Topic 3 Green Design


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Topic 3 Green Design

  1. 1. Green Design Topic 3
  2. 2. <ul><li>Green design involves taking a &quot;cradle to grave&quot; approach to the design of a product by considering the adverse impacts of the product at all stages of its life (pre-production, production, distribution, including packaging, utilization and disposal) and seeking to minimize those impacts. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Principles Of Green Design 3.1
  4. 4. Definitions <ul><li>green design - Designing in a way that takes account of the environmental impact of the product throughout its life . </li></ul><ul><li>renewable resources - Resources that are naturally replenished in a short time </li></ul><ul><li>non-renewable resources - A natural resource that cannot be re-made or re-grown as it does not naturally re-form at a rate that makes its use sustainable, for example, coal, petroleum and natural gas (Teak or Mahogany?) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why Green? <ul><li>consumer pressure </li></ul><ul><li>legislation </li></ul>
  6. 6. Green Design Objectives <ul><li>increasing efficiency in the use of materials, energy and other resources </li></ul><ul><li>minimizing damage or pollution from the chosen materials </li></ul><ul><li>educing to a minimum any long-term harm caused by use of the product </li></ul><ul><li>ensuring that the planned life of the product is most appropriate in environmental terms and that the product functions efficiently for its full life </li></ul>
  7. 7. Green Design Objectives <ul><li>taking full account of the effects of the end disposal of the product </li></ul><ul><li>ensuring that the packaging and instructions encourage efficient and environmentally friendly use </li></ul><ul><li>minimizing nuisances such as noise or smell </li></ul><ul><li>analyzing and minimizing potential safety hazards . </li></ul>
  8. 8. Legislation <ul><li>What is the impact of &quot;take back&quot; legislation on designers and manufacturers of cars, refrigerators and washing machines. </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Construction </li></ul>
  9. 9. Classification of People <ul><li>People's attitudes to green issues vary. </li></ul><ul><li>Eco-warriors actively demonstrate on environmental issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Eco-champions champion environmental issues within organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Eco-fans enthusiastically adopt environmentally friendly practices as consumers. </li></ul><ul><li>Eco-phoebes actively resent talk of environmental protection. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Life Cycle Analysis 3.2
  11. 11. Life Cycle Analysis <ul><li>life cycle analysis – The assessment of the effect a product has on the environment from the initial concept to disposal (Cradle to Grave) </li></ul><ul><li>life cycle analysis provides a framework within which clean production technologies and green design can be evaluated holistically for a specific product. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Life Cycle Analysis Stages <ul><li>Pre-production </li></ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution including packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Utilization </li></ul><ul><li>Disposal </li></ul>
  13. 13. Environmental Considerations <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Soil pollution and degradation </li></ul><ul><li>Air contamination </li></ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul><ul><li>Energy consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Consumption of natural resources </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Effect on ecosystems </li></ul>
  14. 14. Organization <ul><li>the life cycle stages and the environmental considerations can be organized into an environmental impact assessment matrix. </li></ul>Effects on the Ecosystem Consumption of Natural Resources Noise Air Contamination Soil Pollution and Degradation Water Relevance Disposal Utilization Distribution Production Preproduction
  15. 15. Sample Analysis <ul><li>Using an environmental impact assessment matrix, analyze the environmental impact of: </li></ul><ul><li>Refrigerators </li></ul><ul><li>Washing machines </li></ul><ul><li>Automobiles </li></ul>
  16. 16. Using your sample Analysis <ul><li>why do elements of the matrix differ in importance according to the particular design context. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the roles and responsibilities of the designer, manufacturer and user at each life cycle stage of a product. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe one example of a situation where life cycle analysis identifies conflicts that have to be resolved through prioritization. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Specific Targets <ul><li>Life cycle analysis is targeted at products with a high environmental impact and in the global marketplace. </li></ul><ul><li>It is then impossible for companies to argue that their products are being made uncompetitive. </li></ul><ul><li>Life cycle analysis also targets companies with the resources to invest in R&D </li></ul>
  18. 18. Life cycle analysis is not widely used <ul><li>Life cycle analysis is not used for many products. </li></ul><ul><li>However, in the re-innovation of the design of a product or its manufacture, specific aspects may be changed after considering the design objectives for green products. Thus the materials selected may be changed to make them more environmentally friendly, for example, wood from sustainable forests or the selection of a less toxic varnish. </li></ul><ul><li>A product may be distributed differently or its packaging may be redesigned. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Eco-Labeling Schemes <ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>eco-labeling reflects life cycle analysis of certain product categories. </li></ul><ul><li>approaches to eco-labeling in Europe, Australia are different than those in the United States. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>eco-labeling and energy-labeling schemes can help consumers to compare potential purchases. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Strategies for Green Design 3.3
  21. 21. Design for Manufacture (DfM) <ul><li>design for manufacture (DfM) – Designers design specifically for optimum use of existing manufacturing capability. </li></ul><ul><li>DfM can be a dominating constraint on the design brief </li></ul><ul><li>It can be conveniently split into design for materials, design for process and design for assembly. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Design for Manufacture <ul><li>designers can modify the environmental impact of the production, use, and disposal of their product through careful consideration at the design stage. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Methods of DfM <ul><li>Reuse - Reuse of a product in the same context or in a different context </li></ul><ul><li>Repair - The reconstruction or renewal of any part of an existing structure or device </li></ul><ul><li>Reconditioning - Rebuilding a product so that it is in an &quot;as new&quot; condition, and is generally used in the context of car engines and tyres </li></ul><ul><li>Recycling - Recycling refers to using the materials from obsolete products to create other products </li></ul>
  24. 24. Application of the Strategies <ul><li>Reuse, repair, reconditioning and recycling contribute to the optimization of resource utilization. </li></ul><ul><li>How might these principles effect the production of disposable cameras, vacuum cleaners and car tyres (English). </li></ul><ul><li>Three material groups that can be easily and economically recycled are thermoplastics, metals and glass </li></ul>
  25. 25. Recycling <ul><li>Many products comprise several different materials, and these materials have to be separated to enable recycling. </li></ul><ul><li>economic recycling of materials depends on collection, energy and processing considerations, and redistribution </li></ul>
  26. 26. Design for Disassembly <ul><li>design for disassembly – Designing a product so that when it becomes obsolete it can easily and economically be taken apart, the components reused or repaired, and the materials recycled. </li></ul><ul><li>design for disassembly is one aspect of design for materials and will facilitate recycling of products on disposal. </li></ul><ul><li>Easier to achieve if we design components made from one material or </li></ul><ul><li>by using thermoplastic adhesives that lose their properties when reheated. </li></ul><ul><li>By designing snap fittings instead of welding and gluing </li></ul>
  27. 27. The End Topic 3