How to successfully integrate genetically
engineered DNA into human cells that cure and
prevent a variety of diseases in addition to other
To use phages and their unique
characteristics as vectors or
“biological transporting agents” to
inject desired DNA into humans and
allow the desired strands to spread.
Often the term phage therapy is
used to describe the therapeutic use
of phages to treat bacterial infections.
A bacteriophage or a virus is a nonliving
specimen that infects cells of a host
The term is often referred to in its
shortened form, phage.
Phages are usually composed of an
outer protein capsid that takes the
shape of an icosahedron which
contains genetic material.
The genetic material can be one of
many forms of DNA or RNA.
A collar, sheath, base plate, and trail
fibers are also common structural
components of a typical phage.
Phages are considered to be nonliving because:
1. They are incapable of growth and development
2. They do not have the cellular machinery
required for reproduction
Phages inject their DNA or RNA into a host organism’s
cells and allow the host organism's cellular machinery to
replicate the phage’s genetic material.
The newly replicated genetic material codes for the
creation of proteins for the construction of new phages.
The host cell carries out this process of protein synthesis.
Once new phages have accumulated within the host cell
they often kill it and spread to new host cells.
Phages can be used to transfer and
spread selected DNA that codes for the
destruction of a deadly genetic illness,
the prevention against a harmful disease,
or the accelerated growth of damaged
tissues throughout the human body.
In this sense there are virtually endless
possibilities for the application of
phages. They are the future of modern
medicine and some scientists predict
they will become an unprecedented
contributor to the destruction of many
harmful diseases across the planet.
The procedure for using phages for medicinal purposes is
actually simpler than previously thought.
This simplicity can be credited to the fact that most of the
procedure is composed of natural biological process with
no human interference. The only human contribution is
to initiate the process.
Identify the undesirable disease or bacterial
There are many diseases and infection
that phage therapy can possibly treat.
Determining the exact medical
condition that a patient has before
treatment is vital to the success of the
therapy. Otherwise the therapy could
potentially have disastrous and even
Obtain DNA that codes for the proper treatment
The DNA strand should either
have the capability of
targeted problem or creating
new generations of cells that are
resistant to the disease or
The DNA can be genetically
engineered using modern
techniques or removed and copied
from another species
Place the engineered DNA into the phage and allow it
to reproduce along with its new DNA.
Reproduction can either occur through prophage or
HOST CHROMOSOME CELL
ATTCHMENT TO HOST CELL
AND INJECTION OF DNA
LAMDA DNA RECOGNIZED AND
ORGANIZED BY CELL
SYNTHESIS OF VIRUS
PROTEINS NEEDED FOR
FORMATION OF NEW
RAPID REPLICATION OF
LAMBA DNA AND ITS
CELL DIVISION CELL LYSIS RELEASES A
LARGE NUMBER OF NEW
The prophage procedure is when the patient is injected with a small
number of phages and the body reproduces them in order to spread
throughout the body.
Pro-The number of phages produced by the body
will always be adequate for the therapy.
Con-After enough phages are produced it is difficult to stop them
from killing cells and reproducing further.
The lytic procedure is when the patient is injected with a very large
number of phages that reproduced outside the body in a controlled
environment using bacteria.
Pro-The phages will not have to reproduce within the body do to
Con-Calculating the initial amount of phages required for
treatment and the frequency of their successful injection of
genetic material is difficult to determine
Infect the patient with the phages.
The biological processes of the human
body and the phage will occur and the
desired genetically engineered strand
will spread throughout the body.
Important biological/cell processes
important to phage therapy include:
Phages are much more specific than common drugs and other
Phages can be designed not only to be harmless to the host but
also to beneficial bacteria.
They are easy to obtain and reproduce. Phages are estimated to
be the most widely distributed and diverse entities in the biosphere.
Bacterial Infections (Such as MRSA)
Variety of diseases
-West Nile Disease
Not only can phage technology be used for medicinal purposes
but also for crops and livestock.
Using phages in this regard will have a profound impact on the
environment, economy, and society as a whole.
Ethical implications to consider:
-Doctors knowing about phage therapy and deciding not to
use an alternate form of treatment. This could be construed
as very serious professional misconduct if the alternate form
of treatment fails.
-Phage therapy could treat a medical condition, but doctors
were prevented from using it due to financial constraints.
We have obtained the
knowledge. Now all we
have to do is imagine the