><li>weblog about technological developments </li></ul><ul><li>Includes abstracts of stories on other websites </li></ul><ul><li>Editors/users insert links and discuss stories </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative filtering: </li></ul><ul><li>Authority system </li></ul><ul><li>Tagging </li></ul><ul><li>Reputation mechanism </li></ul>
    13. 16. Categorization/Tagging <ul><li>Tagging: a catchword or label is attached to an item on the web </li></ul><ul><li>Folksonomy: Folk + taxonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Collective categorization of info sources on the internet, knowledge is organized by individual users themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Enables you to find people who specialise in a certain field or who share the same areas of interest </li></ul>
    14. 17. They Rule - Josh On & Futurefarmers (2002-2004)
    15. 19. Del.icio.us
    16. 20. Does wiki model work <ul><li>+ is open to everyone </li></ul><ul><li>+ is more easily updated </li></ul><ul><li>+ Can include expert from all over the world on almost every topic </li></ul><ul><li>-Lacks context </li></ul><ul><li>-Does not show discourse/peer review </li></ul><ul><li>-less than 5% of users actually contribute articles </li></ul>
    17. 21. Wikipedia <ul><li>Study comparing the accuracy of the Wikipedia to Encyclopedia Britannica (2005): Science topics that the collective at large doesn't care much about, like &quot;Kinetic isotope effect&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>little controversy around these items </li></ul><ul><li>Social controversial items are limited in reactions </li></ul>
    18. 22. Meta-aggregator sites <ul><li>Algorithm dictate the latest buzz </li></ul><ul><li>No editor or human interference </li></ul><ul><li>Technology driven </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of wisdom </li></ul>
    19. 23. Content can be integrated in any platform (web, mobile, etc.)
    20. 24. XML <ul><li>Defines the content type of an item </li></ul><ul><li><movie>: ‘this content item is a movie’ of type “Shockwave-flash” </li></ul><ul><li><RSS> ‘this newsfeed text <is of type> RSS Feed </li></ul><ul><li>These data can be easily exported, free from formatting contraints </li></ul>
    21. 25. Digg
    22. 26. Digg <ul><li>Users collectively value content </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone can submit items </li></ul><ul><li>No editors involved </li></ul><ul><li>Once something is submitted, other people see it and ‘Digg’ what they like best. </li></ul>
    23. 27. popurls
    24. 28. Internet connects people <ul><li>Jason Larnier: DIGITAL MAOISM: The Hazards of the New Online Collectivism </li></ul><ul><li>‘ The value is in the other people. If we start to believe that the Internet itself is an entity that has something to say, we're devaluing those people and making ourselves into idiots’ </li></ul>
    25. 29. Semantic Web <ul><li>Tim Berners Lee: Semantic Web offers a way of structuring information on the web through meaningful, more abstract relations </li></ul><ul><li>The machine-readable descriptions; </li></ul><ul><li>The semantic web provides a common standard (RDF) for websites to publish the relevant information in a more readily machine-processable and integratable form. </li></ul>
    26. 30. RDF Resource Description Framework <ul><li>Meaningful relations between items </li></ul><ul><li>RDF Triplets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Document <has author> Person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-> person is a writer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Logical deduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A horse is a mammal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All mammals are being raised with mother’s milk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hence, horses are being raised with mother’s milk </li></ul></ul>
    27. 31. Sources <ul><li>Jason Larnier: DIGITAL MAOISM: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.edge.org/3rd_culture/lanier06/lanier06_index.html </li></ul><ul><li>Coursebook webculture, Open Universiteit Nederland, 2005, Rens Frommé e.a. Text on N@tschool </li></ul><ul><li>Tim Berners Lee e.a. Semantic Web </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?articleID=00048144-10D2-1C70-84A9809EC588EF21 </li></ul>