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Sex Differences In Relationships


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Sex Differences In Relationships

  1. 1. Sex Differences in Relationships: Comparing Stereotypes to Self-reports Elizabeth F. Broady Sarah J. Hickman Hanover College
  2. 3. Attitudes Toward Marriage
  3. 4. Theoretical Perspectives <ul><li>Evolutionary theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men may be more likely to cheat and show less commitment because the costs of pregnancy are lower (Buss & Schmitt, 1993; Cann, Magnum & Wells, 2001). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social role theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women have been primarily responsible for work inside the home which has led them to develop more communal attitudes including more positive attitudes toward marriage (Eagly,1987) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Empirical Evidence <ul><li>Oliver and Hyde, 1993 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men have more sexual partners than women (d=.25) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men are more likely to engage in extramarital sex than women (d=.29) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Graphical representation of effect size
  6. 7. Why stereotypes? <ul><li>Belle, 1985 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We tend to focus on the differences when we are faced with two of anything </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Hypotheses <ul><li>Males and females will not differ in their self-reported attitudes toward marriage, commitment, or fidelity </li></ul><ul><li>Females will perceive males as having more negative attitudes toward marriage, lower commitment, and lower fidelity than males themselves report </li></ul><ul><li>Males will perceive females as having more positive attitudes toward marriage, higher commitment, and higher fidelity than females themselves report </li></ul>
  8. 9. Variables of interest <ul><li>Attitudes toward marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Fidelity </li></ul>
  9. 10. Method <ul><li>Participants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>133 (37 male, 96 female) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age range (18-47, M=21.5) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnicity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>79.7% Caucasian, 7.2% African American </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Procedure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informed Consent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey (counterbalanced) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debriefing </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Questionnaire <ul><li>Attitudes Towards Marriage (Wallin, 1954) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you marry, to what extent will you miss the life you have had as a single person? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not at all (1) Very much (6) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Questionnaire <ul><li>Commitment Scale (Lund, 1985) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I would rather spend my free time with my partner than doing other things or seeing other people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not at all (1) Very much (6) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Questionnaire <ul><li>Infidelity Scale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I have had a purely physical relationship with someone other than my partner. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Never Once Twice More than twice </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Data Analysis <ul><li>Mixed Model ANOVA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between-subjects variable= Sex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within-subjects variable= Ratee </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Followed significant results with appropriate post-hoc comparisons </li></ul>
  14. 15. Attitudes Toward Marriage NS
  15. 16. Attitudes Toward Marriage NS p < .001
  16. 17. Attitudes Toward Marriage NS p < .001 NS
  17. 18. Commitment p= .001 NS NS
  18. 19. Fidelity p= .002 NS p=.003
  19. 20. Discussion <ul><li>Men and women showed no significant differences in their self-reported attitudes and behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Women viewed men as having more negative attitudes and behaviors than men self-reported </li></ul><ul><li>Men were relatively accurate in predicting women’s attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Men viewed women more negatively in regards to fidelity than women self-reported </li></ul>
  20. 21. Discussion <ul><li>Women are more likely than men to discuss relationship issues (Brody & Hall, 1993) </li></ul><ul><li>Popular media emphasizes that men have difficulty in relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Women and men perceive themselves more positively than the opposite sex (Epley & Dunning, 2000) </li></ul>
  21. 22. Implications <ul><li>Stereotype inflation is a problem (Hyde, 2005) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Couple conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul>