Prostate Cancer


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Prostate Cancer

  1. 2. <ul><li>1 in 6 American men will develop prostate cancer </li></ul><ul><li>This year, more than 234,000 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Every 19 minutes, a man dies from prostate cancer </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Prostate cancer often does not cause any symptoms for years. When symptoms do occur, usually the cancerous cells have spread beyond the prostate, this is why regular check up for men age of 40 and above is necessary and recommended. </li></ul><ul><li>The symptoms include: </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary problems: </li></ul><ul><li>Dull pain in the lower pelvic area, hips, </li></ul><ul><li>or upper thighs </li></ul><ul><li>Not being able to urinate </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Sensation that your bladder doesn't empties </li></ul><ul><li>Having a hard time starting or stopping the urine flow </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with urgency of urination and difficulty in </li></ul><ul><li>starting </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent urination, especially at night </li></ul><ul><li>Weak flow of urine </li></ul><ul><li>Urine flow that starts and stops </li></ul><ul><li>Pain or burning during urination </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty having an erection </li></ul><ul><li>Pain at ejaculation </li></ul><ul><li>Genital pain </li></ul><ul><li>Blood in the urine or semen </li></ul>
  4. 5. Cancer Incidence * 87% of lung and bronchus are related to smoking Source: American Cancer Society. Jemal A, et al. Cancer Statistics, 2004. CA Cancer J Clin. 2005;55:10-30 50% 17% 8% 6% 3% 2% 2% 1% 1% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% All Sites Prostate Lung & Bronchus Colon & Rectal Bladder Lymphoma Melanoma Oral Kidney Risk A non-smoking man is more likely to get prostate cancer than lung, bronchus, colon, rectal, bladder, lymphoma, melanoma, oral, and kidney cancers combined .
  5. 6. Age-Specific Probability of Diagnosis Source: 2000-2002 SEER 13 Registries Age-Specific Probability of Diagnosis Age Prostate Breast Colon Lung & Bronchus Leukemia & Lymphoma Pancreas 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 18% 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90
  6. 7. Assumes 2002 age-specific incidence rates. Source: SEER 13 Registries Incidence and Mortality (2004 Submission) 300,000 350,000 400,000 460,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000 350,000 400,000 450,000 500,000 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 Prostate Breast Lung & Bronchus Colon Number of New Cases
  7. 8. Historical & Projected Cancer Deaths Note: Projections Assume 1999 Age Specific Mortality Rates. 10,000 30,000 50,000 70,000 90,000 110,000 130,000 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 Prostate 52,000 deaths in 2020 10,000 30,000 50,000 70,000 90,000 110,000 130,000 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 Deaths Breast 40,000 deaths in 2010 52,000 deaths in 2020 80,000 deaths in 2030
  8. 9. Prostate Cancer Foundation / Gillette Men's Health Survey
  9. 10. 30% of Men & Women Believe Women Can Get Prostate Cancer 30%
  10. 11. 30% of Men & Women Believe Women Can Get Prostate Cancer 30% WOMEN DON’T HAVE PROSTATES
  11. 12. 2006 Estimated U.S. Cancer Cases Prostate 19% 234,460 cases Breast 18% 212,920 cases * Excludes basal and squamous cell skin cancers and in situ carcinoma except bladder. Percentages may not total 100% due to rounding. Source: American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2006 . Atlanta: American Cancer Society; 2006. Uterine 3% Pancreas 3% Ovary 2% Kidney 3% Oral Cavity 3% Thyroid 3% Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma 5% Leukemia 3% Melanoma 5% Bladder 5% Colon & Rectum 13% Lung & Bronchus 15%
  12. 13. = 1.33 more likely men will develop prostate cancer 1 6 1 8 women will develop breast cancer
  13. 14. Concerned About Prostate Cancer and Taking Action Concerned About Prostate Cancer Never Discuss Family History or Personal Risk with Doctor
  14. 15. Women as Influences More Likely to Talk to Doctor if Urged by Women in Their Lives MEN Believe They Can Influence Men to See Doctor WOMEN
  15. 16. Symptoms and Early Stage Prostate Cancer Men believe that there are symptoms associated with early stage prostate cancer 30%
  16. 17. EARLY STAGE PROSTATE CANCER TYPICALLY DOESN’T HAVE SYMPTOMS Men believe that there are symptoms associated with early stage prostate cancer Symptoms and Early Stage Prostate Cancer 30%
  17. 18. <ul><li>digital rectal examination </li></ul><ul><li>blood test called the prostate specific antigen (PSA). </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Age is the strongest risk factor for prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is very rare before the age of 40, but the chance of having prostate cancer rises rapidly after age 50. Almost 2 out of 3 prostate cancers are found in men over the age of 65. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Family history Prostate cancer seems to run in some families, which suggests that in some cases there may be an inherited or genetic factor. Having a father or brother with prostate cancer more than doubles a man's risk of developing this disease. (The risk is higher for men with an affected brother than for those with an affected father.) The risk is much higher for men with several affected relatives, particularly if their relatives were young at the time the cancer was found
  20. 21. Race/ethnicity Prostate cancer occurs more often in African-American men than in men of other races. African-American men are also more likely to be diagnosed at an advanced stage, and are more than twice as likely to die of prostate cancer as white men. Prostate cancer occurs less often in Asian-American and Hispanic/Latino men than in non-Hispanic whites. The reasons for these racial and ethnic differences are not clear.
  21. 22. Nationality Prostate cancer is most common in North America, northwestern Europe, Australia, and on Caribbean islands. It is less common in Asia, Africa, Central America, and South America. The reasons for this are not clear. More intensive screening in some developed countries likely accounts for at least part of this difference, but other factors are likely to be important as well. For example, lifestyle differences (diet, etc.) may be important: men of Asian descent living in the United States have a lower risk of prostate cancer than white Americans, but their risk is higher than that of men of similar backgrounds living in Asia.
  22. 23. Diet The exact role of diet in prostate cancer is not clear, although several different factors have been studied. Men who eat a lot of red meat or high-fat dairy products appear to have a slightly higher chance of getting prostate cancer. These men also tend to eat fewer fruits and vegetables. Doctors are not sure which of these factors is responsible for raising the risk. Some studies have suggested that men who consume a lot of calcium (through food or supplements) may have a higher risk of developing advanced prostate cancer. Most studies have not found such a link with the levels of calcium found in the average diet, and it's important to note that calcium is known to have other important health benefits.
  23. 24. Obesity Most studies have not found that being obese (having a high amount of extra body fat) is linked with a higher risk of getting prostate cancer. Some studies have found that obese men have a lower risk of getting a low-grade (less dangerous) form of the disease, but a higher risk of getting more aggressive prostate cancer. The reasons for this are not clear. Studies have also found that obese men may be at greater risk for having more advanced prostate cancer and of dying from prostate cancer, but this was not seen in other studies.
  24. 25. Exercise Exercise has not been shown to reduce prostate cancer risk in most studies. But some studies have found that high levels of physical activity, particularly in older men, may lower the risk of advanced prostate cancer. More research in this area is needed
  25. 26. Inflammation of the prostate Some studies have suggested that prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate gland) may be linked to an increased risk of prostate cancer, but other studies have not found such a link. Inflammation is often seen in samples of prostate tissue that also contain cancer. While the link between the two is not yet clear, this is an active area of research.
  26. 27. Infection Researchers have also looked to see if sexually transmitted infections (like gonorrhea or chlamydia) might increase the risk of prostate cancer, possibly by leading to inflammation of the prostate. So far, studies have not agreed, and no firm conclusions have been reached .
  27. 28. Vasectomy Some earlier studies had suggested that men who had a vasectomy (minor surgery to make men infertile) -- especially those younger than 35 at the time of the procedure -- may have a slightly increased risk for prostate cancer. But most recent studies have not found any increased risk among men who have had this operation. Fear of an increased risk of prostate cancer should not be a reason to avoid a vasectomy
  28. 29. American Cancer Society