Caribbean Islands Week 1[1]


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Caribbean Islands Week 1[1]

  1. 1. By: Ibrahim EL Kazaz<br />Caribbean Islands Week 1<br />
  2. 2. Sugar and slavery have always been together in the Caribbean Islands and that became a fact when the first slaves came to the Caribbean in the sixteenth century. The profits always went to the white community.<br />Simon Taylor (1740-1813) was born in Jamaica 1740<br />He was at first an attorney then he became a sugar planter. By the end of his life he was Jamaica’s wealthiest planter and the largest slave holder.<br />He was a very active man in his community from a social side and a political side.<br />He was a member for Kingston in the Jamaican assembly (1763-1781) for eighteen years, and for St. Thomas in the east (1784-1810) for twenty six years.<br />He was Chief Justice of the court of common pleas and Lieutenant Government of militia.<br />He was very much against the government and he never got married. However he had an illegitimate family.<br />Sugar and Slavery<br />
  3. 3. The Abolition of the Slave Trade act was passed in 1807 and was enforced in 1808.<br />There was a fine of £100 for every slave caught on board a ship.<br />Slavery itself was abolished in 1833. the act of abolishing slavery gave £20 million as compensation to colonial slave owners and a way of getting used to not having slaves by putting into effect the ‘apprenticeship’ which was prematurely taken out of effect by ex-slaves. The act was fully enforced by 1838.<br />The Abolition took a lot of time, it was only successful because of a number of people who include Wesleyan, Methodist and Baptist missionaries and the communities supporting them. Important people include William Wilberforce and OlaudahEquiano.<br />Other important factors that helped the Abolition of slavery act included: 1. the impact of the decline in the British West Indies economy.2. the rise of the free trade movement.3. the increasing availability of cheaper sugar on the international market.<br />Abolition<br />
  4. 4. Although Sugar had been most important until the mid-twentieth century its decline began in 1760 because of other regions beginning to compete in this industry. Also the 1846 Sugar Duties Act. This ended the British West Indies.<br />In the beginning of World War 1 the Caribbean economies depended on single exports:1. Sugar from Barbados, British Guina, St. Lucia, Antigua and St. Kitts and Nevis2. Cocoa from Trinidad and Grenada3. Limes from Dominica and Montserrat4. Arrow root in St. Vincent<br /> Bounties were abolished in 1902<br />Agriculture and Trade<br />
  5. 5. The West India Committee began in the 18th century, by London merchants, to act as a pressure group for West Indian interests which included:<br />the support of the sugar and Rum trades.<br />It also was against the abolition of slavery trade and slavery until they were actually abolished.<br />Then they encouraged immigrant labor from India, China and Africa.<br />Then from the 1840s to 1856 opposing the removal of preferential sugar duties for West Indian sugar.<br />Then in the 19th century they supported cane sugar grown in the west Indian against the new beet sugar grown in Europe.<br />After that they made a strong anti bounty campaign.<br />And they looked for alternative markets for West Indian cane sugar in the U.S..<br />After Bounties were abolished the Committee tried to broaden their horizon by being active in trade issues that do not necessarily include sugar like the Lome agreement in which the European Union granted some preferential terms to countries within the African Caribbean and Pacific States group<br />The West India Committee<br />
  6. 6. World War 1 caused the growth of the working class and black community’s consciousness<br />The West Indians wanted to fight in the war very much but the War office did not seem to accept them. However in the end 15,601 West Indians had been recruited to Palestine, Egypt, Mesopotamia, East Africa, India, France, Italy, Belgium, and England as members of the British West Indies Regiment (BWIR).<br />185 soldiers killed, 679 soldiers were wounded, 1071 died of sickness.<br />The Regiment was awarded 5 DSOs, 9 MCs, 2 MBEs, 8 DCMs, 37 MMs and 49 Mentions of dispatch.<br />The War Office decided that black colonial troops couldn’t fight against Europeans. The BWIR members usually got non-combat history and were very discriminated against.<br />There was also mutiny between the BWIR soldiers because they were not getting a pay raise that everyone else was getting in Taranto, Italy in December, 1918.<br />World War I and the British West Indies Regiment<br />
  7. 7. The West India Royal Commission was appointed in 1938 and carried out an investigation of the social and economic condition of all British territories in the Caribbean . It was a response to the labour rebellions that happened in that region in the 1930s.<br />The Commission was led by Lord Moyne and therefore is called the Moyne Commission.<br />Lord Moyne had many political appointments between 1922 and 1929 resulting in his term being in office in Nov 1925-Jun 1929. He was offered to be chair of a commission many times again including Financial Mission to Kenya, 1932.<br />During World War 1 he became Secretary of State for the Colonies and Leader of the House of Lords in 1941. Other members included Sir Walter Citrine, General Scretary of the British Trades Union Congress.<br />The Commission held public hearings in London and throughout the region in 1938 and 1939. However the full findings were not published untill 1945.<br />Moyne Commission<br />
  8. 8. They recommended sweeping reforms in everyhing from employment practices, public health, education and social welfare to radical political change. <br />Recommendations included the legislation to protect trade unions and peaceful picketing, the creation of labor departments and wage boards where they did not already exist<br />Commission Moyne’s Recommendations’<br />
  9. 9. The West Indies Federation (1958-1962) was created to help countries transition from English occupation to independence.<br />It includes: Antigua,, Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Jamaica, Montstreat, Saint Christopher-Nevis-Aguilla, St. Lucia and St. Vincent & the Grenadines,, Trinidad & Tabago. <br />One by One countries began to become independent from the Federation after Jamaica held a referendum on political secession from the federation.<br />Federation<br />
  10. 10. Jamaica and Trinidad & Tabago in 1962<br />Guyana and Barbados in 1966<br />The Bahamas in 1973<br />Grenada in 1974<br />Dominica in 1978<br />St. Lucia and St. Vincent & the Grenadines in 1979<br />Antigua in 1980<br />Belize in 1981<br />St. Kitts & Nevis in 1983<br /> In late 1987, Montstreat, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, and the Turks and Caicos Islands remained crown colonies with limited internal self-government.<br />Aguilla, after breaking away from St. Kitts & Nevis in 1967, became an associated State of Great Britain in 1967.<br />Independence of Each Country<br />
  11. 11. Political Parties and Trade Unions<br />
  12. 12. This is a union created by a handfull of students from West India who are concerned bout certain things like allowances and a university for the West Indies.<br />Their objectives and aims were:<br />West Indian Students’ Union<br />